Docker 基础 - 3

原创
2023/01/26 10:59
阅读数 50

Web 服务器与应用

Nginx

我的Nginx Docker镜像

## 设置继承自己创建的 sshd 镜像
FROM caseycui/ubuntu-sshd

## 维护者
LABEL maintainer="CaseyCui cuikaidong@foxmail.com"

## 安装 nginx
RUN apt-get update \
    && DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive apt-get install -yq --no-install-recommends \
        nginx \
        geoip-bin \
        fcgiwrap \
        ssl-cert \
    && rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists/* \
    && chown -R www-data:www-data /var/lib/nginx

## 添加脚本,并设置权限
COPY run-nginx.sh /run-nginx.sh
##RUN chmod 755 /run-nginx.sh

## 定义工作目录
WORKDIR /etc/nginx

## 添加挂载点 /var/www
VOLUME /var/www

## forward request and error logs to docker log collector
RUN ln -sf /dev/stdout /var/log/nginx/access.log \
        && ln -sf /dev/stderr /var/log/nginx/error.log

## 定义输出端口
EXPOSE 80
EXPOSE 443

## 定义输出命令
CMD ["/run-nginx.sh"]

run-nginx.sh 脚本:

## nginx 以 daemon off 形式启动
/usr/sbin/nginx -g "daemon off;"

为什么需要 daemon off; ?

想象这样的场景:

如果没有 daemon off, nginx 后台运行, 这时 nginx 并不是 pid 为 1 的程序, 而是执行的其他(如 bash), 这个 bash 执行了 nginx 指令后就结束了, 容器也会随之退出.

或直接修改/etc/nginx/nginx.conf 文件:

echo -e "\ndaemon off;" >> /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

Tomcat

Tomcat 最初是由 Sun 的软件架构师詹姆斯.邓肯.戴维森 开发的, 后来在他的帮助下称为开源项目, 并由 Sun 贡献给 Apache 软件基金会.

Tomcat主要功能: 运行 JSP 页面和 Servlet.

JAVA

企业通常使用 Sun JDK 6 或 Oracle JDK 7+. Dockerfile 如下:

FROM caseycui/ubuntu-sshd

LABEL maintainer="CaseyCui cuikaidong@foxmail.com"

## 创建 /java 目录
RUN mkdir /java

## 解压jdk压缩包到/java目录
ADD jdk-7u80-linux-x64.tar.gz /java

## 1. 删除 src.zip,减少镜像size
## ~~2. 配置JAVA环境变量~~
## ~~3. 使生效~~
## 下面为几种不同的 echo 写法(配置ENV则不需要手动在/etc/profile里添加)
## =======================================================
## echo -e "\nexport JAVA_HOME=/java/jdk1.7.0_80\nexport PATH=/java/jdk1.7.0_80/bin:$PATH\nexport CLASSPATH=.:/java/jdk1.7.0_80/lib/dt.jar:/java/jdk1.7.0_80/lib/tools.jar" >> /etc/profile
## =======================================================
## RUN { \
##                 echo; \
##                 echo 'export JAVA_HOME=/java/jdk1.7.0_80'; \
##                 echo 'export PATH=$JAVA_HOME/bin:$PATH'; \            
##                 echo 'export CLASSPATH=.:$JAVA_HOME/lib/dt.jar:$JAVA_HOME/lib/tools.jar'; \
##         } >> /etc/profile \
##     && source /etc/profile \
##     && rm -f /java/jdk1.7.0_80/src.zip
## =======================================================

RUN rm -f /java/jdk1.7.0_80/src.zip

## 配置ENV
## > The environment variables set using `ENV` will persist when a container is run from the resulting image.

ENV JAVA_HOME /java/jdk1.7.0_80
ENV JAVA_VERSION 7u80
ENV PATH $JAVA_HOME/bin:$PATH
ENV CLASSPATH .:$JAVA_HOME/lib/dt.jar:$JAVA_HOME/lib/tools.jar

:heavy_exclamation_mark: 备注:

  • JDK的压缩包来自 Oracle Support 网站.

