Cert Manager 申请SSL证书流程及相关概念-二

原创
2023/01/21 08:48
阅读数 64

中英文对照表

英文 英文 - K8S CRD 中文 备注
certificates Certificate 证书 certificates.cert-manager.io/v1
certificate issuers Issuer 证书颁发者 issuers.cert-manager.io
ClusterIssuer 集群证书颁发者 clusterissuers.cert-manager.io
certificate request CertificateRequest 证书申请 certificaterequests.cert-manager.io
order Order (证书)订单 orders.acme.cert-manager.io
challenge Challenge (证书)挑战 challenges.acme.cert-manager.io
SelfSigned 自签名 cert-manager Issuer 的一种
CA 证书颁发机构 Certificate Authority 的缩写;<br />cert-manager Issuer 的一种
Vault 金库 cert-manager Issuer 的一种,即 Hashicorp Vault
Venafi Venafi 在线证书办理服务,目前用的不多。
External 外部 cert-manager Issuer 的一种
ACME 自动证书管理环境 Automated Certificate Management Environment 的缩写;<br />cert-manager Issuer, 包括 HTTP01 和 DNS01

书接上回, 接下来看一下 cert-manager 的证书申请和续期流程.

申请 SSL 证书流程

这张图显示了使用 ACME/Let's Encrypt Issuer 的名为cert-1的证书的生命周期:

证书生命周期

HTTP01 方式

cert-manager 可以用来从使用 ACME 协议的 CA 获得证书。ACME 协议支持各种 challenge 机制,用来证明一个域名的所有权,以便为该域名签发有效的证书。

其中一个 challenge 机制是 HTTP01 challenge。通过 HTTP01 challenge,你可以通过确保一个特定的文件存在于该域中来证明该域的所有权。如果你能够在给定的路径下发布给定的文件,就可以认为你控制了该域。

首先,配置 HTTP01 Issuer, 见上文

https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory 就是 Let's Encrypt 的生产环境。对应的,Staging 环境 的 URL 为:https://acme-staging-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory

Staging 环境不会签发可信的证书,但用来确保在转移到生产环境之前,验证过程是正常工作的。Let's Encrypt 的生产环境施加了更严格的 速率限制,所以为了减少你触及这些限制的机会,强烈建议开始时先使用暂存环境。

ACME 协议的第一阶段是由客户向 ACME 服务器注册。这个阶段包括生成一个非对称密钥对,然后将其与发件人中指定的电子邮件地址联系起来 (🐾这里我没有填写邮箱)。请确保将这个电子邮件地址改为你自己的一个有效地址。它通常用于在你的证书即将更新时发送到期通知。生成的私钥被存储在一个名为`letsencrypt-staging'的 Secret 中。示例如下:

apiVersion: cert-manager.io/v1
kind: Certificate
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: '2022-03-08T14:34:05Z'
  generation: 1
  labels:
    app: rancher
    app.kubernetes.io/managed-by: Helm
    chart: rancher-2.6.4
    heritage: Helm
    release: rancher
  name: tls-rancher-ingress
  namespace: cattle-system
status:
  conditions:
    - lastTransitionTime: '2022-03-08T14:39:35Z'
      message: Certificate is up to date and has not expired
      observedGeneration: 1
      reason: Ready
      status: 'True'
      type: Ready
  notAfter: '2022-08-05T12:40:37Z'
  notBefore: '2022-05-07T12:40:38Z'
  renewalTime: '2022-07-06T12:40:37Z'
  revision: 2
spec:
  dnsNames:
    - rancher.ewhisper.cn
  issuerRef:
    group: cert-manager.io
    kind: Issuer
    name: rancher
  secretName: tls-rancher-ingress
  usages:
    - digital signature
    - key encipherment

我们必须提供一个或多个 Solvers 来处理 ACME challenge。在这种情况下,我们想使用 HTTP 验证,所以我们指定了一个http01 Issuer - rancher。我们可以选择映射不同的域来使用不同的 Solver 配置。

一旦我们创建了上述发行者,我们就可以用它来获取证书。

证书资源描述了我们所需的证书以及可以用来获取证书的可能方法。如果成功获得证书,产生的密钥对将被存储在与证书相同命名空间的名为tls-rancher-ingress的 Secret 中。

该证书的 dnsname 为rancher.ewhisper.cn.

