手把手教大家书写一个 Mqtt 网关

原创
2023/02/02 11:24
阅读数 1.7W
摘要:物联网是现在比较热门的软件领域,众多物联网厂商都有自己的物联网平台,而物联网平台其中一个核心的模块就是Mqtt网关。

本文分享自华为云社区《一文带你掌握物联网mqtt网关搭建背后的技术原理》,作者:张俭。

前言

物联网是现在比较热门的软件领域,众多物联网厂商都有自己的物联网平台,而物联网平台其中一个核心的模块就是Mqtt网关。这篇文章的目的是手把手教大家写书写一个mqtt网关,后端存储支持Kafka/Pulsar,支持mqtt 连接、断链、发送消息、订阅消息。技术选型:

  • Netty java最流行的网络框架
  • netty-codec-mqtt netty的子项目,mqtt编解码插件
  • Pulsar/Kafka 流行的消息中间件作为后端存储

核心pom依赖如下

<dependency>
 <groupId>io.netty</groupId>
 <artifactId>netty-codec-mqtt</artifactId>
 </dependency>
 <dependency>
 <groupId>io.netty</groupId>
 <artifactId>netty-common</artifactId>
 </dependency>
 <dependency>
 <groupId>io.netty</groupId>
 <artifactId>netty-transport</artifactId>
 </dependency>
 <dependency>
 <groupId>org.apache.pulsar</groupId>
 <artifactId>pulsar-client-original</artifactId>
 <version>${pulsar.version}</version>
 </dependency>
 <dependency>
 <groupId>org.apache.kafka</groupId>
 <artifactId>kafka-clients</artifactId>
 <version>${kafka.version}</version>
 </dependency>
 <dependency>
 <groupId>org.eclipse.paho</groupId>
 <artifactId>org.eclipse.paho.client.mqttv3</artifactId>
 <version>${mqtt-client.version}</version>
 <scope>test</scope>
 </dependency>

软件参数设计

软件参数可谓是非常常见,复杂的开源项目,参数甚至可以达到上百个、配置文件长达数千行。我们需要的配置有

MqttServer监听的端口

监听端口的配置即使是写demo也非常必要,常常用在单元测试中,由于单元测试跑完之后,即使网络服务器关闭,操作系统也不会立即释放端口,所以单元测试的时候指定随机端口非常关键,在java中,我们可以通过这样的工具类来获取一个空闲的端口。未配置的话,我们就使用mqtt的默认端口1883。

package io.github.protocol.mqtt.broker.util;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.UncheckedIOException;
import java.net.ServerSocket;

public class SocketUtil {

 public static int getFreePort() {
 try (ServerSocket serverSocket = new ServerSocket(0)) {
 return serverSocket.getLocalPort();
        } catch (IOException e) {
 throw new UncheckedIOException(e);
        }
    }

}

后端存储配置

我们的mqtt网关是没有可靠的存储能力的,依赖后端的消息中间件来做持久化处理。后端规划支持Pulsar、Kafka两种类型。定义枚举类如下

public enum ProcessorType {
    KAFKA,
    PULSAR,
}

对应的KafkaProcessorConfig、PulsarProcessorConfig比较简单,包含基础的连接地址即可,如果后续要做性能调优、安全,这块还是会有更多的配置项

@Setter
@Getter
public class KafkaProcessorConfig {

 private String bootstrapServers = "localhost:9092";

 public KafkaProcessorConfig() {
    }
}
@Setter
@Getter
public class PulsarProcessorConfig {

 private String httpUrl = "http://localhost:8080";

 private String serviceUrl = "pulsar://localhost:6650";

 public PulsarProcessorConfig() {
    }
}

启动netty MqttServer

我们通过netty启动一个mqttServer,添加mqtt解码器

package io.github.protocol.mqtt.broker;

import io.github.protocol.mqtt.broker.processor.KafkaProcessor;
import io.github.protocol.mqtt.broker.processor.KafkaProcessorConfig;
import io.github.protocol.mqtt.broker.processor.MqttProcessor;
import io.github.protocol.mqtt.broker.processor.PulsarProcessor;
import io.github.protocol.mqtt.broker.processor.PulsarProcessorConfig;
import io.github.protocol.mqtt.broker.util.SocketUtil;
import io.netty.bootstrap.ServerBootstrap;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelFuture;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelInitializer;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelOption;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelPipeline;
import io.netty.channel.EventLoopGroup;
import io.netty.channel.nio.NioEventLoopGroup;
import io.netty.channel.socket.SocketChannel;
import io.netty.channel.socket.nio.NioServerSocketChannel;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttDecoder;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttEncoder;
import io.netty.handler.logging.LogLevel;
import io.netty.handler.logging.LoggingHandler;
import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;

@Slf4j
public class MqttServer {

 private final MqttServerConfig mqttServerConfig;

 public MqttServer() {
 this(new MqttServerConfig());
    }

 public MqttServer(MqttServerConfig mqttServerConfig) {
 this.mqttServerConfig = mqttServerConfig;
 if (mqttServerConfig.getPort() == 0) {
            mqttServerConfig.setPort(SocketUtil.getFreePort());
        }
    }

 public void start() throws Exception {
        EventLoopGroup bossGroup = new NioEventLoopGroup(1);
        EventLoopGroup workerGroup = new NioEventLoopGroup();
 try {
            ServerBootstrap b = new ServerBootstrap();
            b.group(bossGroup, workerGroup)
                    .channel(NioServerSocketChannel.class)
                    .option(ChannelOption.SO_BACKLOG, 100)
                    .handler(new LoggingHandler(LogLevel.INFO))
                    .childHandler(new ChannelInitializer<SocketChannel>() {
                        @Override
 public void initChannel(SocketChannel ch) throws Exception {
                            ChannelPipeline p = ch.pipeline();
 // decoder
                            p.addLast(new MqttDecoder());
                            p.addLast(MqttEncoder.INSTANCE);
                        }
                    });

 // Start the server.
            ChannelFuture f = b.bind(mqttServerConfig.getPort()).sync();

 // Wait until the server socket is closed.
            f.channel().closeFuture().sync();
        } finally {
 // Shut down all event loops to terminate all threads.
            bossGroup.shutdownGracefully();
            workerGroup.shutdownGracefully();
        }
    }

 private MqttProcessor processor(MqttServerConfig config) {
 return switch (config.getProcessorType()) {
 case KAFKA -> new KafkaProcessor(config.getMqttAuth(), config.getKafkaProcessorConfig());
 case PULSAR -> new PulsarProcessor(config.getMqttAuth(), config.getPulsarProcessorConfig());
        };
    }

 public int getPort() {
 return mqttServerConfig.getPort();
    }

}

MqttserverStarter.java

我们写一个简单的main函数用来启动mqttServer,方便调测

package io.github.protocol.mqtt.broker;

public class MqttServerStarter {

 public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
 new MqttServer().start();
    }

}

客户端使用eclipse mqtt client进行测试

package io.github.protocol.mqtt;

import lombok.extern.log4j.Log4j2;
import org.eclipse.paho.client.mqttv3.MqttClient;
import org.eclipse.paho.client.mqttv3.MqttConnectOptions;
import org.eclipse.paho.client.mqttv3.MqttException;
import org.eclipse.paho.client.mqttv3.MqttMessage;
import org.eclipse.paho.client.mqttv3.persist.MemoryPersistence;

