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CentOS6.x静默安装Oracle12c

yysue
 yysue
发布于 2018/08/26 19:10
字数 2233
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一、准备

1.1 安装环境

系统要求

内存 > 2G
安装目录空间 > 6.5G
/tmp目录空间 > 1G

操作系统

cat /etc/redhat-release

用rpm命令确认软件是否已安装

rpm -q binutils compat-libcap1 compat-libstdc++-33 gcc gcc-c++ glibc glibc-devel ksh libaio libaio-devel libgcc libstdc++ libstdc++-devel libXext libXtst libX11 libXau libxcb libXi make sysstat 

提示未安装的软件用yum安装

yum install -y compat-libcap1 compat-libstdc++-33 libaio-devel libXext libXtst libX11 libXau libxcb libXi sysstat

确认安装

1.2 创建用户

groupadd oinstall
groupadd oper
groupadd dba
useradd -g oinstall -G dba,oper oracle
# 修改密码
passwd oracle

1.3 修改系统参数

vi /etc/sysctl.conf

追加:

fs.aio-max-nr = 1048576
fs.file-max = 6815744
kernel.shmall = 2097152
kernel.shmmax = 536870912
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500
net.core.rmem_default = 262144
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 1048586

使配置生效

/sbin/sysctl -p

1.4 修改用户Limits

vi /etc/security/limits.conf

追加:

oracle soft nofile 65536
oracle hard nofile 65536
oracle soft nproc 16384
oracle hard nproc 16384
oracle stack nproc 10240
oracle stack nproc 10240

1.5 创建相关目录

mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/product/12c/db_1  
mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/oradata
mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/flash_recovery_area
mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/archlog
chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01

1.6 配置环境变量

su - oracle 
vi .bash_profile

追加:

# Oracle Settings
COLUMNS=132; export COLUMNS
LINES=47; export LINES
EDITOR=vi; export EDITOR

TMP=/tmp; export TMP
TMPDIR=$TMP; export TMPDIR
ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle; export ORACLE_BASE
ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/product/12c/db_1; export ORACLE_HOME
ORACLE_SID=orcl; export ORACLE_SID
SHLIB_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH;export SHLIB_PATH
NLS_LANG=American_America.zhs16gbk;export NLS_LANG
ORA_NLS10=$ORACLE_HOME/nls/data;export ORA_NLS10
TNS_ADMIN=$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin;export TNS_ADMIN
ORACLE_TERM=xterm; export ORACLE_TERM
PATH=/usr/sbin:$PATH; export PATH
PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$PATH; export PATH
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib:/lib:/usr/lib; export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
CLASSPATH=$ORACLE_HOME/jre:$ORACLE_HOME/jlib:$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib; export CLASSPATH
alias glance=/opt/perf/bin/glance:x
alias gohome='cd /u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0'
alias cdb='cd /u01/app/oracle/admin/orcl/bdump'
alias cdu='cd /u01/app/oracle/admin/orcl/udump'

使配置生效

source .bash_profile

1.7 修改/etc/hosts

vi /etc/hosts 
添加: 
xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx your_host_name

1.8 上传文件

unzip -d orainstall oracle-12.1.0.2-linux-x86_64.zip

二、安装oracle

2.1 新建静默安装的应答文件

su - oracle
vi 12102db_install.rsp

内容,注意hostname,和相关路径要与实际相符

######################################################################
## Copyright(c) Oracle Corporation 1998,2013. All rights reserved.                                  ##
##                                                                     ##
## Specify values for the variables listed below to customize                                        ##
## your installation.                                                             ##
##                                                                     ##
## Each variable is associated with a comment. The comment                                ##
## can help to populate the variables with the appropriate                                       ##
## values.                                                                 ##
##                                                                     ##
## IMPORTANT NOTE: This file contains plain text passwords and                               ##
## should be secured to have read permission only by oracle user                                  ##
## or db administrator who owns this installation.                                            ##
##                                                                     ##
######################################################################

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Do not change the following system generated value.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.responseFileVersion=/oracle/install/rspfmt_dbinstall_response_schema_v12.1.0

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the installation option.
# It can be one of the following:
#   - INSTALL_DB_SWONLY
#   - INSTALL_DB_AND_CONFIG
#   - UPGRADE_DB
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.option=INSTALL_DB_SWONLY

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the hostname of the system as set during the install. It can be used
# to force the installation to use an alternative hostname rather than using the
# first hostname found on the system. (e.g., for systems with multiple hostnames
# and network interfaces)
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ORACLE_HOSTNAME=ser6-51

