MySQL中怎样快速找出超长索引

02/04 00:00
阅读数 2.7K

大家好,我是知数堂SQL 优化班老师 网名:骑龟的兔子

需求:

想要查找哪些索引太长了,这个SQL在5.7下跑的特别慢,8.0则挺快的,帮看下有啥优化方案没


具体SQL 和执行计划如下 :

SELECT c.TABLE_SCHEMA AS DB,  c .TABLE_NAME AS TBL, c.COLUMN_NAME AS COL, c.CHARACTER_OCTET_LENGTH AS COL_LEN_BYTES,  s.INDEX_NAME,  s.SUB_PART * CHARACTER_OCTET_LENGTH/CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH AS SUB_PART_LENFROM information_schema.COLUMNS c INNER JOIN information_schema.STATISTICS s USING(TABLE_SCHEMA, TABLE_NAME, COLUMN_NAME)INNER JOIN information_schema.TABLES t USING(TABLE_SCHEMA, TABLE_NAME)  WHERE c.TABLE_SCHEMA not in ('information_schema','performance_schema','mysql','sys', 'test')AND c.DATA_TYPE IN ("varchar", "char", "text", "blob") AND ((CHARACTER_OCTET_LENGTH > 50 and SUB_PART is null) orSUB_PART * CHARACTER_OCTET_LENGTH/CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH > 50)AND t.TABLE_ROWS > 10000ORDER BY COL_LEN_BYTES DESC;
执行计划
*************************** 1. row *************************** id: 1 select_type: SIMPLE table: c partitions: NULL type: ALLpossible_keys: NULL key: NULL key_len: NULL ref: NULL rows: NULL filtered: NULL Extra: Using where; Open_frm_only; Scanned all databases; Using temporary; Using filesort*************************** 2. row *************************** id: 1 select_type: SIMPLE table: s partitions: NULL type: ALLpossible_keys: NULL key: NULL key_len: NULL ref: NULL rows: NULL filtered: NULL Extra: Using where; Open_frm_only; Scanned all databases; Using join buffer (Block Nested Loop)*************************** 3. row *************************** id: 1 select_type: SIMPLE table: t partitions: NULL type: ALLpossible_keys: NULL key: NULL key_len: NULL ref: NULL rows: NULL filtered: NULL Extra: Using where; Open_full_table; Scanned all databases; Using join buffer (Block Nested Loop)3 rows in set, 1 warning (0.01 sec)

select count(*) from information_schema.tables;+----------+| count(*) |+----------+| 33600 |+----------+
select count(*) from information_schema.COLUMNS;+----------+| count(*) |+----------+| 342967 |+----------+select count(*) from information_schema.STATISTICS;+----------+| count(*) |+----------+| 135167 |+----------+


上面的SQL 运行450+ s 也运行不出来,最后kill掉了。

我们初步分析一下,从执行计划中 可以看出三个表都是ALL 所以很慢 

那添加索引不就行了吗,因为是系统表,所以不能随便添加!

那该怎么办?想到了AUTOKEY 就是临时索引,那思路就是改写SQL

达到生成临时索引,最终达到优化效果 


改写的SQL 如下 


SELECT c.TABLE_SCHEMA AS DB, c.TABLE_NAME AS TBL, c.COLUMN_NAME AS COL, c.CHARACTER_OCTET_LENGTH AS COL_LEN_BYTES, s.INDEX_NAME,s.SUB_PART * c.CHARACTER_OCTET_LENGTH/c.CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH AS SUB_PART_LENFROM ( select c.TABLE_SCHEMA, c.TABLE_NAME, c.COLUMN_NAME ,c.CHARACTER_OCTET_LENGTH ,c.CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH , c.DATA_TYPEfrom information_schema.COLUMNS c WHERE c.TABLE_SCHEMA not in ('information_schema','performance_schema','mysql','sys', 'test') AND c.DATA_TYPE IN ("varchar", "char", "text", "blob") limit 10000000000) c INNER JOIN (select s.TABLE_SCHEMA, s.TABLE_NAME, s.COLUMN_NAME ,s.SUB_PART,s.INDEX_NAMEfrom information_schema.STATISTICS s WHERE s.TABLE_SCHEMA not in ('information_schema','performance_schema','mysql','sys', 'test')limit 10000000000 
)s USING(TABLE_SCHEMA, TABLE_NAME, COLUMN_NAME)INNER JOIN information_schema.TABLES t USING(TABLE_SCHEMA, TABLE_NAME) WHERE c.TABLE_SCHEMA not in ('information_schema','performance_schema','mysql','sys', 'test') AND c.DATA_TYPE IN ("varchar", "char", "text", "blob") AND ((c.CHARACTER_OCTET_LENGTH > 50 and s.SUB_PART is null) ors.SUB_PART * c.CHARACTER_OCTET_LENGTH/c.CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH > 50)AND t.TABLE_ROWS > 10000ORDER BY COL_LEN_BYTES DESC;

