基于Canvas的HTML游戏制作

原创
2020/03/31 16:10
阅读数 89

开发工具:vs code

关于Canvas

定义Canvas

<canvas id="xxx" width="..." height="..." style="border: 2px solid #000;background: #fff;"></canvas>

游戏实例

1、拼图游戏

2、雷电飞机

3、Flappybird

一、拼图游戏

游戏介绍: 拼图游戏将一幅图片分割成若干拼块并将它们随机打乱顺序。当将所有拼块都放回原位置时,就完成了拼图(游戏结束)。

在“游戏”中,单击滑块选择游戏难易,“容易”为3行3列拼图游戏,中间为一个4行4列拼图游戏,“难”为5行5列拼图游戏。拼块以随机顺序排列,玩家用鼠标单击空白块的四周来交换它们的位置,直到所有拼块都回到原位置。

程序设计步骤: 使用一个一维数组存储每个拼块的编号。每一个元素代表一个拼块,初始时元素的数组下标与拼块的编号相同,说明位置正确。并实现拼块的随机放置。

运行结果:

1、创建canvas画布:

var context=document.getElementById('puzzle').getContext('2d');
var img=new Image();
img.src='defa.jpg';
img.addEventListener('load',drawTiles,false);
var boardSize=document.getElementById('puzzle').width;
var tileCount=document.getElementById('scale').value;
var tileSize=boardSize/tileCount;
var clickLoc=new Object;
clickLoc.x=0;
clickLoc.y=0;
var emptyLoc=new Object;
emptyLoc.x=0;
emptyLoc.y=0;
var solved=false;

2、存储拼图的编号

var boardParts=new Object;
setBoard();
document.getElementById('scale').onchange=function(){
    tileCount=this.value;
    tileSize=boardSize/tileCount;
    setBoard();
    drawTiles();
};

3.使鼠标点击的位置变为空白

function slideTile(toLoc,fromLoc){
    if(!solved){
        boardParts[toLoc.x][toLoc.y].x=boardParts[fromLoc.x][fromLoc.y].x;
        boardParts[toLoc.x][toLoc.y].y=boardParts[fromLoc.x][fromLoc.y].y;
        boardParts[fromLoc.x][fromLoc.y].x=tileCount-1;
        boardParts[fromLoc.x][fromLoc.y].y=tileCount-1;
        toLoc.x=fromLoc.x;
        toLoc.y=fromLoc.y;
        checkSolved();
    }
}

参考代码:

index.html:

 <!doctype html>
 <html>
     <head>
         <title>拼图游戏</title>
         <style>
             .picture{
                 border:1px solid black;
             }
         </style>
     </head>
     <body>
         <div id="title">
             <h2>拼图游戏</h2>
         </div>
         <div id="slider">
             <form>
                 <label>低</label>
                 <input type="range" id="scale" value="4" min="3" max="5" step="1">
                 <label>高</label>
             </form>
             <br>
         </div>
         <div id="main" class="main">
             <canvas id="puzzle" width="480px" height="480px"></canvas>
         </div>
         <script src="sliding.js"></script>
     </body>
 </html>

sliding.js:

var context=document.getElementById('puzzle').getContext('2d');

var img=new Image();
img.src='defa.jpg';
img.addEventListener('load',drawTiles,false);

var boardSize=document.getElementById('puzzle').width;
var tileCount=document.getElementById('scale').value;

var tileSize=boardSize/tileCount;

var clickLoc=new Object;
clickLoc.x=0;
clickLoc.y=0;

var emptyLoc=new Object;
emptyLoc.x=0;
emptyLoc.y=0;

var solved=false;

var boardParts=new Object;
setBoard();

document.getElementById('scale').onchange=function(){
    tileCount=this.value;
    tileSize=boardSize/tileCount;
    setBoard();
    drawTiles();
};

document.getElementById('puzzle').onmousemove=function(e){
    clickLoc.x=Math.floor((e.pageX-this.offsetLeft)/tileSize);
    clickLoc.y=Math.floor((e.pageY-this.offsetTop)/tileSize);
};

document.getElementById('puzzle').onclick=function(){
    if (distance(clickLoc.x,clickLoc.y,emptyLoc.x,emptyLoc.y)==1){
        slideTile(emptyLoc,clickLoc);
        drawTiles();
    }
    if(solved){
        setTimeout(function(){alert("You solved it!");},500);
    }
};