📝Notes

如果上面的 yaml 删除 dnsNames, 替换为 commonName: ewhisper.cnSubject Alternative Name(SAN) 将是ewhisper.cnwww.ewhisper.cn

在我们的证书中,我们引用了上面的rancher Issuer。发行人必须与证书处于同一命名空间。如果你想引用ClusterIssuer,这是一个集群范围内的 Issuer,你必须添加kind:ClusterIssuerissuerRef 节中。

acme节定义了 ACME challenge 的配置。这里我们定义了 HTTP01 challenge 的配置,它将被用来验证域名所有权。为了验证 http01 节中提到的每个域的所有权,cert-manager 将创建一个 Pod、SVC 和 Ingress,暴露一个满足 HTTP01 challenge 的 HTTP 端点。

http01节中的ingressingressClass字段可以用来控制 cert-manager 与 Ingress 资源的交互方式。

  • 如果指定了 ingress 字段,那么在与证书相同的 NameSpace 中,具有相同名称的 Ingress 资源必须已经存在,它将被修改,只是为了添加适当的规则以解决 challenge 。这个字段对 ingress 控制器以及其他一些为每个 ingress 资源分配一个公共 IP 地址的控制器很有用。如果没有人工干预,创建一个新的 Ingress 资源将导致任何 challenge 失败。
  • 如果指定了 ingressClass 字段,将创建一个具有随机生成的名称的新入口资源,以解决 challenge 。这个新资源将有一个注释,其 key 是kubernetes.io/ingress.class 值设置为 ingressClass 的 field. 这适用于 NGINX ingress controller 等。
  • 如果两者都没有指定,新的 Ingress 资源将以随机生成的名称被创建,但它们不会有 ingressClass 注释的设置。
  • 如果两者都被指定,那么 ingress 字段将被优先考虑。

一旦域名所有权得到验证,任何受影响的 cert-manager 资源将被清理或删除。

🐾 注意

你有责任将每个域名指向你的入口控制器的正确 IP 地址。(就是配置 DNS 记录的活还是需要你自己来做。)

在创建上述证书后,我们可以使用kubectl describe检查它是否已经成功获得。

$ kubectl describe certificate example-com
Events:
  Type    Reason          Age      From          Message
  ----    ------          ----     ----          -------
  Normal  CreateOrder     57m      cert-manager  Created new ACME order, attempting validation...
  Normal  DomainVerified  55m      cert-manager  Domain "example.com" verified with "http-01" validation
  Normal  DomainVerified  55m      cert-manager  Domain "www.example.com" verified with "http-01" validation
  Normal  IssueCert       55m      cert-manager  Issuing certificate...
  Normal  CertObtained    55m      cert-manager  Obtained certificate from ACME server
  Normal  CertIssued      55m      cert-manager  Certificate issued successfully

你也可以用kubectl get secret tls-rancher-ingress -o yaml来检查发行是否成功。你应该看到一个 base64 编码的 TLS 密钥对。

一旦我们获得了证书,cert-manager 将定期检查它的有效性,并在它接近到期时尝试更新。当证书上的 Not After 字段小于当前时间加 30 天时,cert-manager 认为证书接近到期。

证书更新

我的证书之前已经申请到了,前几天更新的过程日志记录如下(可以对照上文的证书生命周期来看):

