C# 字符串拼接性能探索 c#中+、string.Concat、string.Format、StringBuilder.Append四种方式进行字符串拼接时的性能

2018/03/06 15:40
阅读数 40

本文通过ANTS Memory Profiler工具探索c#中+、string.Concat、string.Format、StringBuilder.Append四种方式进行字符串拼接时的性能。

本文涉及程序为.NET Core 2.0控制台应用程序。

 

一、常量字符串拼接

 

复制代码
private static void TestPerformance(Action action, int times)
        {
            Stopwatch sw = new Stopwatch();
            sw.Start();
            for(int i = 0; i < times; i++)
            {
                action();
            }
            sw.Stop();
            Console.WriteLine(action.Method.Name + ", FullTime: " + sw.ElapsedMilliseconds);
        }
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1.+方法

1.1连续拼接

private static void AddTest()
        {
            string s = string.Empty;
            s = "1" + "2" + "3" + "4" + "5" + "6" + "7" + "8";
        }

运行时间:

 内存情况:

IL代码:

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.method private hidebysig static void  AddTest() cil managed
{
  // Code size       7 (0x7)
  .maxstack  8
  IL_0000:  ldsfld     string [System.Runtime]System.String::Empty
  IL_0005:  pop
  IL_0006:  ret
} // end of method Program::AddTest
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1.2分段拼接

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private static void AddWithParamTest2()
        {
            string s = string.Empty;
            s += "1";
            s += "2";
            s += "3";
            s += "4";
            s += "5";
            s += "6";
            s += "7";
            s += "8";
        }
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运行时间:

内存情况:

IL代码:

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.method private hidebysig static void  AddWithParamTest2() cil managed
{
  // Code size       87 (0x57)
  .maxstack  2
  IL_0000:  ldsfld     string [System.Runtime]System.String::Empty
  IL_0005:  ldstr      "1"
  IL_000a:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_000f:  ldstr      "2"
  IL_0014:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_0019:  ldstr      "3"
  IL_001e:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_0023:  ldstr      "4"
  IL_0028:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_002d:  ldstr      "5"
  IL_0032:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_0037:  ldstr      "6"
  IL_003c:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_0041:  ldstr      "7"
  IL_0046:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_004b:  ldstr      "8"
  IL_0050:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_0055:  pop
  IL_0056:  ret
} // end of method Program::AddWithParamTest2
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通过IL代码可以看出,分段的+=代码调用的是Concat方法,并且比连续的+多开辟了许多内存空间。

2.Concat方法

2.1分次Concat

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private static void ConcatTest()
        {
            string s = string.Empty;
            s = string.Concat(s, "1");
            s = string.Concat(s, "2");
            s = string.Concat(s, "3");
            s = string.Concat(s, "4");
            s = string.Concat(s, "5");
            s = string.Concat(s, "6");
            s = string.Concat(s, "7");
            s = string.Concat(s, "8");
        }
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IL代码:

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.method private hidebysig static void  AddWithParamTest2() cil managed
{
  // Code size       87 (0x57)
  .maxstack  2
  IL_0000:  ldsfld     string [System.Runtime]System.String::Empty
  IL_0005:  ldstr      "1"
  IL_000a:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_000f:  ldstr      "2"
  IL_0014:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_0019:  ldstr      "3"
  IL_001e:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_0023:  ldstr      "4"
  IL_0028:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_002d:  ldstr      "5"
  IL_0032:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_0037:  ldstr      "6"
  IL_003c:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_0041:  ldstr      "7"
  IL_0046:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_004b:  ldstr      "8"
  IL_0050:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_0055:  pop
  IL_0056:  ret
} // end of method Program::AddWithParamTest2
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可见IL代码与+分段拼接常量字符串相同,性能相似。

2.2Concat一次拼接常量字符串

private static void ConcatTest2()
        {
            string s = string.Empty;
            string.Concat(s, "1", "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "7", "8");           
        }

运行时间:

内存情况:

IL代码:

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.method private hidebysig static void  ConcatTest2() cil managed
{
  // Code size       88 (0x58)
  .maxstack  4
  .locals init (string V_0)
  IL_0000:  ldsfld     string [System.Runtime]System.String::Empty
  IL_0005:  stloc.0
  IL_0006:  ldc.i4.s   9
  IL_0008:  newarr     [System.Runtime]System.String
  IL_000d:  dup
  IL_000e:  ldc.i4.0
  IL_000f:  ldloc.0
  IL_0010:  stelem.ref
  IL_0011:  dup
  IL_0012:  ldc.i4.1
  IL_0013:  ldstr      "1"
  IL_0018:  stelem.ref
  IL_0019:  dup
  IL_001a:  ldc.i4.2
  IL_001b:  ldstr      "2"
  IL_0020:  stelem.ref
  IL_0021:  dup
  IL_0022:  ldc.i4.3
  IL_0023:  ldstr      "3"
  IL_0028:  stelem.ref
  IL_0029:  dup
  IL_002a:  ldc.i4.4
  IL_002b:  ldstr      "4"
  IL_0030:  stelem.ref
  IL_0031:  dup
  IL_0032:  ldc.i4.5
  IL_0033:  ldstr      "5"
  IL_0038:  stelem.ref
  IL_0039:  dup
  IL_003a:  ldc.i4.6
  IL_003b:  ldstr      "6"
  IL_0040:  stelem.ref
  IL_0041:  dup
  IL_0042:  ldc.i4.7
  IL_0043:  ldstr      "7"
  IL_0048:  stelem.ref
  IL_0049:  dup
  IL_004a:  ldc.i4.8
  IL_004b:  ldstr      "8"
  IL_0050:  stelem.ref
  IL_0051:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string[])
IL_0056: stloc.0
IL_0057: ret
} // end of method Program::ConcatTest2
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通过IL代码可以看出,string.Concat(s, s1, s2, s3)并不调用String.Concat方法,而是直接在堆栈上进行操作。因为需要局部变量来标记,比分次调用Concat方法所占的内存要多一些。