@Log4j2
public class MqttClientPublishExample {

 public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        String topic = "MQTT Examples";
        String content = "Message from MqttPublishExample";
        int qos = 2;
        String broker = "tcp://127.0.0.1:1883";
        String clientId = "JavaSample";
        MemoryPersistence persistence = new MemoryPersistence();

 try {
            MqttClient sampleClient = new MqttClient(broker, clientId, persistence);
            MqttConnectOptions connOpts = new MqttConnectOptions();
            connOpts.setCleanSession(true);
            log.info("Connecting to broker: {}", broker);
            sampleClient.connect(connOpts);
            log.info("Connected");
            log.info("Publishing message: {}", content);
            MqttMessage message = new MqttMessage(content.getBytes());
            message.setQos(qos);
            sampleClient.publish(topic, message);
            log.info("Message published");
            sampleClient.disconnect();
            log.info("Disconnected");
            System.exit(0);
        } catch (MqttException me) {
            log.error("reason {} msg {}", me.getReasonCode(), me.getMessage(), me);
        }
    }

}

然后我们先运行MqttServer,再运行MqttClient,发现MqttClient卡住了

Connecting to broker: tcp://127.0.0.1:1883

这是为什么呢,我们通过抓包发现仅仅只有客户端发送了Mqtt connect信息,服务端并没有响应

但是根据mqtt标准协议,发送Connect消息,必须要有ConnAck响应

所以我们需要在接收到Connect后,返回connAck消息。我们创建一个MqttHandler,让他继承ChannelInboundHandlerAdapter, 用来接力MqttDecoder解码完成后的消息,这里要重点继承其中的channelRead方法,以及channelInactive方法,用来释放断链时需要释放的资源

package com.github.shoothzj.mqtt;

import io.netty.channel.ChannelHandlerContext;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelInboundHandlerAdapter;
import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;

@Slf4j
public class MqttHandler extends ChannelInboundHandlerAdapter {

    @Override
 public void channelRead(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, Object msg) throws Exception {
 super.channelRead(ctx, msg);
    }

}

然后把这个handler加入到netty的职责链中,放到解码器的后面

在mqtt handler中插入我们的代码

@Override
 public void channelRead(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, Object msg) throws Exception {
 super.channelRead(ctx, msg);
 if (msg instanceof MqttConnectMessage) {
            handleConnect(ctx, (MqttConnectMessage) msg);
        } else {
            log.error("Unsupported type msg [{}]", msg);
        }
    }

 private void handleConnect(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttConnectMessage connectMessage) {
        log.info("connect msg is [{}]", connectMessage);
    }

打印出connectMessage如下

[MqttConnectMessage[fixedHeader=MqttFixedHeader[messageType=CONNECT, isDup=false, qosLevel=AT_MOST_ONCE, isRetain=false, remainingLength=22], variableHeader=MqttConnectVariableHeader[name=MQTT, version=4, hasUserName=false, hasPassword=false, isWillRetain=false, isWillFlag=false, isCleanSession=true, keepAliveTimeSeconds=60], payload=MqttConnectPayload[clientIdentifier=JavaSample, willTopic=null, willMessage=null, userName=null, password=null]]]

通常,mqtt connect message中会包含qos、用户名、密码等信息,由于我们启动客户端的时候也没有携带用户名和密码,这里获取到的都为null,我们先不校验这些消息,直接给客户端返回connack消息,代表连接成功

 final MqttConnAckMessage ackMessage = MqttMessageBuilders.connAck().returnCode(CONNECTION_ACCEPTED).build();
        ctx.channel().writeAndFlush(ackMessage);

我们再运行起Server和Client,随后可以看到已经走过了Connect阶段,进入了publish message过程,接下来我们再实现更多的其他场景

附上此阶段的MqttHandler代码

package com.github.shoothzj.mqtt;

import io.netty.channel.ChannelHandlerContext;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelInboundHandlerAdapter;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttConnAckMessage;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttConnectMessage;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttConnectPayload;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttConnectVariableHeader;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttFixedHeader;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttMessageBuilders;
import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;

import static io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttConnectReturnCode.CONNECTION_ACCEPTED;

@Slf4j
public class MqttHandler extends ChannelInboundHandlerAdapter {

    @Override
 public void channelRead(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, Object msg) throws Exception {
 super.channelRead(ctx, msg);
 if (msg instanceof MqttConnectMessage) {
            handleConnect(ctx, (MqttConnectMessage) msg);
        } else {
            log.error("Unsupported type msg [{}]", msg);
        }
    }

 private void handleConnect(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttConnectMessage connectMessage) {
        log.info("connect msg is [{}]", connectMessage);
        final MqttFixedHeader fixedHeader = connectMessage.fixedHeader();
        final MqttConnectVariableHeader variableHeader = connectMessage.variableHeader();
        final MqttConnectPayload connectPayload = connectMessage.payload();
        final MqttConnAckMessage ackMessage = MqttMessageBuilders.connAck().returnCode(CONNECTION_ACCEPTED).build();
        ctx.channel().writeAndFlush(ackMessage);
    }

}

我们当前把所有的逻辑都放在MqttHandler里面,不方便后续的扩展。抽象出一个MqttProcessor接口来处理具体的请求,MqttHandler负责解析MqttMessage的类型并分发。MqttProcess接口设计如下

package io.github.protocol.mqtt.broker.processor;

import io.netty.channel.ChannelHandlerContext;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttConnAckMessage;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttConnectMessage;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttMessage;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttPubAckMessage;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttPublishMessage;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttSubAckMessage;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttSubscribeMessage;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttUnsubAckMessage;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttUnsubscribeMessage;

public interface MqttProcessor {

    void processConnect(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttConnectMessage msg) throws Exception;

    void processConnAck(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttConnAckMessage msg) throws Exception;

    void processPublish(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttPublishMessage msg) throws Exception;

    void processPubAck(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttPubAckMessage msg) throws Exception;

    void processPubRec(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttMessage msg) throws Exception;

    void processPubRel(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttMessage msg) throws Exception;

    void processPubComp(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttMessage msg) throws Exception;

    void processSubscribe(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttSubscribeMessage msg) throws Exception;

    void processSubAck(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttSubAckMessage msg) throws Exception;

    void processUnsubscribe(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttUnsubscribeMessage msg) throws Exception;

    void processUnsubAck(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttUnsubAckMessage msg) throws Exception;

    void processPingReq(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttMessage msg) throws Exception;

    void processPingResp(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttMessage msg) throws Exception;

    void processDisconnect(ChannelHandlerContext ctx) throws Exception;

    void processAuth(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttMessage msg) throws Exception;