*************************** 1. row *************************** id: 1 select_type: PRIMARY table: t partitions: NULL type: ALLpossible_keys: NULL key: NULL key_len: NULL ref: NULL rows: NULL filtered: NULL Extra: Using where; Open_full_table; Scanned all databases; Using temporary; Using filesort*************************** 2. row *************************** id: 1 select_type: PRIMARY table: <derived2> partitions: NULL type: refpossible_keys: <auto_key0> key: <auto_key0> key_len: 388 ref: information_schema.t.TABLE_SCHEMA,information_schema.t.TABLE_NAME rows: 2 filtered: 50.00 Extra: Using where*************************** 3. row *************************** id: 1 select_type: PRIMARY table: <derived3> partitions: NULL type: refpossible_keys: <auto_key0> key: <auto_key0> key_len: 582 ref: information_schema.t.TABLE_SCHEMA,information_schema.t.TABLE_NAME,c.COLUMN_NAME rows: 2 filtered: 100.00 Extra: Using where*************************** 4. row *************************** id: 3 select_type: DERIVED table: s partitions: NULL type: ALLpossible_keys: NULL key: NULL key_len: NULL ref: NULL rows: NULL filtered: NULL Extra: Using where; Open_frm_only; Scanned all databases*************************** 5. row *************************** id: 2 select_type: DERIVED table: c partitions: NULL type: ALLpossible_keys: NULL key: NULL key_len: NULL ref: NULL rows: NULL filtered: NULL Extra: Using where; Open_frm_only; Scanned all databases5 rows in set, 1 warning (0.01 sec)



结果来了 2463 rows in set, 417 warnings (23.39 sec)

但是经过几次运行之后 有时候是40多秒有时候甚至达到了166s 非常不稳定!


那分析下上面这个SQL的问题在哪里?

问题就是生成的AUTO KEY的量相对来说非常大!因为没有进行任何过滤 

那现在的思路就是 对生成的AUTOKEY的量 进行减少 


我们通过相对小的表TABLES 表生成autokey 之后 STATISTICS ,COLUMNS

表分别跟 TABLES 表进行JOIN 然后减少数据量 达到减少生成AUOKEY 的量 减少 达到优化目的 ,具体的方法如下



select count(1) from (select s.TABLE_SCHEMA, s.TABLE_NAME, s.COLUMN_NAME ,s.SUB_PART,s.INDEX_NAMEfrom information_schema.STATISTICS s WHERE s.TABLE_SCHEMA not in ('information_schema','performance_schema','mysql','sys', 'test') )s straight_join (select t.TABLE_SCHEMA, t.TABLE_NAMEfrom information_schema.TABLES t WHERE t.TABLE_SCHEMA not in ('information_schema','performance_schema','mysql','sys', 'test') AND t.TABLE_ROWS > 10000limit 10000000000) t on s.TABLE_SCHEMA=t.TABLE_SCHEMA and s.TABLE_NAME =t.TABLE_NAME
*************************** 1. row *************************** id: 1 select_type: PRIMARY table: s partitions: NULL type: ALLpossible_keys: NULL key: NULL key_len: NULL ref: NULL rows: NULL filtered: NULL Extra: Using where; Open_frm_only; Scanned all databases*************************** 2. row *************************** id: 1 select_type: PRIMARY table: <derived3> partitions: NULL type: refpossible_keys: <auto_key0> key: <auto_key0> key_len: 388 ref: information_schema.s.TABLE_SCHEMA,information_schema.s.TABLE_NAME rows: 2 filtered: 100.00 Extra: Using index*************************** 3. row *************************** id: 3 select_type: DERIVED table: t partitions: NULL type: ALLpossible_keys: NULL key: NULL key_len: NULL ref: NULL rows: NULL filtered: NULL Extra: Using where; Open_full_table; Scanned all databases3 rows in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

+----------+| count(1) |+----------+| 7478 |+----------+1 row in set, 40 warnings (7.52 sec)

select count(1) from ( select c.TABLE_SCHEMA, c.TABLE_NAME, c.COLUMN_NAME ,c.CHARACTER_OCTET_LENGTH ,c.CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH , c.DATA_TYPEfrom information_schema.COLUMNS c WHERE c.TABLE_SCHEMA not in ('information_schema','performance_schema','mysql','sys', 'test') AND c.DATA_TYPE IN ("varchar", "char", "text", "blob") ) c straight_join (select t.TABLE_SCHEMA, t.TABLE_NAMEfrom information_schema.TABLES t WHERE t.TABLE_SCHEMA not in ('information_schema','performance_schema','mysql','sys', 'test') AND t.TABLE_ROWS > 10000limit 10000000000) t on c.TABLE_SCHEMA=t.TABLE_SCHEMA and c.TABLE_NAME =t.TABLE_NAME
*************************** 1. row *************************** id: 1 select_type: PRIMARY table: c partitions: NULL type: ALLpossible_keys: NULL key: NULL key_len: NULL ref: NULL rows: NULL filtered: NULL Extra: Using where; Open_frm_only; Scanned all databases*************************** 2. row *************************** id: 1 select_type: PRIMARY table: <derived3> partitions: NULL type: refpossible_keys: <auto_key0> key: <auto_key0> key_len: 388 ref: information_schema.c.TABLE_SCHEMA,information_schema.c.TABLE_NAME rows: 2 filtered: 100.00 Extra: Using index*************************** 3. row *************************** id: 3 select_type: DERIVED table: t partitions: NULL type: ALLpossible_keys: NULL key: NULL key_len: NULL ref: NULL rows: NULL filtered: NULL Extra: Using where; Open_full_table; Scanned all databases3 rows in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)
+----------+| count(1) |+----------+| 8106 |+----------+1 row in set, 417 warnings (8.62 sec)