I0507 13:39:31.141402       1 trigger_controller.go:181] cert-manager/certificates-trigger "msg"="Certificate must be re-issued" "key"="cattle-system/tls-rancher-ingress" "message"="Renewing certificate as renewal was scheduled at 2022-05-07 13:39:31 +0000 UTC" "reason"="Renewing"
I0507 13:39:31.143437       1 conditions.go:201] Setting lastTransitionTime for Certificate "tls-rancher-ingress" condition "Issuing" to 2022-05-07 13:39:31.142484989 +0000 UTC m=+186628.212145824
I0507 13:39:31.807902       1 controller.go:161] cert-manager/certificates-key-manager "msg"="re-queuing item due to optimistic locking on resource" "key"="cattle-system/tls-rancher-ingress" "error"="Operation cannot be fulfilled on certificates.cert-manager.io \"tls-rancher-ingress\": the object has been modified; please apply your changes to the latest version and try again"
I0507 13:39:31.928746       1 conditions.go:261] Setting lastTransitionTime for CertificateRequest "tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm" condition "Approved" to 2022-05-07 13:39:31.927475704 +0000 UTC m=+186628.997136533
I0507 13:39:32.181390       1 conditions.go:261] Setting lastTransitionTime for CertificateRequest "tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm" condition "Ready" to 2022-05-07 13:39:32.181379458 +0000 UTC m=+186629.251040270
I0507 13:39:32.263457       1 controller.go:161] cert-manager/certificaterequests-issuer-acme "msg"="re-queuing item due to optimistic locking on resource" "key"="cattle-system/tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm" "error"="Operation cannot be fulfilled on certificaterequests.cert-manager.io \"tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm\": the object has been modified; please apply your changes to the latest version and try again"
I0507 13:39:41.306332       1 pod.go:71] cert-manager/challenges/http01/ensurePod "msg"="creating HTTP01 challenge solver pod" "dnsName"="rancher.ewhisper.cn" "resource_kind"="Challenge" "resource_name"="tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm-2528720963-983401508" "resource_namespace"="cattle-system" "resource_version"="v1" "type"="HTTP-01" 
I0507 13:39:41.621639       1 pod.go:59] cert-manager/challenges/http01/selfCheck/http01/ensurePod "msg"="found one existing HTTP01 solver pod" "dnsName"="rancher.ewhisper.cn" "related_resource_kind"="Pod" "related_resource_name"="cm-acme-http-solver-pglxk" "related_resource_namespace"="cattle-system" "related_resource_version"="v1" "resource_kind"="Challenge" "resource_name"="tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm-2528720963-983401508" "resource_namespace"="cattle-system" "resource_version"="v1" "type"="HTTP-01" 
I0507 13:39:41.621784       1 service.go:43] cert-manager/challenges/http01/selfCheck/http01/ensureService "msg"="found one existing HTTP01 solver Service for challenge resource" "dnsName"="rancher.ewhisper.cn" "related_resource_kind"="Service" "related_resource_name"="cm-acme-http-solver-xsqkb" "related_resource_namespace"="cattle-system" "related_resource_version"="v1" "resource_kind"="Challenge" "resource_name"="tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm-2528720963-983401508" "resource_namespace"="cattle-system" "resource_version"="v1" "type"="HTTP-01" 
E0507 13:39:41.837584       1 sync.go:186] cert-manager/challenges "msg"="propagation check failed" "error"="wrong status code '404', expected '200'" "dnsName"="rancher.ewhisper.cn" "resource_kind"="Challenge" "resource_name"="tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm-2528720963-983401508" "resource_namespace"="cattle-system" "resource_version"="v1" "type"="HTTP-01" 
I0507 13:39:42.027681       1 pod.go:59] cert-manager/challenges/http01/selfCheck/http01/ensurePod "msg"="found one existing HTTP01 solver pod" "dnsName"="rancher.ewhisper.cn" "related_resource_kind"="Pod" "related_resource_name"="cm-acme-http-solver-pglxk" "related_resource_namespace"="cattle-system" "related_resource_version"="v1" "resource_kind"="Challenge" "resource_name"="tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm-2528720963-983401508" "resource_namespace"="cattle-system" "resource_version"="v1" "type"="HTTP-01" 
I0507 13:39:42.027757       1 service.go:43] cert-manager/challenges/http01/selfCheck/http01/ensureService "msg"="found one existing HTTP01 solver Service for challenge resource" "dnsName"="rancher.ewhisper.cn" "related_resource_kind"="Service" "related_resource_name"="cm-acme-http-solver-xsqkb" "related_resource_namespace"="cattle-system" "related_resource_version"="v1" "resource_kind"="Challenge" "resource_name"="tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm-2528720963-983401508" "resource_namespace"="cattle-system" "resource_version"="v1" "type"="HTTP-01" 
I0507 13:39:42.027811       1 ingress.go:110] cert-manager/challenges/http01/selfCheck/http01/ensureIngress "msg"="multiple challenge solver ingresses found for challenge. cleaning up all existing ingresses." "dnsName"="rancher.ewhisper.cn" "resource_kind"="Challenge" "resource_name"="tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm-2528720963-983401508" "resource_namespace"="cattle-system" "resource_version"="v1" "type"="HTTP-01" 
E0507 13:39:42.076190       1 controller.go:102] ingress 'cattle-system/cm-acme-http-solver-knwm8' in work queue no longer exists
E0507 13:39:42.100492       1 controller.go:102] ingress 'cattle-system/cm-acme-http-solver-59gvf' in work queue no longer exists