  • JAVA环境变量直接在 ENV 里配置即可, 无需手动写入 /etc/profile 中

  • 如何把多行, 且含有多种特殊字符的字符串写入文件? - 用大括号

Tomcat 8

基于 Oracle JDK 7 的 Tomcat 8.0.X 的Dockerfile如下:

FROM caseycui/jdk7:7u80
 
LABEL maintainer='CaseyCui cuikaidong@foxmail.com'
 
ENV CATALINA_HOME /tomcat
ENV PATH $CATALINA_HOME/bin:$PATH

RUN mkdir -p "$CATALINA_HOME"

WORKDIR $CATALINA_HOME

## let "Tomcat Native" live somewhere isolated 
ENV TOMCAT_NATIVE_LIBDIR $CATALINA_HOME/native-jni-lib
ENV LD_LIBRARY_PATH ${LD_LIBRARY_PATH:+$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:}$TOMCAT_NATIVE_LIBDIR

## runtime dependencies for Tomcat Native Libraries
## Tomcat Native 1.2+ requires a newer version of OpenSSL than debian:jessie has available
## > checking OpenSSL library version >= 1.0.2...
## > configure: error: Your version of OpenSSL is not compatible with this version of tcnative
## see http://tomcat.10.x6.nabble.com/VOTE-Release-Apache-Tomcat-8-0-32-tp5046007p5046024.html (and following discussion)
## and https://github.com/docker-library/tomcat/pull/31

ENV OPENSSL_VERSION 1.0.2g-1ubuntu4.8

## RUN set -ex; \
##         if ! grep -q stretch /etc/apt/sources.list; then \
## # only add stretch if we're not already building from within stretch
##                 { \
##                         echo 'deb http://deb.debian.org/debian stretch main'; \
##                 } > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/stretch.list; \
##                 { \
## # add a negative "Pin-Priority" so that we never ever get packages from stretch unless we explicitly request them
##                         echo 'Package: *'; \
##                         echo 'Pin: release n=stretch'; \
##                         echo 'Pin-Priority: -10'; \
##                         echo; \
## # ... except OpenSSL, which is the reason we're here
##                         echo 'Package: openssl libssl*'; \
##                         echo "Pin: version $OPENSSL_VERSION"; \
##                         echo 'Pin-Priority: 990'; \
##                 } > /etc/apt/preferences.d/stretch-openssl; \
##         fi

RUN apt-get update && apt-get install -y --no-install-recommends \
                libapr1 \
                openssl="$OPENSSL_VERSION" \
        && rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists/*

## 安装跟 tomcat 用户认证相关的软件
RUN apt-get update && \
    DIBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive \
    apt-get install -yq --no-install-recommends \
        wget \
        pwgen \
        ca-certificates && \
    apt-get clean && \
    rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists/*

## see https://www.apache.org/dist/tomcat/tomcat-$TOMCAT_MAJOR/KEYS
## see also "update.sh" (https://github.com/docker-library/tomcat/blob/master/update.sh)

ENV GPG_KEYS 05AB33110949707C93A279E3D3EFE6B686867BA6 07E48665A34DCAFAE522E5E6266191C37C037D42 47309207D818FFD8DCD3F83F1931D684307A10A5 541FBE7D8F78B25E055DDEE13C370389288584E7 61B832AC2F1C5A90F0F9B00A1C506407564C17A3 713DA88BE50911535FE716F5208B0AB1D63011C7 79F7026C690BAA50B92CD8B66A3AD3F4F22C4FED 9BA44C2621385CB966EBA586F72C284D731FABEE A27677289986DB50844682F8ACB77FC2E86E29AC A9C5DF4D22E99998D9875A5110C01C5A2F6059E7 DCFD35E0BF8CA7344752DE8B6FB21E8933C60243 F3A04C595DB5B6A5F1ECA43E3B7BBB100D811BBE F7DA48BB64BCB84ECBA7EE6935CD23C10D498E23

RUN set -ex; \
        for key in $GPG_KEYS; do \
                gpg --keyserver ha.pool.sks-keyservers.net --recv-keys "$key"; \
        done