最终SQL 如下 



SELECT c.TABLE_SCHEMA AS DB, c.TABLE_NAME AS TBL, c.COLUMN_NAME AS COL, c.CHARACTER_OCTET_LENGTH AS COL_LEN_BYTES, s.INDEX_NAME,s.SUB_PART * c.CHARACTER_OCTET_LENGTH/c.CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH AS SUB_PART_LENfrom ( select c.TABLE_SCHEMA, c.TABLE_NAME, c.COLUMN_NAME ,c.CHARACTER_OCTET_LENGTH ,c.CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH , c.DATA_TYPEfrom information_schema.COLUMNS c WHERE c.TABLE_SCHEMA not in ('information_schema','performance_schema','mysql','sys', 'test') AND c.DATA_TYPE IN ("varchar", "char", "text", "blob") ) c straight_join (select t.TABLE_SCHEMA, t.TABLE_NAMEfrom information_schema.TABLES t WHERE t.TABLE_SCHEMA not in ('information_schema','performance_schema','mysql','sys', 'test') AND t.TABLE_ROWS > 10000limit 10000000000) t on c.TABLE_SCHEMA=t.TABLE_SCHEMA and c.TABLE_NAME =t.TABLE_NAME
straight_join(select s.* from (select s.TABLE_SCHEMA, s.TABLE_NAME, s.COLUMN_NAME ,s.SUB_PART,s.INDEX_NAMEfrom information_schema.STATISTICS s WHERE s.TABLE_SCHEMA not in ('information_schema','performance_schema','mysql','sys', 'test') )s straight_join (select t.TABLE_SCHEMA, t.TABLE_NAMEfrom information_schema.TABLES t WHERE t.TABLE_SCHEMA not in ('information_schema','performance_schema','mysql','sys', 'test') AND t.TABLE_ROWS > 10000limit 10000000000) t on s.TABLE_SCHEMA=t.TABLE_SCHEMA and s.TABLE_NAME =t.TABLE_NAMElimit 10000000000) s on c.TABLE_SCHEMA=s.TABLE_SCHEMA and c.TABLE_NAME=s.TABLE_NAME and c.COLUMN_NAME =s.COLUMN_NAMEwhere ((c.CHARACTER_OCTET_LENGTH > 50 and s.SUB_PART is null) ors.SUB_PART * c.CHARACTER_OCTET_LENGTH/c.CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH > 50)

*************************** 1. row *************************** id: 1 select_type: PRIMARY table: c partitions: NULL type: ALLpossible_keys: NULL key: NULL key_len: NULL ref: NULL rows: NULL filtered: NULL Extra: Using where; Open_frm_only; Scanned all databases*************************** 2. row *************************** id: 1 select_type: PRIMARY table: <derived3> partitions: NULL type: refpossible_keys: <auto_key0> key: <auto_key0> key_len: 388 ref: information_schema.c.TABLE_SCHEMA,information_schema.c.TABLE_NAME rows: 2 filtered: 100.00 Extra: Using index*************************** 3. row *************************** id: 1 select_type: PRIMARY table: <derived4> partitions: NULL type: refpossible_keys: <auto_key0> key: <auto_key0> key_len: 582 ref: information_schema.c.TABLE_SCHEMA,information_schema.c.TABLE_NAME,information_schema.c.COLUMN_NAME rows: 2 filtered: 100.00 Extra: Using where*************************** 4. row *************************** id: 4 select_type: DERIVED table: s partitions: NULL type: ALLpossible_keys: NULL key: NULL key_len: NULL ref: NULL rows: NULL filtered: NULL Extra: Using where; Open_frm_only; Scanned all databases*************************** 5. row *************************** id: 4 select_type: DERIVED table: <derived6> partitions: NULL type: refpossible_keys: <auto_key0> key: <auto_key0> key_len: 388 ref: information_schema.s.TABLE_SCHEMA,information_schema.s.TABLE_NAME rows: 2 filtered: 100.00 Extra: Using index*************************** 6. row *************************** id: 6 select_type: DERIVED table: t partitions: NULL type: ALLpossible_keys: NULL key: NULL key_len: NULL ref: NULL rows: NULL filtered: NULL Extra: Using where; Open_full_table; Scanned all databases*************************** 7. row *************************** id: 3 select_type: DERIVED table: t partitions: NULL type: ALLpossible_keys: NULL key: NULL key_len: NULL ref: NULL rows: NULL filtered: NULL Extra: Using where; Open_full_table; Scanned all databases7 rows in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)


看起来稳定了,跑了几次,都没超过15秒



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