function setBoard(){
    boardParts=new Array(tileCount);
    for(var i=0;i<tileCount;++i) {
        boardParts[i]=new Array(tileCount);
        for (var j=0;j<tileCount;++j){
            boardParts[i][j]=new Object;
            boardParts[i][j].x=(tileCount-1)-i;
            boardParts[i][j].y=(tileCount-1)-j;
        }
    }
    emptyLoc.x=boardParts[tileCount-1][tileCount-1].x;
    emptyLoc.y=boardParts[tileCount-1][tileCount-1].y;
    solved=false;
}

function drawTiles(){
    context.clearRect(0,0,boardSize,boardSize);
    for(var i=0;i<tileCount;++i){
        for(var j=0;j<tileCount;++j){
            var x=boardParts[i][j].x;
            var y=boardParts[i][j].y;
            if(i!=emptyLoc.x || j!=emptyLoc.y || solved==true){
                context.drawImage(img,x*tileSize,y*tileSize,tileSize,tileSize,
                    i*tileSize,j*tileSize,tileSize,tileSize);
            }
        }
    }
}

function distance(x1,y1,x2,y2) {
    return Math.abs(x1-x2)+Math.abs(y1-y2);
}

function slideTile(toLoc,fromLoc){
    if(!solved){
        boardParts[toLoc.x][toLoc.y].x=boardParts[fromLoc.x][fromLoc.y].x;
        boardParts[toLoc.x][toLoc.y].y=boardParts[fromLoc.x][fromLoc.y].y;
        boardParts[fromLoc.x][fromLoc.y].x=tileCount-1;
        boardParts[fromLoc.x][fromLoc.y].y=tileCount-1;
        toLoc.x=fromLoc.x;
        toLoc.y=fromLoc.y;
        checkSolved();
    }
}

function checkSolved(){
    var flag=true;
    for(var i=0;i<tileCount;++i){
        for(var j=0;j<tileCount;++j){
            if(boardParts[i][j].x!=i || boardParts[i][j].y!=j){
                flag=false;
            }
        }
    }
    solved=flag;
}

二、雷电飞机

游戏介绍: 通过上下左右键控制飞机的位置,按下空格键发射子弹攻击敌机。

程序设计步骤: 将游戏中所用到的玩家,敌军,子弹等封装成类,并控制飞机的位置,以及检测碰撞

运行结果:

1、设置飞机类及属性

var Plan=function(image,x,y,n){
	this.image=image;
	this.x=x;
	this.y=y;
	this.orignx=x;
	this.origny=y;
	this.width=image.width/n;
	this.height=image.height;
	this.isCaught=false;
	this.frm=0;
	this.dis=0;
	this.n=n;
};
Plan.prototype.getCaught=function(bool){
	this.isCaught=bool;
	if (bool==false){
		this.orignx=0;
		this.origny=this.y;
	}
};
Plan.prototype.testPoint=function(x,y){
	var betweenX=(x>=this.x)&&(x<=this.x+this.width);
	var betweenY=(y>=this.y)&&(y<=this.y+this.height);
	return betweenX&&betweenY;
};
Plan.prototype.move=function(dx,dy){
	this.x+=dx;
	this.y+=dy;
};
Plan.prototype.Y=function(){
	return this.y;
};

2、 检测飞机碰撞

Plan.prototype.hitTestObject=function(planobj){
	if(iscolliding(this.x,this.y,this.width,this.height,planobj.x,planobj.y,planobj.width,planobj.height))
		return true;
	else
		return false;
}

function iscolliding(ax,ay,aw,ah,bx,by,bw,bh){
	if(ay>by+bh||by>ay+ah||ax>bx+bw||bx>ax+aw)
		return false;
	else
		return true;
}

3、控制飞机

function onKeydown(e){
                 if(e.keyCode==32){
                     bullets.push(new Bullet(image4,myplane.x,myplane.y-36));
                 }else if(e.keyCode==37){
                     myplane.move(-10,0);
                 }else if(e.keyCode==39){
                     myplane.move(10,0);
                 }else if(e.keyCode==38){
                     myplane.move(0,-10);
                 }else if(e.keyCode==40){
                     myplane.move(0,10);
                 }
             }