}

我们允许这些方法抛出异常,当遇到极难处理的故障时,把mqtt连接断掉(如后端存储故障),等待客户端的重连。

MqttHandler中来调用MqttProcessor,相关MqttHandler代码如下

      Preconditions.checkArgument(message instanceof MqttMessage);
        MqttMessage msg = (MqttMessage) message;
 try {
 if (msg.decoderResult().isFailure()) {
                Throwable cause = msg.decoderResult().cause();
 if (cause instanceof MqttUnacceptableProtocolVersionException) {
 // Unsupported protocol version
                    MqttConnAckMessage connAckMessage = (MqttConnAckMessage) MqttMessageFactory.newMessage(
 new MqttFixedHeader(MqttMessageType.CONNACK,
 false, MqttQoS.AT_MOST_ONCE, false, 0),
 new MqttConnAckVariableHeader(
                                    MqttConnectReturnCode.CONNECTION_REFUSED_UNACCEPTABLE_PROTOCOL_VERSION,
 false), null);
                    ctx.writeAndFlush(connAckMessage);
                    log.error("connection refused due to invalid protocol, client address [{}]",
                            ctx.channel().remoteAddress());
                    ctx.close();
 return;
                } else if (cause instanceof MqttIdentifierRejectedException) {
 // ineligible clientId
                    MqttConnAckMessage connAckMessage = (MqttConnAckMessage) MqttMessageFactory.newMessage(
 new MqttFixedHeader(MqttMessageType.CONNACK,
 false, MqttQoS.AT_MOST_ONCE, false, 0),
 new MqttConnAckVariableHeader(MqttConnectReturnCode.CONNECTION_REFUSED_IDENTIFIER_REJECTED,
 false), null);
                    ctx.writeAndFlush(connAckMessage);
                    log.error("ineligible clientId, client address [{}]", ctx.channel().remoteAddress());
                    ctx.close();
 return;
                }
 throw new IllegalStateException(msg.decoderResult().cause().getMessage());
            }
            MqttMessageType messageType = msg.fixedHeader().messageType();
 if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
                log.debug("Processing MQTT Inbound handler message, type={}", messageType);
            }
 switch (messageType) {
 case CONNECT:
                    Preconditions.checkArgument(msg instanceof MqttConnectMessage);
                    processor.processConnect(ctx, (MqttConnectMessage) msg);
 break;
 case CONNACK:
                    Preconditions.checkArgument(msg instanceof MqttConnAckMessage);
                    processor.processConnAck(ctx, (MqttConnAckMessage) msg);
 break;
 case PUBLISH:
                    Preconditions.checkArgument(msg instanceof MqttPublishMessage);
                    processor.processPublish(ctx, (MqttPublishMessage) msg);
 break;
 case PUBACK:
                    Preconditions.checkArgument(msg instanceof MqttPubAckMessage);
                    processor.processPubAck(ctx, (MqttPubAckMessage) msg);
 break;
 case PUBREC:
                    processor.processPubRec(ctx, msg);
 break;
 case PUBREL:
                    processor.processPubRel(ctx, msg);
 break;
 case PUBCOMP:
                    processor.processPubComp(ctx, msg);
 break;
 case SUBSCRIBE:
                    Preconditions.checkArgument(msg instanceof MqttSubscribeMessage);
                    processor.processSubscribe(ctx, (MqttSubscribeMessage) msg);
 break;
 case SUBACK:
                    Preconditions.checkArgument(msg instanceof MqttSubAckMessage);
                    processor.processSubAck(ctx, (MqttSubAckMessage) msg);
 break;
 case UNSUBSCRIBE:
                    Preconditions.checkArgument(msg instanceof MqttUnsubscribeMessage);
                    processor.processUnsubscribe(ctx, (MqttUnsubscribeMessage) msg);
 break;
 case UNSUBACK:
                    Preconditions.checkArgument(msg instanceof MqttUnsubAckMessage);
                    processor.processUnsubAck(ctx, (MqttUnsubAckMessage) msg);
 break;
 case PINGREQ:
                    processor.processPingReq(ctx, msg);
 break;
 case PINGRESP:
                    processor.processPingResp(ctx, msg);
 break;
 case DISCONNECT:
                    processor.processDisconnect(ctx);
 break;
 case AUTH:
                    processor.processAuth(ctx, msg);
 break;
 default:
 throw new UnsupportedOperationException("Unknown MessageType: " + messageType);
            }
        } catch (Throwable ex) {
            ReferenceCountUtil.safeRelease(msg);
            log.error("Exception was caught while processing MQTT message, ", ex);
            ctx.close();
        }

这里的代码,主要是针对MqttMessage的不同类型,调用MqttProcessor的不同方法,值得一提的有两点

  • 提前判断了一些解码异常,fast fail
  • 全局捕获异常,并进行断链处理

维护MqttSession

维护Mqtt会话的session,主要用来持续跟踪客户端会话信息,跟踪在系统中占用的资源等,考虑到无论是何种后端实现,都需要维护Mqtt的Session,我们构筑一个AbstractMqttProcessor来维护MqttSession

package io.github.protocol.mqtt.broker.processor;

import io.github.protocol.mqtt.broker.MqttSessionKey;
import io.github.protocol.mqtt.broker.auth.MqttAuth;
import io.github.protocol.mqtt.broker.util.ChannelUtils;
import io.github.protocol.mqtt.broker.util.MqttMessageUtil;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelHandlerContext;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttConnAckMessage;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttConnAckVariableHeader;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttConnectMessage;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttConnectReturnCode;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttFixedHeader;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttMessage;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttMessageFactory;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttMessageIdVariableHeader;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttMessageType;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttPubAckMessage;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttPublishMessage;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttQoS;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttSubAckMessage;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttSubAckPayload;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttSubscribeMessage;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttSubscribePayload;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttUnsubAckMessage;
import io.netty.handler.codec.mqtt.MqttUnsubscribeMessage;
import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;
import org.apache.commons.lang3.StringUtils;

import java.util.stream.IntStream;

@Slf4j
public abstract class AbstractProcessor implements MqttProcessor {

 protected final MqttAuth mqttAuth;

 public AbstractProcessor(MqttAuth mqttAuth) {
 this.mqttAuth = mqttAuth;
    }

    @Override
 public void processConnect(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttConnectMessage msg) throws Exception {
        String clientId = msg.payload().clientIdentifier();
        String username = msg.payload().userName();
        byte[] pwd = msg.payload().passwordInBytes();
 if (StringUtils.isBlank(clientId) || StringUtils.isBlank(username)) {
            MqttConnAckMessage connAckMessage = (MqttConnAckMessage) MqttMessageFactory.newMessage(
 new MqttFixedHeader(MqttMessageType.CONNACK,
 false, MqttQoS.AT_MOST_ONCE, false, 0),
 new MqttConnAckVariableHeader(MqttConnectReturnCode.CONNECTION_REFUSED_IDENTIFIER_REJECTED,
 false), null);
            ctx.writeAndFlush(connAckMessage);
            log.error("the clientId username pwd cannot be empty, client address[{}]", ctx.channel().remoteAddress());
            ctx.close();
 return;
        }
 if (!mqttAuth.connAuth(clientId, username, pwd)) {
            MqttConnAckMessage connAckMessage = (MqttConnAckMessage) MqttMessageFactory.newMessage(
 new MqttFixedHeader(MqttMessageType.CONNACK,
 false, MqttQoS.AT_MOST_ONCE, false, 0),
 new MqttConnAckVariableHeader(MqttConnectReturnCode.CONNECTION_REFUSED_BAD_USER_NAME_OR_PASSWORD,
 false), null);
            ctx.writeAndFlush(connAckMessage);
            log.error("the clientId username pwd cannot be empty, client address[{}]", ctx.channel().remoteAddress());
            ctx.close();
 return;
        }