## 设置 tomcat 的环境变量
 
ENV TOMCAT_MAJOR 8
ENV TOMCAT_VERSION 8.0.46
ENV TOMCAT_TGZ_URL http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/apache/tomcat/tomcat-$TOMCAT_MAJOR/v$TOMCAT_VERSION/bin/apache-tomcat-$TOMCAT_VERSION.tar.gz
ENV TOMCAT_ASC_URL https://www.apache.org/dist/tomcat/tomcat-$TOMCAT_MAJOR/v$TOMCAT_VERSION/bin/apache-tomcat-$TOMCAT_VERSION.tar.gz.asc

## 复制 tomcat 到镜像中

RUN set -x \
        \
        && wget -O tomcat.tar.gz "$TOMCAT_TGZ_URL" \
        && wget -O tomcat.tar.gz.asc "$TOMCAT_ASC_URL" \
        && gpg --batch --verify tomcat.tar.gz.asc tomcat.tar.gz \
        && tar -xvf tomcat.tar.gz --strip-components=1  \
        && rm bin/*.bat \
        && rm tomcat.tar.gz* \
        \
        && nativeBuildDir="$(mktemp -d)" \
        && tar -xvf bin/tomcat-native.tar.gz -C "$nativeBuildDir" --strip-components=1 \
        && nativeBuildDeps=" \
                dpkg-dev \
                gcc \
                libapr1-dev \
                libssl-dev \
                make \
        " \
        && apt-get update && apt-get install -y --no-install-recommends $nativeBuildDeps && rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists/* \
        && ( \
                export CATALINA_HOME="$PWD" \
                && cd "$nativeBuildDir/native" \
                && gnuArch="$(dpkg-architecture --query DEB_BUILD_GNU_TYPE)" \
                && ./configure \
                        --build="$gnuArch" \
                        --libdir="$TOMCAT_NATIVE_LIBDIR" \
                        --prefix="$CATALINA_HOME" \
                        --with-apr="$(which apr-1-config)" \ 
                        --with-java-home="/java/jdk1.7.0_80" \
                        --with-ssl=yes \
                && make -j "$(nproc)" \
                && make install \
        ) \
        && apt-get purge -y --auto-remove $nativeBuildDeps \
        && rm -rf "$nativeBuildDir" \
        && rm bin/tomcat-native.tar.gz

## verify Tomcat Native is working properly
RUN set -e \
        && nativeLines="$(catalina.sh configtest 2>&1)" \
        && nativeLines="$(echo "$nativeLines" | grep 'Apache Tomcat Native')" \
        && nativeLines="$(echo "$nativeLines" | sort -u)" \
        && if ! echo "$nativeLines" | grep 'INFO: Loaded APR based Apache Tomcat Native library' >&2; then \
                echo >&2 "$nativeLines"; \
                exit 1; \
        fi

## 创建 tomcat 用户脚本
COPY create_tomcat_admin_user.sh /create_tomcat_admin_user.sh
 
## 创建 tomcat 运行脚本
COPY run-tomcat.sh /run-tomcat.sh

RUN chmod +x /*.sh && \
    chmod +x /tomcat/bin/*.sh
 
## 挂载点
## 日志文件
VOLUME $CATALINA_HOME/logs

## 程序文件 
VOLUME $CATALINA_HOME/webapps

EXPOSE 8080

CMD ["/run-tomcat.sh"]

创建 Tomcat 用户和密码脚本文件 create_tomcat_admin_user.sh, 内容如下:

##!/bin/bash
 
if [ -f /.tomcat_admin_created ]; then
    echo "Tomcat 'admin' user already created"
    exit 0 
fi

## generate password
PASS=${TOMCAT_PASS:-$(pwgen -s 12 1)}
_word=$( [ ${TOMCAT_PASS} ] && echo "preset" || echo "random")
echo "=> Creating and admin user with a ${_word} password in Tomcat"