参考代码:

index.html:

 <!DOCTYPE html>
 <html>
     <head>
         <title>飞机大战</title>
         <meta charset="utf-8">
     </head>
     <body>
         <canvas id='myCanvas' width="320" height="480" style="border: solid">
             你的浏览器不支持canves画布元素,请更新浏览器获得演示效果。
         </canvas>
         <div id="message_txt" style="display: block;">飞机大战</div>
         <div id="score_txt" style="display: block;">分数:0分</div>
         <script type="text/javascript">
             var canvas=document.getElementById('myCanvas');
             var context=canvas.getContext('2d');
             document.addEventListener('keydown',onKeydown);
             //飞机类和其属性
             var Plan=function(image,x,y,n){
                 this.image=image;
                 this.x=x;
                 this.y=y;
                 this.orignx=x;
                 this.origny=y;
                 this.width=image.width/n;
                 this.height=image.height;
                 this.isCaught=false;
                 this.frm=0;
                 this.dis=0;
                 this.n=n;
             };
             Plan.prototype.getCaught=function(bool){
                 this.isCaught=bool;
                 if (bool==false){
                     this.orignx=0;
                     this.origny=this.y;
                 }
             };
             Plan.prototype.testPoint=function(x,y){
                 var betweenX=(x>=this.x)&&(x<=this.x+this.width);
                 var betweenY=(y>=this.y)&&(y<=this.y+this.height);
                 return betweenX&&betweenY;
             };
             
 
             Plan.prototype.move=function(dx,dy){
                 this.x+=dx;
                 this.y+=dy;
             };
             Plan.prototype.Y=function(){
                 return this.y;
             };
             //不断下移飞机
             Plan.prototype.draw=function(ctx){
                 ctx.save();
                 ctx.translate(this.x,this.y);
                 ctx.drawImage(this.image,this.frm*this.width,0,this.width,this.height,0,0,this.width,this.height);
                 ctx.restore();
                 this.y++;
                 this.x=this.orignx+20*Math.sin(Math.PI/100*this.y);
                 this.dis++;
                 if(this.dis>=3){
                     this.dis=0;
                     this.frm++;
                     if(this.frm>=this.n) this.frm=0;
                 }
             };
             //原地不动画飞机
             Plan.prototype.draw2=function(ctx){
                 ctx.save();
                 ctx.translate(this.x,this.y);
                 ctx.drawImage(this.image,this.frm*this.width,0,this.width,this.height,0,0,this.width,this.height);
                 ctx.restore();
                 this.dis++;
                 //3帧换一次图片
                 if(this.dis>=3){
                     this.dis=0;
                     this.frm++;
                     if(this.frm>=this.n) this.frm=0;
                 }
             };
             //检测飞机碰撞
             Plan.prototype.hitTestObject=function(planobj){
                 if(iscolliding(this.x,this.y,this.width,this.height,planobj.x,planobj.y,planobj.width,planobj.height))
                     return true;
                 else
                     return false;
             }
 
             function iscolliding(ax,ay,aw,ah,bx,by,bw,bh){
                 if(ay>by+bh||by>ay+ah||ax>bx+bw||bx>ax+aw)
                     return false;
                 else
                     return true;
             }
             //子弹类和其属性
             var Bullet=function(image,x,y){
                 this.image=image;
                 this.x=x;
                 this.y=y;
                 this.orignx=x;
                 this.orignx=y;
                 this.width=image.width/4;
                 this.height=image.height;
                 this.isCaught=false;
                 this.frm=0;
                 this.dis=0;
             }
             Bullet.prototype.testPoint=function(x,y){
                 var betweenX=(x>=this.x)&&(x<this.x+this.width);
                 var betweenY=(y>=this.y)&&(y<this.y+this.height);
                 return betweenX&&betweenY;
             };
             Bullet.prototype.move=function(dx,dy){
                 this.x+=dx;
                 this.y+=dy;
             };
             Bullet.prototype.Y=function(){
                 return this.y;
             };
             Bullet.prototype.draw=function(ctx){
                 ctx.save();
                 ctx.translate(this.x,this.y);
                 ctx.drawImage(this.image,this.frm*this.width,0,this.width,this.height,0,0,this.width,this.height);
                 ctx.restore();
                 this.y--;
                 this.dis++;
                 if(this.dis>=10){
                     this.dis=0;
                     this.frm++;
                     if(this.frm>=4) this.frm=0;
                 }
             };
             //检测子弹与敌人的碰撞
             Bullet.prototype.hitTestObject=function(planobj){
                 if(iscolliding(this.x,this.y,this.width,this.height,planobj.x,planobj.y,planobj.width,planobj.height))
                     return true;
                 else
                     return false;
             }
             //爆炸动画类和属性
             var Bomb=function(image,x,y){
                 this.image=image;
                 this.x=x;
                 this.y=y;
                 this.width=image.width/6;
                 this.height=image.height;
                 this.frm=0;
                 this.dis=0;
             };
 