        MqttSessionKey mqttSessionKey = new MqttSessionKey();
        mqttSessionKey.setUsername(username);
        mqttSessionKey.setClientId(clientId);
        ChannelUtils.setMqttSession(ctx.channel(), mqttSessionKey);
        log.info("username {} clientId {} remote address {} connected",
                username, clientId, ctx.channel().remoteAddress());
        onConnect(mqttSessionKey);
        MqttConnAckMessage mqttConnectMessage = (MqttConnAckMessage) MqttMessageFactory.newMessage(
 new MqttFixedHeader(MqttMessageType.CONNACK,
 false, MqttQoS.AT_MOST_ONCE, false, 0),
 new MqttConnAckVariableHeader(MqttConnectReturnCode.CONNECTION_ACCEPTED, false),
 null);
        ctx.writeAndFlush(mqttConnectMessage);
    }

 protected void onConnect(MqttSessionKey mqttSessionKey) {
    }

    @Override
 public void processConnAck(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttConnAckMessage msg) throws Exception {
        MqttSessionKey mqttSession = ChannelUtils.getMqttSession(ctx.channel());
 if (mqttSession == null) {
            log.error("conn ack, client address {} not authed", ctx.channel().remoteAddress());
            ctx.close();
        }
    }

    @Override
 public void processPublish(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttPublishMessage msg) throws Exception {
        MqttSessionKey mqttSession = ChannelUtils.getMqttSession(ctx.channel());
 if (mqttSession == null) {
            log.error("publish, client address {} not authed", ctx.channel().remoteAddress());
            ctx.close();
 return;
        }
 if (msg.fixedHeader().qosLevel() == MqttQoS.FAILURE) {
            log.error("failure. clientId {}, username {} ", mqttSession.getClientId(), mqttSession.getUsername());
 return;
        }
 if (msg.fixedHeader().qosLevel() == MqttQoS.EXACTLY_ONCE) {
            log.error("does not support QoS2 protocol. clientId {}, username {} ",
                    mqttSession.getClientId(), mqttSession.getUsername());
 return;
        }
        onPublish(ctx, mqttSession, msg);
    }

 protected void onPublish(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttSessionKey mqttSessionKey,
                             MqttPublishMessage msg) throws Exception {
    }

    @Override
 public void processPubAck(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttPubAckMessage msg) throws Exception {
        MqttSessionKey mqttSession = ChannelUtils.getMqttSession(ctx.channel());
 if (mqttSession == null) {
            log.error("pub ack, client address {} not authed", ctx.channel().remoteAddress());
            ctx.close();
        }
    }

    @Override
 public void processPubRec(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttMessage msg) throws Exception {
        MqttSessionKey mqttSession = ChannelUtils.getMqttSession(ctx.channel());
 if (mqttSession == null) {
            log.error("pub rec, client address {} not authed", ctx.channel().remoteAddress());
            ctx.close();
        }
    }

    @Override
 public void processPubRel(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttMessage msg) throws Exception {
        MqttSessionKey mqttSession = ChannelUtils.getMqttSession(ctx.channel());
 if (mqttSession == null) {
            log.error("pub rel, client address {} not authed", ctx.channel().remoteAddress());
            ctx.close();
        }
    }

    @Override
 public void processPubComp(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttMessage msg) throws Exception {
        MqttSessionKey mqttSession = ChannelUtils.getMqttSession(ctx.channel());
 if (mqttSession == null) {
            log.error("pub comp, client address {} not authed", ctx.channel().remoteAddress());
            ctx.close();
        }
    }

    @Override
 public void processSubscribe(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttSubscribeMessage msg) throws Exception {
        MqttSessionKey mqttSession = ChannelUtils.getMqttSession(ctx.channel());
 if (mqttSession == null) {
            log.error("sub, client address {} not authed", ctx.channel().remoteAddress());
            ctx.close();
        }
        onSubscribe(ctx, mqttSession, msg.payload());
        MqttFixedHeader fixedHeader = new MqttFixedHeader(MqttMessageType.SUBACK,
 false, MqttQoS.AT_MOST_ONCE, false, 0);
        IntStream intStream = msg.payload().topicSubscriptions().stream().mapToInt(s -> s.qualityOfService().value());
        MqttSubAckPayload payload = new MqttSubAckPayload(intStream.toArray());
        ctx.writeAndFlush(MqttMessageFactory.newMessage(
                fixedHeader,
                MqttMessageIdVariableHeader.from(msg.variableHeader().messageId()),
                payload));
    }

 protected void onSubscribe(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttSessionKey mqttSessionKey,
                               MqttSubscribePayload subscribePayload) throws Exception {
    }

    @Override
 public void processSubAck(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttSubAckMessage msg) throws Exception {
        MqttSessionKey mqttSession = ChannelUtils.getMqttSession(ctx.channel());
 if (mqttSession == null) {
            log.error("sub ack, client address {} not authed", ctx.channel().remoteAddress());
            ctx.close();
        }
    }

    @Override
 public void processUnsubscribe(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttUnsubscribeMessage msg) throws Exception {
        MqttSessionKey mqttSession = ChannelUtils.getMqttSession(ctx.channel());
 if (mqttSession == null) {
            log.error("unsub, client address {} not authed", ctx.channel().remoteAddress());
            ctx.close();
        }
    }

    @Override
 public void processUnsubAck(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttUnsubAckMessage msg) throws Exception {
        MqttSessionKey mqttSession = ChannelUtils.getMqttSession(ctx.channel());
 if (mqttSession == null) {
            log.error("unsub ack, client address {} not authed", ctx.channel().remoteAddress());
            ctx.close();
        }
    }

    @Override
 public void processPingReq(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttMessage msg) throws Exception {
        ctx.writeAndFlush(MqttMessageUtil.pingResp());
    }

    @Override
 public void processPingResp(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttMessage msg) throws Exception {
        MqttSessionKey mqttSession = ChannelUtils.getMqttSession(ctx.channel());
 if (mqttSession == null) {
            log.error("ping resp, client address {} not authed", ctx.channel().remoteAddress());
            ctx.close();
        }
    }

    @Override
 public void processDisconnect(ChannelHandlerContext ctx) throws Exception {
        MqttSessionKey mqttSession = ChannelUtils.getMqttSession(ctx.channel());
 if (mqttSession == null) {
            log.error("disconnect, client address {} not authed", ctx.channel().remoteAddress());
        }
        onDisconnect(mqttSession);
    }

 protected void onDisconnect(MqttSessionKey mqttSessionKey) {
    }

    @Override
 public void processAuth(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttMessage msg) throws Exception {
        MqttSessionKey mqttSession = ChannelUtils.getMqttSession(ctx.channel());
 if (mqttSession == null) {
            log.error("auth, client address {} not authed", ctx.channel().remoteAddress());
            ctx.close();
        }
    }
}

可以看到,这里的AbstractProcessor主要是维护了MqttSessionKey,校验MqttSessionKey,并拦截publish中不支持的Qos2、Failure。同时,也影响了mqtt心跳请求。同样的,我们允许在onPublishonSubscribe中抛出异常。

基于消息队列实现的mqtt网关的基础思想也比较简单,简而言之就是,有publish消息的时候向消息队列中生产消息。有订阅的时候就从消息队列中拉取消息。由此延伸出来,我们可能需要维护每个mqtt topic和producer、consumer的对应关系,因为像kafka、pulsar这些消息中间件的消费者都是区分topic的,片段通用代码如下:

protected final ReentrantReadWriteLock.ReadLock rLock;

 protected final ReentrantReadWriteLock.WriteLock wLock;

 protected final Map<MqttSessionKey, List<MqttTopicKey>> sessionProducerMap;

 protected final Map<MqttSessionKey, List<MqttTopicKey>> sessionConsumerMap;

 protected final Map<MqttTopicKey, P> producerMap;

 protected final Map<MqttTopicKey, C> consumerMap;

 public AbstractMqProcessor(MqttAuth mqttAuth) {
 super(mqttAuth);
        ReentrantReadWriteLock lock = new ReentrantReadWriteLock();
        rLock = lock.readLock();
        wLock = lock.writeLock();
 this.sessionProducerMap = new HashMap<>();
 this.sessionConsumerMap = new HashMap<>();
 this.producerMap = new HashMap<>();
 this.consumerMap = new HashMap<>();
    }