E0507 13:39:42.101020       1 sync.go:186] cert-manager/challenges "msg"="propagation check failed" "error"="multiple existing challenge solver ingresses found and cleaned up. retrying challenge sync" "dnsName"="rancher.ewhisper.cn" "resource_kind"="Challenge" "resource_name"="tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm-2528720963-983401508" "resource_namespace"="cattle-system" "resource_version"="v1" "type"="HTTP-01" 
...
E0507 13:40:22.187779       1 sync.go:386] cert-manager/challenges/acceptChallenge "msg"="error waiting for authorization" "error"="context deadline exceeded" "dnsName"="rancher.ewhisper.cn" "resource_kind"="Challenge" "resource_name"="tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm-2528720963-983401508" "resource_namespace"="cattle-system" "resource_version"="v1" "type"="HTTP-01" 
E0507 13:40:22.188198       1 controller.go:163] cert-manager/challenges "msg"="re-queuing item due to error processing" "error"="context deadline exceeded" "key"="cattle-system/tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm-2528720963-983401508" 
I0507 13:40:27.188948       1 pod.go:59] cert-manager/challenges/http01/selfCheck/http01/ensurePod "msg"="found one existing HTTP01 solver pod" "dnsName"="rancher.ewhisper.cn" "related_resource_kind"="Pod" "related_resource_name"="cm-acme-http-solver-pglxk" "related_resource_namespace"="cattle-system" "related_resource_version"="v1" "resource_kind"="Challenge" "resource_name"="tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm-2528720963-983401508" "resource_namespace"="cattle-system" "resource_version"="v1" "type"="HTTP-01" 
I0507 13:40:27.190011       1 service.go:43] cert-manager/challenges/http01/selfCheck/http01/ensureService "msg"="found one existing HTTP01 solver Service for challenge resource" "dnsName"="rancher.ewhisper.cn" "related_resource_kind"="Service" "related_resource_name"="cm-acme-http-solver-xsqkb" "related_resource_namespace"="cattle-system" "related_resource_version"="v1" "resource_kind"="Challenge" "resource_name"="tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm-2528720963-983401508" "resource_namespace"="cattle-system" "resource_version"="v1" "type"="HTTP-01" 
I0507 13:40:27.190749       1 ingress.go:98] cert-manager/challenges/http01/selfCheck/http01/ensureIngress "msg"="found one existing HTTP01 solver ingress" "dnsName"="rancher.ewhisper.cn" "related_resource_kind"="Ingress" "related_resource_name"="cm-acme-http-solver-cmp2c" "related_resource_namespace"="cattle-system" "related_resource_version"="v1" "resource_kind"="Challenge" "resource_name"="tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm-2528720963-983401508" "resource_namespace"="cattle-system" "resource_version"="v1" "type"="HTTP-01" 
E0507 13:40:38.478817       1 controller.go:102] ingress 'cattle-system/cm-acme-http-solver-cmp2c' in work queue no longer exists
I0507 13:40:39.806118       1 acme.go:209] cert-manager/certificaterequests-issuer-acme/sign "msg"="certificate issued" "related_resource_kind"="Order" "related_resource_name"="tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm-2528720963" "related_resource_namespace"="cattle-system" "related_resource_version"="v1" "resource_kind"="CertificateRequest" "resource_name"="tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm" "resource_namespace"="cattle-system" "resource_version"="v1" 
I0507 13:40:39.809106       1 conditions.go:250] Found status change for CertificateRequest "tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm" condition "Ready": "False" -> "True"; setting lastTransitionTime to 2022-05-07 13:40:39.809091738 +0000 UTC m=+186696.878752561
I0507 13:40:40.068059       1 controller.go:161] cert-manager/certificates-issuing "msg"="re-queuing item due to optimistic locking on resource" "key"="cattle-system/tls-rancher-ingress" "error"="Operation cannot be fulfilled on certificates.cert-manager.io \"tls-rancher-ingress\": the object has been modified; please apply your changes to the latest version and try again"
I0507 13:40:40.168307       1 controller.go:161] cert-manager/certificates-key-manager "msg"="re-queuing item due to optimistic locking on resource" "key"="cattle-system/tls-rancher-ingress" "error"="Operation cannot be fulfilled on certificates.cert-manager.io \"tls-rancher-ingress\": the object has been modified; please apply your changes to the latest version and try again"
E0507 13:40:41.298717       1 sync.go:70] cert-manager/orders "msg"="failed to update status" "error"=null "resource_kind"="Order" "resource_name"="tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm-2528720963" "resource_namespace"="cattle-system" "resource_version"="v1" 
I0507 13:40:41.299059       1 controller.go:161] cert-manager/orders "msg"="re-queuing item due to optimistic locking on resource" "key"="cattle-system/tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm-2528720963" "error"="Operation cannot be fulfilled on orders.acme.cert-manager.io \"tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm-2528720963\": the object has been modified; please apply your changes to the latest version and try again"
E0507 13:40:41.331531       1 controller.go:211] cert-manager/challenges "msg"="challenge in work queue no longer exists" "error"="challenge.acme.cert-manager.io \"tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm-2528720963-983401508\" not found"  
  1. cert-manager/certificates-trigger 触发证书 renew(Certificate 里有一个 renewalTime 字段记录该时间)