 
             Bomb.prototype.draw2=function(ctx){
                 ctx.save();
                 ctx.translate(this.x,this.y);
                 if(this.frm>=6) return ;
                 ctx.drawImage(this.image,this.frm*this.width,0,this.width,this.height,0,0,this.width,this.height);
                 ctx.restore();
                 this.dis++;
                 if(this.dis>=10){
                     this.dis=0;
                     this.frm++;
                 }
             };
             var plan1,plan2,plan3,plan4,caughtplan=null;
             var isClick=false;
             var mouseX,mouseY,preX,preY;
             var plans=[];
             var bullets=[];
             var bombs=[];
             var score=0;
             var overflag=false;
             var myplane;
             //导入外部材料图
             var image=new Image();
             var image2=new Image();
             var image3=new Image();
             var image4=new Image();
             var image5=new Image();
             var bakground=new Image();
             bakground.src='map_0.png';
             image.src='plan.png';
             image.onload=function(){
 
             }
             image2.src='bomb.png';
             image2.onload=function(){
 
             }
             image3.src='enemy.png';
             image3.onload=function(){
                 myplane=new Plan(image,300*Math.random(),400,6);
 
                 plan_interval=setInterval(function(){
                     plans.push(new Plan(image,300*Math.random(),20*Math.random(),2));
                 },3000);//3秒产生一架敌机
                 setInterval(function(){
                     context.clearRect(0,0,320,480);
                     context.drawImage(bakground,0,0);
                 //画己方飞机
                     if(!overflag)
                         myplane.draw2(context);
                 //画敌机
                     for(var i=plans.length-1;i>=0;i--){
                         if (plans[i].Y()>400){
                             plans.splice(i,1);//删除敌机
                         }
                         else{
                             plans[i].draw(context);
                         }
                     }
                 //画子弹
                     for (var i=bullets.length-1;i>=0;i--){
                         if (bullets[i].Y()<100){
                             bullets.splice(i,1);//删除子弹
                         }
                         else{
                             bullets[i].draw(context);
                         }
                     }
                 //检测玩家是否撞到敌机
                     for (vari=plans.length-1;i>=0;i--){
                         e1=plans[i];
                         if(e1!=null && myplane!=null && myplane.hitTestObject(e1)){
                             clearInterval(plan_interval);
                             plans.splice(i,1);//删除敌机
                             bombs.push(new Bomb(image2,myplane.x,myplane.y));
 
                             message_txt.innerHTML='敌机碰到玩家自己飞机,游戏结束';
                             overflag=true;
                         }
                     }
             //判断子弹击中没有
                     for(var j=bullets.length-1;j>=0;j--){
                         var b1=bullets[j];
                         for(var i=plans.length-1;i>=0;i--){
                             e1=plans[i];
                             if (e1!=null && b1!=null && b1.hitTestObject(e1)){
                                 plans.splice(i,1);
                                 bullets.splice(i,1);
                                 bombs.push(new Bomb(image2,b1.x,b1.y-36));
 
                                 message_txt.innerHTML='敌机被击中,加20分';
                                 score+=20;
                                 score_txt.innerHTML='分数:'+score+'分';
                             }
                         }
                     }
                 //画爆炸
                     for (var i=bombs.length-1;i>=0;i--){
                         if (bombs[i].frm>=6){
                             bombs.splice(i,1);
                         }
                         else{
                             bombs[i].draw2(context);
                         }
                     }
 