    @Override
 protected void onConnect(MqttSessionKey mqttSessionKey) {
        wLock.lock();
 try {
            sessionProducerMap.put(mqttSessionKey, new ArrayList<>());
            sessionConsumerMap.put(mqttSessionKey, new ArrayList<>());
        } finally {
            wLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    @Override
 protected void onDisconnect(MqttSessionKey mqttSessionKey) {
        wLock.lock();
 try {
 // find producers
            List<MqttTopicKey> produceTopicKeys = sessionProducerMap.get(mqttSessionKey);
 if (produceTopicKeys != null) {
 for (MqttTopicKey mqttTopicKey : produceTopicKeys) {
                    P producer = producerMap.get(mqttTopicKey);
 if (producer != null) {
                        ClosableUtils.close(producer);
                        producerMap.remove(mqttTopicKey);
                    }
                }
            }
            sessionProducerMap.remove(mqttSessionKey);
            List<MqttTopicKey> consumeTopicKeys = sessionConsumerMap.get(mqttSessionKey);
 if (consumeTopicKeys != null) {
 for (MqttTopicKey mqttTopicKey : consumeTopicKeys) {
                    C consumer = consumerMap.get(mqttTopicKey);
 if (consumer != null) {
                        ClosableUtils.close(consumer);
                        consumerMap.remove(mqttTopicKey);
                    }
                }
            }
            sessionConsumerMap.remove(mqttSessionKey);
        } finally {
            wLock.unlock();
        }
    }
}

kafka processor实现

由于kafka producer不区分topic,我们可以在kafka processor中复用producer,在将来单个kafka producer的性能到达上限时,我们可以将kafka producer扩展为kafka producer列表进行轮询处理,消费者由于mqtt协议可能针对每个订阅topic有不同的行为,不合适复用同一个消费者实例。我们在构造函数中启动KafkaProducer

 private final KafkaProcessorConfig kafkaProcessorConfig;

 private final KafkaProducer<String, ByteBuffer> producer;

 public KafkaProcessor(MqttAuth mqttAuth, KafkaProcessorConfig kafkaProcessorConfig) {
 super(mqttAuth);
 this.kafkaProcessorConfig = kafkaProcessorConfig;
 this.producer = createProducer();
    }

 protected KafkaProducer<String, ByteBuffer> createProducer() {
        Properties properties = new Properties();
        properties.put(ProducerConfig.BOOTSTRAP_SERVERS_CONFIG, kafkaProcessorConfig.getBootstrapServers());
        properties.put(ProducerConfig.KEY_SERIALIZER_CLASS_CONFIG, StringSerializer.class);
        properties.put(ProducerConfig.VALUE_SERIALIZER_CLASS_CONFIG, ByteBufferSerializer.class);
 return new KafkaProducer<>(properties);
    }

处理MqttPublish消息,MqttPublish消息包含如下几个关键参数

MqttQoS mqttQoS = publishMessage.fixedHeader().qosLevel();
String topic = publishMessage.variableHeader().topicName();
ByteBuffer byteBuffer = publishMessage.payload().nioBuffer();

其中

  • qos代表这条消息的质量级别,0没有任何保障,1代表至少一次,2代表恰好一次。当前仅支持qos0、qos1
  • topicName就是topic的名称
  • ByteBuffer就是消息的内容

根据topic、qos发送消息,代码如下

  String topic = msg.variableHeader().topicName();
        ProducerRecord<String, ByteBuffer> record = new ProducerRecord<>(topic, msg.payload().nioBuffer());
 switch (msg.fixedHeader().qosLevel()) {
 case AT_MOST_ONCE -> producer.send(record, (metadata, exception) -> {
 if (exception != null) {
                    log.error("mqttSessionKey {} send message to kafka error", mqttSessionKey, exception);
 return;
                }
                log.debug("mqttSessionKey {} send message to kafka success, topic {}, partition {}, offset {}",
                        mqttSessionKey, metadata.topic(), metadata.partition(), metadata.offset());
            });
 case AT_LEAST_ONCE -> {
 try {
                    RecordMetadata recordMetadata = producer.send(record).get();
                    log.info("mqttSessionKey {} send message to kafka success, topic {}, partition {}, offset {}",
                            mqttSessionKey, recordMetadata.topic(),
                            recordMetadata.partition(), recordMetadata.offset());
                    ctx.writeAndFlush(MqttMessageUtil.pubAckMessage(msg.variableHeader().packetId()));
                } catch (Exception e) {
                    log.error("mqttSessionKey {} send message to kafka error", mqttSessionKey, e);
                }
            }
 case EXACTLY_ONCE, FAILURE -> throw new IllegalStateException(
                    String.format("mqttSessionKey %s can not reach here", mqttSessionKey));
        }

处理订阅消息,我们暂时仅根据订阅的topic,创建topic进行消费即可,由于kafka原生客户端建议的消费代码模式如下

while (true) {
  ConsumerRecords<String, byte[]> records = consumer.poll(Duration.ofSeconds(1));
 for (ConsumerRecord<String, byte[]> record : records) {
 // do logic
  }
}

我们需要切换到其他线程对consumer进行消息,书写一个KafkaConsumerListenerWrapper的wrapper,转换为listener异步消费模型

package io.github.protocol.mqtt.broker.processor;

import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;
import org.apache.kafka.clients.admin.AdminClient;
import org.apache.kafka.clients.admin.AdminClientConfig;
import org.apache.kafka.clients.admin.KafkaAdminClient;
import org.apache.kafka.clients.admin.NewTopic;
import org.apache.kafka.clients.admin.TopicDescription;
import org.apache.kafka.clients.consumer.ConsumerConfig;
import org.apache.kafka.clients.consumer.ConsumerRecord;
import org.apache.kafka.clients.consumer.ConsumerRecords;
import org.apache.kafka.clients.consumer.KafkaConsumer;
import org.apache.kafka.common.errors.UnknownTopicOrPartitionException;
import org.apache.kafka.common.errors.WakeupException;
import org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.ByteArrayDeserializer;
import org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.StringDeserializer;

import java.time.Duration;
import java.util.Collections;
import java.util.Properties;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;