  2. tls-rancher-ingress 证书的状态变为 "Issuing"

  3. 创建了一个新的 CertificateRequest - tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm, 状态变为 "Approved", 具体内容如下:

    apiVersion: cert-manager.io/v1
    kind: CertificateRequest
    metadata:
      annotations:
        cert-manager.io/certificate-name: tls-rancher-ingress
        cert-manager.io/certificate-revision: '2'
        cert-manager.io/private-key-secret-name: tls-rancher-ingress-nttqs
      creationTimestamp: '2022-05-07T13:39:31Z'
      generateName: tls-rancher-ingress-
      generation: 1
      name: tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm
      namespace: cattle-system
      ownerReferences:
        - apiVersion: cert-manager.io/v1
          blockOwnerDeletion: true
          controller: true
          kind: Certificate
          name: tls-rancher-ingress
      resourceVersion: '20868343'
    status:
      certificate: >-
        ...
      conditions:
        - lastTransitionTime: '2022-05-07T13:39:31Z'
          message: Certificate request has been approved by cert-manager.io
          reason: cert-manager.io
          status: 'True'
          type: Approved
        - lastTransitionTime: '2022-05-07T13:40:39Z'
          message: Certificate fetched from issuer successfully
          reason: Issued
          status: 'True'
          type: Ready
    spec:
      extra:
        authentication.kubernetes.io/pod-name:
          - cert-manager-6d6bb4f487-525q9
        authentication.kubernetes.io/pod-uid:
          - 857565c8-b05c-4114-8e94-14960476f90e
      groups:
        - system:serviceaccounts
        - system:serviceaccounts:cert-manager
        - system:authenticated
      issuerRef:
        group: cert-manager.io
        kind: Issuer
        name: rancher
      request: >-
        <-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----... 的 base64 编码>
      usages:
        - digital signature
        - key encipherment
      username: system:serviceaccount:cert-manager:cert-manager
    