                 },1000/60);
             };
             image4.src='bullet.png';
             image4.onload=function(){
 
             };
             //飞机移动控制
             function onKeydown(e){
                 if(e.keyCode==32){
                     bullets.push(new Bullet(image4,myplane.x,myplane.y-36));
                 }else if(e.keyCode==37){
                     myplane.move(-10,0);
                 }else if(e.keyCode==39){
                     myplane.move(10,0);
                 }else if(e.keyCode==38){
                     myplane.move(0,-10);
                 }else if(e.keyCode==40){
                     myplane.move(0,10);
                 }
             }
         </script>
     </body>
 </html>

三、Falppybird

游戏介绍: 通过鼠标点击来控制小鸟,跨越由各种不同长度水管所组成的障碍

运行结果: 1、bird类:

function Bird(x,y,image) {
    this.x=x,
    this.y=y,
    this.width=image.width/2,
    this.height=image.height,
    this.image=image;
    this.draw=function (context,state) {
        if(state==="up")
            context.drawImage(image,0,0,this.width,this.height,this.x,this.y,this.width,this.height);
        else {
            context.drawImage(image,this.width,0,this,width,this.height,this.x,this.y,this.width,this.height);
        }
    }
};

2、obstacle类

function Obstacle(x,y,h,image) {
    this.x=x,
    this.y=y,
    this.width=image.width/2,
    this.height=h,
    this.flypast=false;
    this.draw=function (context,state) {
        if(state==="up")
            context.drawImage(image,0,0,this.width,this.height,this.x,this.y,this.width,this.height);
        else {
            context.drawImage(image,this.width,image.height-this.height,this.height,this.width,this.height,this.x,this.y,this.width,this.height)
        }
    }
};

参考代码:

index.html

 <!DOCTYPE html>
 <html lang="en">
 <head>
     <meta charset="UTF-8">
     <title>Flappy Bird</title>
 </head>
 <body>
 <canvas id="canvas" width="340" height="453" style="border: 2px solid #000;background: #fff;"></canvas>
 <script src="bird.js" type="text/javascript"></script>
 </body>
 </html>
 

bird.js

var  canvas=document.getElementById("canvas");
var c=canvas.getContext("2d");

function Bird(x,y,image) {
    this.x=x,
    this.y=y,
    this.width=image.width/2,
    this.height=image.height,
    this.image=image;
    this.draw=function (context,state) {
        if(state==="up")
            context.drawImage(image,0,0,this.width,this.height,this.x,this.y,this.width,this.height);
        else {
            context.drawImage(image,this.width,0,this,width,this.height,this.x,this.y,this.width,this.height);
        }
    }
};
function Obstacle(x,y,h,image) {
    this.x=x,
    this.y=y,
    this.width=image.width/2,
    this.height=h,
    this.flypast=false;
    this.draw=function (context,state) {
        if(state==="up")
            context.drawImage(image,0,0,this.width,this.height,this.x,this.y,this.width,this.height);
        else {
            context.drawImage(image,this.width,image.height-this.height,this.height,this.width,this.height,this.x,this.y,this.width,this.height)
        }
    }
};

function FlappyBird() {}
FlappyBird.prototype= {
    bird: null,
    bg: null,
    obs: null,
    obsList: [],

    mapWidth: 340,
    mapHeight: 453,
    startX: 90,
    startY: 225,
    obsDistance: 150,
    obsSpeed: 2,
    obsInterval: 2000,
    upSpeed: 8,
    downSpeed: 3,
    line: 56,
    score: 0,
    touch: false,
    gameOver: false,

    CreateMap: function () {
        //背景
        this.bg = new Image();
        this.bg.src = "img/bg.png";
        var startBg = new Image();
        startBg.src = "img/start.jpg";
        startBg.onload = function () {
            c.drawImage(startBg, 0, 0);
        };
        //小鸟
        var image = new Image();
        image.src = "img/bird.png";
        image.onload = function () {
            this.bird = new Bird(this.startX, this.startY, image);
        }.bind(this);