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the Unix group to be set for the inventory directory. 
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
UNIX_GROUP_NAME=oinstall

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the location which holds the inventory files.
# This is an optional parameter if installing on
# Windows based Operating System.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
INVENTORY_LOCATION=/u01/app/oraInventory

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the languages in which the components will be installed.            
#
# en   : English                  ja   : Japanese                  
# fr   : French                   ko   : Korean                   
# ar   : Arabic                   es   : Latin American Spanish   
# bn   : Bengali                  lv   : Latvian                  
# pt_BR: Brazilian Portuguese     lt   : Lithuanian               
# bg   : Bulgarian                ms   : Malay                    
# fr_CA: Canadian French          es_MX: Mexican Spanish          
# ca   : Catalan                  no   : Norwegian                
# hr   : Croatian                 pl   : Polish                   
# cs   : Czech                    pt   : Portuguese               
# da   : Danish                   ro   : Romanian                 
# nl   : Dutch                    ru   : Russian                  
# ar_EG: Egyptian                 zh_CN: Simplified Chinese       
# en_GB: English (Great Britain)  sk   : Slovak                   
# et   : Estonian                 sl   : Slovenian                
# fi   : Finnish                  es_ES: Spanish                   
# de   : German                   sv   : Swedish                  
# el   : Greek                    th   : Thai                     
# iw   : Hebrew                   zh_TW: Traditional Chinese      
# hu   : Hungarian                tr   : Turkish                  
# is   : Icelandic                uk   : Ukrainian                
# in   : Indonesian               vi   : Vietnamese               
# it   : Italian                                                  
#
# all_langs   : All languages
#
# Specify value as the following to select any of the languages.
# Example : SELECTED_LANGUAGES=en,fr,ja
#
# Specify value as the following to select all the languages.
# Example : SELECTED_LANGUAGES=all_langs 
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SELECTED_LANGUAGES=en

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the complete path of the Oracle Home.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12c/db_1

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the complete path of the Oracle Base.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the installation edition of the component.                    
#                                                             
# The value should contain only one of these choices.       
#   - EE     : Enterprise Edition                               
#   - SE     : Standard Edition                                 
#   - SEONE  : Standard Edition One
#   - PE     : Personal Edition (WINDOWS ONLY)
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.InstallEdition=EE

#################################################################################
#                                                                                  #
# PRIVILEGED OPERATING SYSTEM GROUPS                                                #
# ------------------------------------------                                                                         #
# Provide values for the OS groups to which OSDBA and OSOPER privileges                                        #
# needs to be granted. If the install is being performed as a member of the                                           #
# group "dba", then that will be used unless specified otherwise below.                                            #
#                                                                                  #
# The value to be specified for OSDBA and OSOPER group is only for UNIX based                             #
# Operating System.                                                                      #
#                                                                                  #
###############################################################################

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# The DBA_GROUP is the OS group which is to be granted OSDBA privileges.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.DBA_GROUP=dba

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# The OPER_GROUP is the OS group which is to be granted OSOPER privileges.
# The value to be specified for OSOPER group is optional.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.OPER_GROUP=oper

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# The BACKUPDBA_GROUP is the OS group which is to be granted OSBACKUPDBA privileges.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.BACKUPDBA_GROUP=dba

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# The DGDBA_GROUP is the OS group which is to be granted OSDGDBA privileges.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.DGDBA_GROUP=dba

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# The KMDBA_GROUP is the OS group which is to be granted OSKMDBA privileges.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.KMDBA_GROUP=dba

################################################################################
#                                                                              #
#                        Database Configuration Options                               #
#                                                                              #
################################################################################

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the type of database to create.
# It can be one of the following:
#   - GENERAL_PURPOSE/TRANSACTION_PROCESSING                      
#   - DATA_WAREHOUSE                               
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.type=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the Starter Database Global Database Name.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.globalDBName=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the Starter Database SID.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.SID=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify whether the database should be configured as a Container database.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.ConfigureAsContainerDB=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the  Pluggable Database name for the pluggable database in Container Database.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.PDBName=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the Starter Database character set.
#                                               
#  One of the following
#  AL32UTF8, WE8ISO8859P15, WE8MSWIN1252, EE8ISO8859P2,
#  EE8MSWIN1250, NE8ISO8859P10, NEE8ISO8859P4, BLT8MSWIN1257,
#  BLT8ISO8859P13, CL8ISO8859P5, CL8MSWIN1251, AR8ISO8859P6,
#  AR8MSWIN1256, EL8ISO8859P7, EL8MSWIN1253, IW8ISO8859P8,
#  IW8MSWIN1255, JA16EUC, JA16EUCTILDE, JA16SJIS, JA16SJISTILDE,
#  KO16MSWIN949, ZHS16GBK, TH8TISASCII, ZHT32EUC, ZHT16MSWIN950,
#  ZHT16HKSCS, WE8ISO8859P9, TR8MSWIN1254, VN8MSWIN1258
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.characterSet=