@Slf4j
public class KafkaConsumerListenerWrapper implements AutoCloseable {

 private final AdminClient adminClient;

 private final KafkaConsumer<String, byte[]> consumer;

 public KafkaConsumerListenerWrapper(KafkaProcessorConfig config, String username) {
        Properties adminProperties = new Properties();
        adminProperties.put(AdminClientConfig.BOOTSTRAP_SERVERS_CONFIG, config.getBootstrapServers());
 this.adminClient = KafkaAdminClient.create(adminProperties);
        Properties properties = new Properties();
        properties.put(ConsumerConfig.BOOTSTRAP_SERVERS_CONFIG, config.getBootstrapServers());
        properties.put(ConsumerConfig.GROUP_ID_CONFIG, username);
        properties.put(ConsumerConfig.KEY_DESERIALIZER_CLASS_CONFIG, StringDeserializer.class);
        properties.put(ConsumerConfig.VALUE_DESERIALIZER_CLASS_CONFIG, ByteArrayDeserializer.class);
 this.consumer = new KafkaConsumer<>(properties);
    }

 public void start(String topic, KafkaMessageListener listener) throws Exception {
 try {
            TopicDescription topicDescription = adminClient.describeTopics(Collections.singletonList(topic))
                    .values().get(topic).get();
            log.info("topic info is {}", topicDescription);
        } catch (ExecutionException ee) {
 if (ee.getCause() instanceof UnknownTopicOrPartitionException) {
                log.info("topic {} not exist, create it", topic);
                adminClient.createTopics(Collections.singletonList(new NewTopic(topic, 1, (short) 1)));
            } else {
                log.error("find topic info {} error", topic, ee);
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
 throw new IllegalStateException("find topic info error", e);
        }
        consumer.subscribe(Collections.singletonList(topic));
        log.info("consumer topic {} start", topic);
 new Thread(() -> {
 try {
 while (true) {
                    ConsumerRecords<String, byte[]> records = consumer.poll(Duration.ofSeconds(1));
 for (ConsumerRecord<String, byte[]> record : records) {
                        listener.messageReceived(record);
                    }
                }
            } catch (WakeupException we) {
                consumer.close();
            } catch (Exception e) {
                log.error("consumer topic {} consume error", topic, e);
                consumer.close();
            }
        }).start();
        Thread.sleep(5_000);
    }

    @Override
 public void close() throws Exception {
        log.info("wake up {} consumer", consumer);
        consumer.wakeup();
    }
}
    @Override
 protected void onSubscribe(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttSessionKey mqttSessionKey,
                               MqttSubscribePayload subscribePayload) throws Exception {
 for (MqttTopicSubscription topicSubscription : subscribePayload.topicSubscriptions()) {
            KafkaConsumerListenerWrapper consumer = createConsumer(mqttSessionKey, topicSubscription.topicName());
            subscribe(ctx, consumer, topicSubscription.topicName());
        }
    }

 private KafkaConsumerListenerWrapper createConsumer(MqttSessionKey mqttSessionKey, String topic) {
        MqttTopicKey mqttTopicKey = new MqttTopicKey();
        mqttTopicKey.setTopic(topic);
        mqttTopicKey.setMqttSessionKey(mqttSessionKey);

        wLock.lock();
 try {
            KafkaConsumerListenerWrapper consumer = consumerMap.get(mqttTopicKey);
 if (consumer == null) {
                consumer = new KafkaConsumerListenerWrapper(kafkaProcessorConfig, mqttSessionKey.getUsername());
                sessionConsumerMap.compute(mqttSessionKey, (mqttSessionKey1, mqttTopicKeys) -> {
 if (mqttTopicKeys == null) {
                        mqttTopicKeys = new ArrayList<>();
                    }
                    mqttTopicKeys.add(mqttTopicKey);
 return mqttTopicKeys;
                });
                consumerMap.put(mqttTopicKey, consumer);
            }
 return consumer;
        } finally {
            wLock.unlock();
        }
    }

 protected void subscribe(ChannelHandlerContext ctx,
                             KafkaConsumerListenerWrapper consumer, String topic) throws Exception {
        BoundInt boundInt = new BoundInt(65535);
        consumer.start(topic, record -> {
            log.info("receive message from kafka, topic {}, partition {}, offset {}",
                    record.topic(), record.partition(), record.offset());
            MqttPublishMessage mqttPublishMessage = MqttMessageUtil.publishMessage(
                    MqttQoS.AT_LEAST_ONCE, topic, boundInt.nextVal(), record.value());
            ctx.writeAndFlush(mqttPublishMessage);
        });
    }

在上述的代码中,有一个需要通篇注意的点:日志打印的时候,注意要将关键的信息携带,比如:topic、mqtt username、mqtt clientId等,在写demo的时候没有感觉,但是海量请求下需要定位问题的时候,就知道这些信息的关键之处了。

使用BountInt这个简单的工具类来生成从0~65535的packageId,满足协议的要求

pulsar processor实现

pulsar相比kafka来说,更适合作为mqtt协议的代理。原因有如下几点:

  • pulsar支持百万topic、topic实现更轻量
  • pulsar原生支持listener的消费模式,不需要每个消费者启动一个线程
  • pulsar支持share的消费模式,消费模式更灵活
  • pulsar消费者的subscribe可确保成功创建订阅,相比kafka的消费者没有这样的语义保障
 protected final ReentrantReadWriteLock.ReadLock rLock;

 protected final ReentrantReadWriteLock.WriteLock wLock;

 protected final Map<MqttSessionKey, List<MqttTopicKey>> sessionProducerMap;

 protected final Map<MqttSessionKey, List<MqttTopicKey>> sessionConsumerMap;

 protected final Map<MqttTopicKey, Producer<byte[]>> producerMap;

 protected final Map<MqttTopicKey, Consumer<byte[]>> consumerMap;

 private final PulsarProcessorConfig pulsarProcessorConfig;

 private final PulsarAdmin pulsarAdmin;

 private final PulsarClient pulsarClient;

 public PulsarProcessor(MqttAuth mqttAuth, PulsarProcessorConfig pulsarProcessorConfig) {
 super(mqttAuth);
        ReentrantReadWriteLock lock = new ReentrantReadWriteLock();
        rLock = lock.readLock();
        wLock = lock.writeLock();
 this.sessionProducerMap = new HashMap<>();
 this.sessionConsumerMap = new HashMap<>();
 this.producerMap = new HashMap<>();
 this.consumerMap = new HashMap<>();
 this.pulsarProcessorConfig = pulsarProcessorConfig;
 try {
 this.pulsarAdmin = PulsarAdmin.builder()
                    .serviceHttpUrl(pulsarProcessorConfig.getHttpUrl())
                    .build();
 this.pulsarClient = PulsarClient.builder()
                    .serviceUrl(pulsarProcessorConfig.getServiceUrl())
                    .build();
        } catch (Exception e) {
 throw new IllegalStateException("Failed to create pulsar client", e);
        }
    }

处理publish消息

    @Override
 protected void onPublish(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttSessionKey mqttSessionKey,
                             MqttPublishMessage msg) throws Exception {
        String topic = msg.variableHeader().topicName();
        Producer<byte[]> producer = getOrCreateProducer(mqttSessionKey, topic);
        int len = msg.payload().readableBytes();
        byte[] messageBytes = new byte[len];
        msg.payload().getBytes(msg.payload().readerIndex(), messageBytes);
 switch (msg.fixedHeader().qosLevel()) {
 case AT_MOST_ONCE -> producer.sendAsync(messageBytes).
                    thenAccept(messageId -> log.info("clientId [{}],"
                                    + " username [{}]. send message to pulsar success messageId: {}",
                            mqttSessionKey.getClientId(), mqttSessionKey.getUsername(), messageId))
                    .exceptionally((e) -> {
                        log.error("clientId [{}], username [{}]. send message to pulsar fail: ",
                                mqttSessionKey.getClientId(), mqttSessionKey.getUsername(), e);
 return null;
                    });
 case AT_LEAST_ONCE -> {
 try {
                    MessageId messageId = producer.send(messageBytes);
                    MqttFixedHeader fixedHeader = new MqttFixedHeader(MqttMessageType.PUBACK,
 false, MqttQoS.AT_MOST_ONCE, false, 0);
                    MqttPubAckMessage pubAckMessage = (MqttPubAckMessage) MqttMessageFactory.newMessage(fixedHeader,
                            MqttMessageIdVariableHeader.from(msg.variableHeader().packetId()), null);
                    log.info("clientId [{}], username [{}]. send pulsar success. messageId: {}",
                            mqttSessionKey.getClientId(), mqttSessionKey.getUsername(), messageId);
                    ctx.writeAndFlush(pubAckMessage);
                } catch (PulsarClientException e) {
                    log.error("clientId [{}], username [{}]. send pulsar error: {}",
                            mqttSessionKey.getClientId(), mqttSessionKey.getUsername(), e.getMessage());
                }
            }
 case EXACTLY_ONCE, FAILURE -> throw new IllegalStateException(
                    String.format("mqttSessionKey %s can not reach here", mqttSessionKey));
        }
    }