  4. CertificateRequest - tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm, 的状态变为 "Ready"

  5. 创建 HTTP01 challenge solver pod - "resource_kind"="Challenge" "resource_name"="tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm-2528720963-983401508"

  6. 前几次 challenge 失败,404: "msg"="propagation check failed" "error"="wrong status code '404', expected '200'"

  7. 经过多次,最终成功:

    1. "msg"="certificate issued" "related_resource_kind"="Order" (开始renew 后, 创建完 CertificateRequest 就开始创建 Order)
    2. Found status change for CertificateRequest "tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm" condition "Ready": "False" -> "True"; setting lastTransitionTime to 2022-05-07 13:40:39.809091738 +0000 UTC m=+186696.878752561

成功后,Challenge 被删除,Order 的状态变为 valid, 如下:

apiVersion: acme.cert-manager.io/v1
kind: Order
metadata:
  annotations:
    cert-manager.io/certificate-name: tls-rancher-ingress
    cert-manager.io/certificate-revision: '2'
    cert-manager.io/private-key-secret-name: tls-rancher-ingress-nttqs
  creationTimestamp: '2022-05-07T13:39:32Z'
  name: tls-rancher-ingress-5j9mm-2528720963
  namespace: cattle-system
status:
  authorizations:
    - challenges:
        - token: WkoIW-...
          type: http-01
          url: >-
            https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/acme/chall-v3/.../...
        - token: WkoIW-...
          type: dns-01
          url: >-
            https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/acme/chall-v3/.../...
        - token: WkoIW-...
          type: tls-alpn-01
          url: >-
            https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/acme/chall-v3/.../...
      identifier: rancher.ewhisper.cn
      initialState: pending
      url: https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/acme/authz-v3/...
      wildcard: false
  certificate: >-
    ...
  finalizeURL: https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/acme/finalize/.../...
  state: valid
  url: https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/acme/order/.../...
spec:
  dnsNames:
    - rancher.ewhisper.cn
  issuerRef:
    group: cert-manager.io
    kind: Issuer
    name: rancher
  request: >-
    ...

最终 Certificate 的状态也发生更新,新的证书更新进对应的 Secret 中。如下:

apiVersion: cert-manager.io/v1
kind: Certificate
metadata:
  name: tls-rancher-ingress
  namespace: cattle-system
status:
  notAfter: '2022-08-05T12:40:37Z'
  notBefore: '2022-05-07T12:40:38Z'
  renewalTime: '2022-07-06T12:40:37Z'
  revision: 2
...

DNS01 方式

cert-manager 可以用来从使用 ACME 协议的 CA 获得证书。ACME 协议支持各种 challenge 机制,用来证明一个域名的所有权,以便为该域名签发有效的证书。

其中一个 challenge 机制是 DNS01。通过 DNS01 challenge ,你可以通过证明你控制了一个域名的 DNS 记录来证明它的所有权。这是通过创建一个具有特定内容的 TXT 记录来实现的,该记录证明你对该域名的 DNS 记录有控制权。

之前的 Issuer 定义了启用 DNS 验证的一些必要信息。指定的还是 Let's Encrypt 的生产环境:https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory

dns01 字段包含一个 DNS01 提供者的列表,可用于解决 DNS challenge。这里我只定义了一个 webhook 实现的提供者 - dnspod。

只要我们创建了上述发行者,我们就可以用它来获得证书:

apiVersion: cert-manager.io/v1
kind: Certificate
metadata:
  name: ewhisper-crt
  namespace: cert-manager
spec:
  dnsNames:
  - ewhisper.cn
  - '*.ewhisper.cn'
  issuerRef:
    group: cert-manager.io
    kind: ClusterIssuer
    name: dnspod
  secretName: ewhisper-crt-secret