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# This variable should be set to true if Automatic Memory Management
# in Database is desired.
# If Automatic Memory Management is not desired, and memory allocation
# is to be done manually, then set it to false.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.memoryOption=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the total memory allocation for the database. Value(in MB) should be
# at least 256 MB, and should not exceed the total physical memory available
# on the system.
# Example: oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.memoryLimit=512
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.memoryLimit=

#################################################################################
#                                                                                  #
# Passwords can be supplied for the following four schemas in the                                                       #
# starter database:                                                                                                                                      #
#   SYS                                                                            #
#   SYSTEM                                                                        #
#   DBSNMP (used by Enterprise Manager)                                                   #
#                                                                                  #
# Same password can be used for all accounts (not recommended)                                                     #
# or different passwords for each account can be provided (recommended)                                     #
#                                                                                  #
#################################################################################

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# This variable holds the password that is to be used for all schemas in the
# starter database.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.password.ALL=oracle

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the SYS password for the starter database.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.password.SYS=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the SYSTEM password for the starter database.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.password.SYSTEM=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the DBSNMP password for the starter database.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.password.DBSNMP=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the PDBADMIN password required for creation of Pluggable Database in the Container Database.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.password.PDBADMIN=
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify whether user doesn't want to configure Security Updates.
# The value for this variable should be true if you don't want to configure
# Security Updates, false otherwise.
#
# The value can be either true or false. If left blank it will be assumed
# to be false.
#
# Example    : DECLINE_SECURITY_UPDATES=false
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DECLINE_SECURITY_UPDATES=true
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the auto-updates option. It can be one of the following:
#   - MYORACLESUPPORT_DOWNLOAD
#   - OFFLINE_UPDATES
#   - SKIP_UPDATES
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.installer.autoupdates.option=SKIP_UPDATES

2.2 静默安装软件

chmod 777 /home/oracle/orainstall/runInstaller
chmod 777 /home/oracle/orainstall/install/.oui
chmod 777 /home/oracle/orainstall/install/unzip

su - oracle
cd /home/oracle/orainstall
./runInstaller  -silent -ignorePrereq -responseFile /home/oracle/12102db_install.rsp

如果提示不能访问临时目录,执行如下命令后,再重新执行runInstaller。

chmod 777 /tmp/CVU_12.1.0.2.0_oracle/*

执行完成安装命令后会立即返回,可以使用tail -f 安装日志,查看安装进度,安装完成的话会让执行两个命令: 使用root执行:

sh /u01/app/oraInventory/orainstRoot.sh 
sh /u01/app/oracle/product/12c/db_1/root.sh 

如果想重新安装

rm -rf /u01/app/oraInventory
cd $ORACLE_HOME
rm *

三、建库

3.1 建响应文件

vi /home/oracle/dbca.rsp

内容:

[GENERAL]
RESPONSEFILE_VERSION = "12.1.2.0"
OPERATION_TYPE = "createDatabase"
[CREATEDATABASE]
GDBNAME = "orcl"
SID = "orcl"
TEMPLATENAME = "New_Database.dbt"
SYSPASSWORD = "orcl"
SYSTEMPASSWORD = "orcl"
SYSMANPASSWORD = "orcl"
DBSNMPPASSWORD = "orcl"
DATAFILEDESTINATION ="/u01/app/oracle/oradata"
STORAGETYPE=FS
CHARACTERSET = "ZHS16GBK"
DATABASETYPE = "MULTIPURPOSE"
AUTOMATICMEMORYMANAGEMENT = "FALSE"

3.2 静默建库

dbca -silent -responseFile /home/oracle/dbca.rsp
export ORACLE_SID=orcl
sqlplus / as sysdba

进入sqlplus后执行,结果应显示OPEN

select status from v$instance;

四、配监听

4.1 应答文件

vi 12102_netca.rsp

内容

[GENERAL]
RESPONSEFILE_VERSION="12.1"
CREATE_TYPE="CUSTOM"