##sed -i -r 's/<\/tomcat-user>//' ${CATALINA_HOME}/conf/tomcat-users.xml
## 这句的主要用法就是原本的`tomcat-users.xml`里存在一个空的`<tomcat-users>`到`</tomcat-users>`的字段,直接用sed删除最后一行,即`</tomcat-users>`
## 然后补上我们生成的密码的相关内容,最后再加上`</tomcat-users>`
 
 
sed -i '$d' ${CATALINA_HOME}/conf/tomcat-users.xml
echo '<role rolename="manager-gui"/>' >> ${CATALINA_HOME}/conf/tomcat-users.xml
echo '<role rolename="manager-script"/>' >> ${CATALINA_HOME}/conf/tomcat-users.xml
echo '<role rolename="manager-jmx"/>' >> ${CATALINA_HOME}/conf/tomcat-users.xml
echo '<role rolename="admin-gui"/>' >> ${CATALINA_HOME}/conf/tomcat-users.xml
echo '<role rolename="admin-script"/>' >> ${CATALINA_HOME}/conf/tomcat-users.xml
echo "<user username=\"admin\" password=\"${PASS}\" roles=\"manager-gui, manager-script, manager-jmx, admin-gui, admin-script\"/>" >> ${CATALINA_HOME}/conf/tomcat-users.xml
echo '</tomcat-users>' >> ${CATALINA_HOME}/conf/tomcat-users.xml
echo "=> Done!"
touch /.tomcat_admin_created
echo "======================================================"
echo "You can now configure to this Tomcat server using:"
echo ""
echo "      admin:${PASS}"
echo ""
echo "======================================================"

Tomcat 启动脚本 run-tomcat.sh:

##!/bin/bash
 
if [ ! -f /.tomcat_admin_created ]; then
    /create_tomcat_admin_user.sh
fi

exec ${CATALINA_HOME}/bin/catalina.sh run 

tomcat 密码脚本最后生成的 tomcat-users.xml 文件:

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>
<!--
  Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
  contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
  this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
  The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
  (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
  the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
  distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
  WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
  limitations under the License.
-->

<tomcat-users xmlns="http://tomcat.apache.org/xml"
              xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
              xsi:schemaLocation="http://tomcat.apache.org/xml tomcat-users.xsd"
              version="1.0">

<!--
  NOTE:  By default, no user is included in the "manager-gui" role required
  to operate the "/manager/html" web application.  If you wish to use this app,
  you must define such a user - the username and password are arbitrary. It is
  strongly recommended that you do NOT use one of the users in the commented out
  section below since they are intended for use with the examples web
  application.
-->

<!--
  NOTE:  The sample user and role entries below are intended for use with the
  examples web application. They are wrapped in a comment and thus are ignored
  when reading this file. If you wish to configure these users for use with the
  examples web application, do not forget to remove the <!.. ..> that surrounds
  them. You will also need to set the passwords to something appropriate.
-->

<!--
  <role rolename="tomcat"/>
  <role rolename="role1"/>
  <user username="tomcat" password="<must-be-changed>" roles="tomcat"/>
  <user username="both" password="<must-be-changed>" roles="tomcat,role1"/>
  <user username="role1" password="<must-be-changed>" roles="role1"/>
-->

<role rolename="manager-gui"/>
<role rolename="manager-script"/>
<role rolename="manager-jmx"/>
<role rolename="admin-gui"/>
<role rolename="admin-script"/>
<user username="admin" password="vNc8guWjdrBP" roles="manager-gui, manager-script, manager-jmx, admin-gui, admin-script"/>
</tomcat-users>

本章小结

中间件服务器是 Docker 容器应用的最佳实践, 理由如下:

  • 中间件服务器是除数据库服务器外的主要计算节点, 很容易成为性能瓶颈, 所以通常需要大批量部署, 而Docker 对于批量部署有着许多的先天优势
  • 中间件服务器结构清晰, 在剥离了配置文件 日志 代码目录 之后, 容器几乎可以处于零增长状态, 这使得容器的迁移和批量部署更加方便.
  • 中间件服务器很容易实现集群, 在使用硬件的F5, 软件的Nginx 等负载均衡后, 中间件服务器集群变得非常容易

在使用中间件容器的时候, 需要事先规划好容器的用途和可能开放的网络端口等资源.

:heavy_exclamation_mark: 对于程序代码 程序的资源目录 日志 数据库文件 等需要实时更新的数据一定要通过 -v 参数映射到宿主主机的目录中来, 使用 Docker 的 AUFS 文件格式, 会产生较大的性能问题.

IBM研究院关于Docker各项性能的测试报告

三人行, 必有我师; 知识共享, 天下为公. 本文由东风微鸣技术博客 EWhisper.cn 编写.

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