 private Producer<byte[]> getOrCreateProducer(MqttSessionKey mqttSessionKey, String topic) throws Exception {
        MqttTopicKey mqttTopicKey = new MqttTopicKey();
        mqttTopicKey.setTopic(topic);
        mqttTopicKey.setMqttSessionKey(mqttSessionKey);

        rLock.lock();
 try {
            Producer<byte[]> producer = producerMap.get(mqttTopicKey);
 if (producer != null) {
 return producer;
            }
        } finally {
            rLock.unlock();
        }

        wLock.lock();
 try {
            Producer<byte[]> producer = producerMap.get(mqttTopicKey);
 if (producer == null) {
                producer = createProducer(topic);
                sessionProducerMap.compute(mqttSessionKey, (mqttSessionKey1, mqttTopicKeys) -> {
 if (mqttTopicKeys == null) {
                        mqttTopicKeys = new ArrayList<>();
                    }
                    mqttTopicKeys.add(mqttTopicKey);
 return mqttTopicKeys;
                });
                producerMap.put(mqttTopicKey, producer);
            }
 return producer;
        } finally {
            wLock.unlock();
        }
    }

 protected Producer<byte[]> createProducer(String topic) throws Exception {
 return pulsarClient.newProducer(Schema.BYTES).topic(topic).create();
    }

处理subscribe消息

    @Override
 protected void onSubscribe(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttSessionKey mqttSessionKey,
                               MqttSubscribePayload subscribePayload) throws Exception {
 for (MqttTopicSubscription topicSubscription : subscribePayload.topicSubscriptions()) {
            subscribe(ctx, mqttSessionKey, topicSubscription.topicName());
        }
    }

 protected void subscribe(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, MqttSessionKey mqttSessionKey,
                             String topic) throws Exception {
        MqttTopicKey mqttTopicKey = new MqttTopicKey();
        mqttTopicKey.setTopic(topic);
        mqttTopicKey.setMqttSessionKey(mqttSessionKey);

        wLock.lock();
 try {
            Consumer<byte[]> consumer = consumerMap.get(mqttTopicKey);
 if (consumer == null) {
                consumer = createConsumer(ctx, mqttSessionKey.getUsername(), topic);
                sessionConsumerMap.compute(mqttSessionKey, (mqttSessionKey1, mqttTopicKeys) -> {
 if (mqttTopicKeys == null) {
                        mqttTopicKeys = new ArrayList<>();
                    }
                    mqttTopicKeys.add(mqttTopicKey);
 return mqttTopicKeys;
                });
                consumerMap.put(mqttTopicKey, consumer);
            }
        } finally {
            wLock.unlock();
        }
    }

 protected Consumer<byte[]> createConsumer(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, String username,
                                              String topic) throws Exception {
        BoundInt boundInt = new BoundInt(65535);
 try {
            PartitionedTopicStats partitionedStats = pulsarAdmin.topics().getPartitionedStats(topic, false);
            log.info("topic {} partitioned stats {}", topic, partitionedStats);
        } catch (PulsarAdminException.NotFoundException nfe) {
            log.info("topic {} not found", topic);
            pulsarAdmin.topics().createPartitionedTopic(topic, 1);
        }
 return pulsarClient.newConsumer(Schema.BYTES).topic(topic)
                .messageListener((consumer, msg) -> {
                    log.info("receive message from pulsar, topic {}, message {}", topic, msg.getMessageId());
                    MqttPublishMessage mqttPublishMessage = MqttMessageUtil.publishMessage(
                            MqttQoS.AT_LEAST_ONCE, topic, boundInt.nextVal(), msg.getData());
                    ctx.writeAndFlush(mqttPublishMessage);
                })
                .subscriptionName(username).subscribe();
    }

集成测试

kafka

我们可以通过embedded-kafka-java这个项目来启动用做单元测试的kafka broker。通过如下的group引入依赖

 <dependency>
 <groupId>io.github.embedded-middleware</groupId>
 <artifactId>embedded-kafka-core</artifactId>
 <version>0.0.2</version>
 <scope>test</scope>
 </dependency>

我们就可以通过如下的代码启动基于kafka的mqtt broker

@Slf4j
public class MqttKafkaTestUtil {

 public static MqttServer setupMqttKafka() throws Exception {
        EmbeddedKafkaServer embeddedKafkaServer = new EmbeddedKafkaServer();
 new Thread(() -> {
 try {
                embeddedKafkaServer.start();
            } catch (Exception e) {
                log.error("kafka broker started exception ", e);
            }
        }).start();
        Thread.sleep(5_000);
        MqttServerConfig mqttServerConfig = new MqttServerConfig();
        mqttServerConfig.setPort(0);
        mqttServerConfig.setProcessorType(ProcessorType.KAFKA);
        KafkaProcessorConfig kafkaProcessorConfig = new KafkaProcessorConfig();
        kafkaProcessorConfig.setBootstrapServers(String.format("localhost:%d", embeddedKafkaServer.getKafkaPort()));
        mqttServerConfig.setKafkaProcessorConfig(kafkaProcessorConfig);
        MqttServer mqttServer = new MqttServer(mqttServerConfig);
 new Thread(() -> {
 try {
                mqttServer.start();
            } catch (Exception e) {
                log.error("mqsar broker started exception ", e);
            }
        }).start();
        Thread.sleep(5000L);
 return mqttServer;
    }

}

kafka端到端测试用例,比较简单,通过mqtt client publish一条消息,然后消费出来

@Log4j2
public class MqttKafkaPubSubTest {

    @Test
 public void pubSubTest() throws Exception {
        MqttServer mqttServer = MqttKafkaTestUtil.setupMqttKafka();
        String topic = UUID.randomUUID().toString();
        String content = "test-msg";
        String broker = String.format("tcp://localhost:%d", mqttServer.getPort());
        String clientId = UUID.randomUUID().toString();
        MemoryPersistence persistence = new MemoryPersistence();
        MqttClient sampleClient = new MqttClient(broker, clientId, persistence);
        MqttConnectOptions connOpts = new MqttConnectOptions();
        connOpts.setUserName(UUID.randomUUID().toString());
        connOpts.setPassword(UUID.randomUUID().toString().toCharArray());
        connOpts.setCleanSession(true);
        log.info("Mqtt connecting to broker");
        sampleClient.connect(connOpts);
        CompletableFuture<String> future = new CompletableFuture<>();
        log.info("Mqtt subscribing");
        sampleClient.subscribe(topic, (s, mqttMessage) -> {
            log.info("messageArrived");
            future.complete(mqttMessage.toString());
        });
        log.info("Mqtt subscribed");
        MqttMessage message = new MqttMessage(content.getBytes());
        message.setQos(1);
        log.info("Mqtt message publishing");
        sampleClient.publish(topic, message);
        log.info("Mqtt message published");
        TimeUnit.SECONDS.sleep(3);
        sampleClient.disconnect();
        String msg = future.get(5, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
        Assertions.assertEquals(content, msg);
    }