        //障碍物
        this.obs = new Image();
        this.obs.src = "img/obs.png";
        this.obs.onload = function () {
            var h = 100;
            var h2 = this.mapHeight - h - this.obsDistance;
            var obs1 = new Obstacle(this.mapWidth, 0, h, this.obs);
            var obs2 = new Obstacle(this.mapWidth, this.mapHeight - h2, h2 - this.line, this.obs);
            this.obsList.push(obs1);
            this.obsList.push(obs2);
        }.bind(this);
    },

    CreatObs: function () {
        var h = Math.floor(Math.random() * (this.mapHeight - this.obsDistance - this.line));
        var h2 = this.mapHeight - h - this.obsDistance;
        var obs1 = new Obstacle(this.mapWidth, 0, h, this.obs);
        var obs2 = new Obstacle(this.mapWidth, this.mapHeight - h2, h2 - this.line, this.obs);
        this.obsList.push(obs1);
        this.obsList.push(obs2);

        if (this.obsList[0].x < -this.obsList[0].width)
            this.obsList.splice(0, 2);
    },
    DrawObs:function(){
        c.fillStyle="#00ff00";
        for(var i=0;i<this.obsList.length;i++){
            this.obsList[i].x-=this.obsSpeed;
            if(i%2)
                this.obsList[i].draw(c,"up");
            else
                this.obsList[i].draw(c,"down");
        }
    },
    
    CountScore:function () {
        if(this.obsList[0].x + this.obsList[0].width < this.startX &&this.obsList[0].flypast==false){
            this.score+=1;
            this.obsList[0].flypast=true;
        }
    },
    ShowScore:function () {
        c.strokeStyle="#000";
        c.lineWidth=1;
        c.fillStyle="#fff";
        c.fillText(this.score,10,50);
        c.strokeText(this.score,10,50);
    },
    CanMove:function () {
        if(this.bird.y<0 || this.bird.y > this.mapHeight-this.bird.height-this.line){
            this.gameOver=true;
        }else{
            var boundary=[{
                x:this.bird.x,
                y:this.bird.y
            },{
                x:this.bird.x+this.bird.width,
                y:this.bird.y
            },{
                x:this.bird.x,
                y:this.bird.y+this.bird.height
            },{
                x:this.bird.x+this.bird.width,
                y:this.bird.x+this.bird.height
            }];
            for (var i=0;i<this.obsList.length;i++){
                for(var j=0;j<4;j++)
                    if(boundary[j].x>=this.obsList[i].x && boundary[j].x <= this.obsList[i].x+this.obsList[i].width &&
                    boundary[j].y>=this.obsList[i].y&& boundary[j].y<=this.obsList[i].y+this.obsList[i].height){
                        this.gameOver=false;
                        break;
                    }
                if(this.gameOver)
                    break;
            }
        }
    },
    CheckTouch:function () {
        if(this.touch){
            this.bird.y-=this.upSpeed;
            this.bird.draw(c,"up");
        }else {
            this.bird.y+=this.downSpeed;
            this.bird.draw(c,"down");
        }
    },
    ClearScreen:function () {
        c.drawImage(this.bg,0,0);
    },
    ShowOver:function () {
        var overImg=new Image();
        overImg.src="img/over.png";
        overImg.onload=function () {
            c.drawImage(overImg,(this.mapWidth-overImg.width)/2,(this.mapHeight-overImg.height)/2-50);
        }.bind(this);
        return;
    }
};

var game=new FlappyBird();
var Speed=20;
var IsPlay=false;
var GameTime=null;
var btn_start;
window.onload=InitGame;

function InitGame() {
    c.font="3em 微软雅黑";
    game.CreateMap();
    canvas.onmousedown=function () {
        game.touch=true;
    }
    canvas.onmouseup=function () {
        game.touch=false;
    };
    canvas.onclick=function () {
        if (!IsPlay) {
            IsPlay = true;
            GameTime = RunGame(Speed);
        }
    }
}


function RunGame(speed) {
    var updateTimer=setInterval(function () {
        game.CanMove();
        if(game.gameOver){
            game.ShowOver();
            clearInterval(updateTimer);
            return;
        }
        game.ClearScreen();
        game.DrawObs();
        game.CheckTouch();
        game.CountScore();
        game.ShowScore();
    },speed);
    var obsTimer=setInterval(function () {
        if (game.gameOver){
            clearInterval(obsTimer);
            return;
        }
        game.CreatObs();
    },game.obsInterval);
}
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