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Name       : SHOW_GUI
# Datatype   : Boolean
# Description: This variable controls appearance/suppression of the NetCA GUI,
# Pre-req    : N/A
# Default    : TRUE
# Note:
# This must be set to false in order to run NetCA in silent mode.
# This is a substitute of "/silent" flag in the NetCA command line.
# The command line flag has precedence over the one in this response file.
# This feature is present since 10.1.0.3.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#SHOW_GUI=false

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Name       : LOG_FILE
# Datatype   : String
# Description: If present, NetCA will log output to this file in addition to the
#              standard out.
# Pre-req    : N/A
# Default    : NONE
# Note:
#      This is a substitute of "/log" in the NetCA command line.
# The command line argument has precedence over the one in this response file.
# This feature is present since 10.1.0.3.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#LOG_FILE=""/oracle12cHome/network/tools/log/netca.log""

[oracle.net.ca]
#INSTALLED_COMPONENTS;StringList;list of installed components
# The possible values for installed components are:
# "net8","server","client","aso", "cman", "javavm"
INSTALLED_COMPONENTS={"server","net8","javavm"}

#INSTALL_TYPE;String;type of install
# The possible values for install type are:
# "typical","minimal" or "custom"
INSTALL_TYPE=""typical""

#LISTENER_NUMBER;Number;Number of Listeners
# A typical install sets one listener
LISTENER_NUMBER=1

#LISTENER_NAMES;StringList;list of listener names
# The values for listener are:
# "LISTENER","LISTENER1","LISTENER2","LISTENER3", ...
# A typical install sets only "LISTENER"
LISTENER_NAMES="LISTENER"

#LISTENER_PROTOCOLS;StringList;list of listener addresses (protocols and parameters separated by semicolons)
# The possible values for listener protocols are:
# "TCP;1521","TCPS;2484","NMP;ORAPIPE","IPC;IPCKEY","VI;1521"
# A typical install sets only "TCP;1521"
LISTENER_PROTOCOLS="TCP;1521"

#LISTENER_START;String;name of the listener to start, in double quotes
LISTENER_START=""LISTENER""

#NAMING_METHODS;StringList;list of naming methods
# The possible values for naming methods are:
# LDAP, TNSNAMES, ONAMES, HOSTNAME, NOVELL, NIS, DCE
# A typical install sets only: "TNSNAMES","ONAMES","HOSTNAMES"
# or "LDAP","TNSNAMES","ONAMES","HOSTNAMES" for LDAP
NAMING_METHODS={"TNSNAMES","ONAMES","HOSTNAME"}

#NOVELL_NAMECONTEXT;String;Novell Directory Service name context, in double quotes
# A typical install does not use this variable.
#NOVELL_NAMECONTEXT = ""NAMCONTEXT""

#SUN_METAMAP;String; SUN meta map, in double quotes
# A typical install does not use this variable.
#SUN_METAMAP = ""MAP""

#DCE_CELLNAME;String;DCE cell name, in double quotes
# A typical install does not use this variable.
#DCE_CELLNAME = ""CELL""

#NSN_NUMBER;Number;Number of NetService Names
# A typical install sets one net service name
NSN_NUMBER=1

#NSN_NAMES;StringList;list of Net Service names
# A typical install sets net service name to "EXTPROC_CONNECTION_DATA"
NSN_NAMES="EXTPROC_CONNECTION_DATA"

#NSN_SERVICE;StringList;Oracle12c database's service name
# A typical install sets Oracle12c database's service name to "PLSExtProc"
NSN_SERVICE="PLSExtProc"

4.2 静默配监听

netca -silent -responseFile /home/oracle/12102_netca.rsp

五、开机启动

5.1 设置开机启动

/u01/app/oracle/product/12c/db_1/bin/dbstart 

假如执行/u01/app/oracle/product/12c/db_1/bin/dbstart报错:

ORACLE_HOME_LISTNER is not SET, unable to auto-start Oracle Net Listener
Usage: /u01/app/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1/bin/dbstart ORACLE_HOME

ddd

修改dbstart文件,将 
ORACLE_HOME_LISTNER=$1 
修改为 
ORACLE_HOME_LISTNER=$ORACLE_HOME

修改/etc/oratab: 
添加:

orcl:/u01/app/oracle/product/12c/db_1:Y
1
修改/etc/rc.d/rc.local 
添加一行: 
su oracle -lc /u01/app/oracle/product/12c/db_1/bin/dbstart

/u01/app/oracle/product/12c/dbhome_1为oracle的安装目录,要根据实际情况进行修改。

vim /etc/oratab 
将 
orcl:/u01/app/oracle/product/12c/db_1:Y 
中的“N”改为“Y”

5.2 重启

重启后,plsql连接数据库,sys/orcl

参考

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