证书 CRD 描述了我们所需的证书以及可以用来获取证书的可能方法。你可以像其他域名一样获得通配符域名的证书。请确保在你的 YAML 资源中用星号包裹通配符域名,以避免格式问题。这里我在同一个证书上同时指定ewhisper.cn*.ewhisper.cn,那么执行验证的时间会稍微长一些,因为每个域名必须一个一个地被验证。

🤔 Thinking:

我的通配符证书,在 2022.4.30 开始更新,然后直到 2022.5.8 才更新成功,不知道是不是因为这个原因。

如果成功获得证书,产生的密钥对将被存储在与证书相同命名空间的名为ewhisper-crt-secret的 Secret 中。

该证书的通用名称为*.ewhisper.cn

在我们的证书中,我们引用了上面的dnspod ClusterIssuer, 这种情况下 Issuer 可以与证书不处于同一命名空间。

acme 节定义了我们的 ACME challenge 的配置。这里我们定义了 DNS challenge 的配置,它将被用来验证域名所有权。对于dns01节中提到的每个域名,cert-manager 将使用被引用的 Issue 的提供者的证书来创建一个名为_acme-challenge的 TXT 记录。这条记录将由 ACME 服务器验证,以便签发证书。一旦域名所有权被验证,任何受 cert-manager 影响的记录都将被清理掉。

DNS 服务器我用的是 DNSPod, 这里创建 TXT 的记录如下:

2022-05-08 19:05:39: (<my-public-ip>) 删除记录 TXT 记录 默认 线路 _acme-challenge 值 mfaEFIBPUFzh1ub7Ek05v-bN-fwsdfwdfwdfwedw (1117684179) Uin:<my-uin> Real Client IP:<my-public-ip> API FROM:YUNAPI
2022-05-08 19:04:27: (<my-public-ip>) 添加 TXT 记录 默认 线路 _acme-challenge 值 mfaEFIBPUFzh1ub7Ek05v-bN-fwsdfwdfwdfwedw (1117684179) Uin:<my-uin> Real Client IP:<my-public-ip> API FROM:YUNAPI
2022-05-08 19:04:26: (<my-public-ip>) 删除记录 TXT 记录 默认 线路 _acme-challenge 值 cVxv2s9P_UvThEB2DLcZxfwdfwdfwdwds8Ogv_k (1117683586) Uin:<my-uin> Real Client IP:<my-public-ip> API FROM:YUNAPI
2022-05-08 19:03:12: (<my-public-ip>) 添加 TXT 记录 默认 线路 _acme-challenge 值 cVxv2s9P_UvThEB2DLcZxfwdfwdfwdwds8Ogv_k (1117683586) Uin:<my-uin> Real Client IP:<my-public-ip> API FROM:YUNAPI
2022-05-08 18:04:21: (<my-public-ip>) 删除记录 TXT 记录 默认 线路 _acme-challenge 值 QYLKuSmlK6aWmD64hhExOwdfwdfwdfwdcwdk5bfRCLAI (1117656075) Uin:<my-uin> Real Client IP:<my-public-ip> API FROM:YUNAPI
2022-05-08 18:03:07: (<my-public-ip>) 添加 TXT 记录 默认 线路 _acme-challenge 值 QYLKuSmlK6aWmD64hhExOwdfwdfwdfwdcwdk5bfRCLAI (1117656075) Uin:<my-uin> Real Client IP:<my-public-ip> API FROM:YUNAPI

其他方面就和 HTTP01 是类似的,这里不再做过多的说明。

在这里,用的是 <imroc.cc> 开发的 cert-manager 插件 - cert-manager-webhook-dnspod.

参考的是 这篇文章配置的 dnspod 的 cert-manager webhook

结合上面的流程, 下面来了解一下 cert-manager 的相关概念

系列文章

📚️ 参考文档

三人行, 必有我师; 知识共享, 天下为公. 本文由东风微鸣技术博客 EWhisper.cn 编写.

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