}

pulsar

我们可以通过embedded-pulsar-java这个项目来启动用做单元测试的pulsar broker。通过如下的group引入依赖

 <dependency>
 <groupId>io.github.embedded-middleware</groupId>
 <artifactId>embedded-pulsar-core</artifactId>
 <version>0.0.2</version>
 <scope>test</scope>
 </dependency>

我们就可以通过如下的代码启动基于pulsar的mqtt broker

@Slf4j
public class MqttPulsarTestUtil {

 public static MqttServer setupMqttPulsar() throws Exception {
        EmbeddedPulsarServer embeddedPulsarServer = new EmbeddedPulsarServer();
        embeddedPulsarServer.start();
        MqttServerConfig mqttServerConfig = new MqttServerConfig();
        mqttServerConfig.setPort(0);
        mqttServerConfig.setProcessorType(ProcessorType.PULSAR);
        PulsarProcessorConfig pulsarProcessorConfig = new PulsarProcessorConfig();
        pulsarProcessorConfig.setHttpUrl(String.format("http://localhost:%d", embeddedPulsarServer.getWebPort()));
        pulsarProcessorConfig.setServiceUrl(String.format("pulsar://localhost:%d", embeddedPulsarServer.getTcpPort()));
        mqttServerConfig.setPulsarProcessorConfig(pulsarProcessorConfig);
        MqttServer mqttServer = new MqttServer(mqttServerConfig);
 new Thread(() -> {
 try {
                mqttServer.start();
            } catch (Exception e) {
                log.error("mqsar broker started exception ", e);
            }
        }).start();
        Thread.sleep(5000L);
 return mqttServer;
    }
}

pulsar端到端测试用例,比较简单,通过mqtt client publish一条消息,然后消费出来

@Log4j2
public class MqttPulsarPubSubTest {

    @Test
 public void pubSubTest() throws Exception {
        MqttServer mqttServer = MqttPulsarTestUtil.setupMqttPulsar();
        String topic = UUID.randomUUID().toString();
        String content = "test-msg";
        String broker = String.format("tcp://localhost:%d", mqttServer.getPort());
        String clientId = UUID.randomUUID().toString();
        MemoryPersistence persistence = new MemoryPersistence();
        MqttClient sampleClient = new MqttClient(broker, clientId, persistence);
        MqttConnectOptions connOpts = new MqttConnectOptions();
        connOpts.setUserName(UUID.randomUUID().toString());
        connOpts.setPassword(UUID.randomUUID().toString().toCharArray());
        connOpts.setCleanSession(true);
        log.info("Mqtt connecting to broker");
        sampleClient.connect(connOpts);
        CompletableFuture<String> future = new CompletableFuture<>();
        log.info("Mqtt subscribing");
        sampleClient.subscribe(topic, (s, mqttMessage) -> {
            log.info("messageArrived");
            future.complete(mqttMessage.toString());
        });
        log.info("Mqtt subscribed");
        MqttMessage message = new MqttMessage(content.getBytes());
        message.setQos(1);
        log.info("Mqtt message publishing");
        sampleClient.publish(topic, message);
        log.info("Mqtt message published");
        TimeUnit.SECONDS.sleep(3);
        sampleClient.disconnect();
        String msg = future.get(5, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
        Assertions.assertEquals(content, msg);
    }
}

性能优化

这里我们简单描述几个性能优化点,像一些调整线程数、buffer大小这类的参数调整就不在这里赘述了,这些需要具体的性能压测来决定参数的设置。

在linux上使用Epoll网络模型

public class EventLoopUtil {

 /**
     * @return an EventLoopGroup suitable for the current platform
 */
 public static EventLoopGroup newEventLoopGroup(int nThreads, ThreadFactory threadFactory) {
 if (Epoll.isAvailable()) {
 return new EpollEventLoopGroup(nThreads, threadFactory);
        } else {
 return new NioEventLoopGroup(nThreads, threadFactory);
        }
    }

 public static Class<? extends ServerSocketChannel> getServerSocketChannelClass(EventLoopGroup eventLoopGroup) {
 if (eventLoopGroup instanceof EpollEventLoopGroup) {
 return EpollServerSocketChannel.class;
        } else {
 return NioServerSocketChannel.class;
        }
    }

}

通过Epollo.isAvailable,以及在指定channel类型的时候通过判断group的类型选择对应的channel类型

        EventLoopGroup acceptorGroup = EventLoopUtil.newEventLoopGroup(1,
 new DefaultThreadFactory("mqtt-acceptor"));
        EventLoopGroup workerGroup = EventLoopUtil.newEventLoopGroup(1,
 new DefaultThreadFactory("mqtt-worker"));
                b.group(acceptorGroup, workerGroup)
 // key point
                    .channel(EventLoopUtil.getServerSocketChannelClass(workerGroup))
                    .option(ChannelOption.SO_BACKLOG, 100)
                    .handler(new LoggingHandler(LogLevel.INFO))
                    .childHandler(new ChannelInitializer<SocketChannel>() {
                        @Override
 public void initChannel(SocketChannel ch) throws Exception {
                            ChannelPipeline p = ch.pipeline();
 // decoder
                            p.addLast(new MqttDecoder());
                            p.addLast(MqttEncoder.INSTANCE);
                            p.addLast(new MqttHandler(processor(mqttServerConfig)));
                        }
                    });

关闭tcp keepalive

由于mqtt协议本身就有心跳机制,所以可以关闭tcp的keepalive,依赖mqtt协议层的心跳即可,节约海量连接下的性能。配置ChannelOption.SO_KEEPALIVE为false即可

                    .option(ChannelOption.SO_KEEPALIVE, false)

超时时间调短

默认情况下,无论是单元测试中mqtt,还是pulsar producer和kafka producer的生产超时时间,都相对较长(一般为30s),如果在内网环境部署,可以将超时时间调整到5s。来避免无意义的超时等待

使用多个KafkaProducer来优化性能

单个KafkaProducer会达到tcp链路带宽的瓶颈,当有海量请求,而延时在kafka生产比较突出的情况下,可以考虑启动多个KafkaProducer。并根据mqtt协议的特点(链路多,单个链路上qps不高),用mqttSessionKey的哈希值来决定使用那个KafkaProducer发送消息

在KafkaProcessorConfig中添加如下配置,生产者个数,默认为1

 private int producerNum = 1;

在初始化的时候,初始化Producer数组,而不是单个Producer

 this.producerArray = new KafkaProducer[kafkaProcessorConfig.getProducerNum()];
 for (int i = 0; i < kafkaProcessorConfig.getProducerNum(); i++) {
            producerArray[i] = createProducer();
        }

封装一个方法来获取producer

 private Producer<String, ByteBuffer> getProducer(MqttSessionKey mqttSessionKey) {
 return producerArray[Math.abs(mqttSessionKey.hashCode() % kafkaProcessorConfig.getProducerNum())];
    }

结语

本文的代码均已上传到github。我们这里仅仅只实现了基础的mqtt 连接、发布、订阅功能,甚至不支持暂停、取消订阅。想要实现一个成熟商用的mqtt网关,我们还需要用户隔离、对协议的更多支持、可靠性、可运维、流控、安全等能力。如有商用生产级别的mqtt需求,又无法快速构筑成熟的mqtt网关的,可以选择华为云IoTDA服务提供稳定可靠的mqtt服务,支持海量设备连接上云、设备和云端消息双向通信能力。

 

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