Janus kinases are a family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases which are involved in autoimmune diseases and malignancies [1, 2]. Januskinase-1 (JAK1) is one of the Janus kinase family members. JAK1 is essentialfor IL-6-class inflammatory cytokine signaling, plays a critical role in metastatic cancer progression, and mediates the persistent oncogenic activation of STAT3 in mammary cancer cells that are driven by ERBB2 receptor tyrosine kinase signaling . JAK1-deficient cell lines were found to be more tumorigenic than wild-type cells . The evidence indicates that JAK1 works as either an oncogene or a tumor suppressor under certain conditions or cell contents .Clinical trials testing of JAK1 inhibitors in advanced solid tumors, including breast cancer, are under way . JAK1 is alsoexpressed in diverse cell types, including immune cells. A recent study hasshown that JAK/STAT inhibition acts on the tumor microenvironment to increase production of pro-tumorigenic inflammatory factors in breast cancer patients, which promotes therapeutic resistance. Whether JAK1 levels in breast cancer tissues are associated with tumor immune infiltrates and clinical outcomes has not been evaluated.
Breast cancer mortality remains the second leading cause of female cancer-related deaths worldwide . Extensive efforts are underway to develop molecular signatures and targeted therapies for specific subsets of breast cancer patients . Inrecent decades, the prognostic and predictive value of mRNA expression has becomemore attractive. Studies of the transcriptome,including mRNA levels, in primary breast tumors have been useful for predicting intrinsic subtypes, tumor grade, drug responsiveness, and risk of recurrence, (为相关性分析做铺垫) each of whichcan be used as a prognostic tool [10–12].
Here, we evaluated the association between tumor JAK1 mRNA levels and breast cancer patients’ prognosis in public databases such as the Kaplan-Meier plotter, PrognoScan database, and the Human Protein Atlas database. Moreover, we also investigated the correlation of JAK1 mRNA levels with clinicopathological characteristics and tumor-infiltrating immune cells of breast cancer patients. Our findings shed light on the important role of JAK1 in breast cancer as well as providing a potential relationship and an underlying mechanism between JAK1 and tumor-immune interactions.
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