3.Format方法

3.1一次Format

private static void FormatTest()
        {
            string s = string.Empty;
            s = string.Format("{0}{1}{2}{3}{4}{5}{6}{7}", "1", "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "7", "8");
        }

运行时间:

内存情况:

IL代码:

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.method private hidebysig static void  FormatTest() cil managed
{
  // Code size       88 (0x58)
  .maxstack  5
  IL_0000:  ldsfld     string [System.Runtime]System.String::Empty
  IL_0005:  pop
  IL_0006:  ldstr      "{0}{1}{2}{3}{4}{5}{6}{7}"
  IL_000b:  ldc.i4.8
  IL_000c:  newarr     [System.Runtime]System.Object
  IL_0011:  dup
  IL_0012:  ldc.i4.0
  IL_0013:  ldstr      "1"
  IL_0018:  stelem.ref
  IL_0019:  dup
  IL_001a:  ldc.i4.1
  IL_001b:  ldstr      "2"
  IL_0020:  stelem.ref
  IL_0021:  dup
  IL_0022:  ldc.i4.2
  IL_0023:  ldstr      "3"
  IL_0028:  stelem.ref
  IL_0029:  dup
  IL_002a:  ldc.i4.3
  IL_002b:  ldstr      "4"
  IL_0030:  stelem.ref
  IL_0031:  dup
  IL_0032:  ldc.i4.4
  IL_0033:  ldstr      "5"
  IL_0038:  stelem.ref
  IL_0039:  dup
  IL_003a:  ldc.i4.5
  IL_003b:  ldstr      "6"
  IL_0040:  stelem.ref
  IL_0041:  dup
  IL_0042:  ldc.i4.6
  IL_0043:  ldstr      "7"
  IL_0048:  stelem.ref
  IL_0049:  dup
  IL_004a:  ldc.i4.7
  IL_004b:  ldstr      "8"
  IL_0050:  stelem.ref
  IL_0051:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Format(string,
                                                                    object[])
  IL_0056:  pop
  IL_0057:  ret
} // end of method Program::FormatTest
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StringFormat方法虽然是基于StringBuilder,但由于需要遍历字符串来识别占位符,所以比较慢。

3.2Format分次拼接

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private static void FormatTest2()
        {
            string s = string.Empty;
            s = string.Format("{0}{1}", s, "1");
            s = string.Format("{0}{1}", s, "2");
            s = string.Format("{0}{1}", s, "3");
            s = string.Format("{0}{1}", s, "4");
            s = string.Format("{0}{1}", s, "5");
            s = string.Format("{0}{1}", s, "6");
            s = string.Format("{0}{1}", s, "7");
            s = string.Format("{0}{1}", s, "8");
        }
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运行时间:

内存情况:

IL代码:

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.method private hidebysig static void  FormatTest2() cil managed
{
  // Code size       143 (0x8f)
  .maxstack  3
  .locals init (string V_0)
  IL_0000:  ldsfld     string [System.Runtime]System.String::Empty
  IL_0005:  stloc.0
  IL_0006:  ldstr      "{0}{1}"
  IL_000b:  ldloc.0
  IL_000c:  ldstr      "1"
  IL_0011:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Format(string,
                                                                    object,
                                                                    object)
  IL_0016:  stloc.0
  IL_0017:  ldstr      "{0}{1}"
  IL_001c:  ldloc.0
  IL_001d:  ldstr      "2"
  IL_0022:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Format(string,
                                                                    object,
                                                                    object)
  IL_0027:  stloc.0
  IL_0028:  ldstr      "{0}{1}"
  IL_002d:  ldloc.0
  IL_002e:  ldstr      "3"
  IL_0033:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Format(string,
                                                                    object,
                                                                    object)
  IL_0038:  stloc.0
  IL_0039:  ldstr      "{0}{1}"
  IL_003e:  ldloc.0
  IL_003f:  ldstr      "4"
  IL_0044:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Format(string,
                                                                    object,
                                                                    object)
  IL_0049:  stloc.0
  IL_004a:  ldstr      "{0}{1}"
  IL_004f:  ldloc.0
  IL_0050:  ldstr      "5"
  IL_0055:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Format(string,
                                                                    object,
                                                                    object)
  IL_005a:  stloc.0
  IL_005b:  ldstr      "{0}{1}"
  IL_0060:  ldloc.0
  IL_0061:  ldstr      "6"
  IL_0066:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Format(string,
                                                                    object,
                                                                    object)
  IL_006b:  stloc.0
  IL_006c:  ldstr      "{0}{1}"
  IL_0071:  ldloc.0
  IL_0072:  ldstr      "7"
  IL_0077:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Format(string,
                                                                    object,
                                                                    object)
  IL_007c:  stloc.0
  IL_007d:  ldstr      "{0}{1}"
  IL_0082:  ldloc.0
  IL_0083:  ldstr      "8"
  IL_0088:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Format(string,
                                                                    object,
                                                                    object)
  IL_008d:  stloc.0
  IL_008e:  ret
} // end of method Program::FormatTest2
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分次使用Format方法拼接字符串,即分次调用Format方法,多次循环遍历字符串,耗时更长。

4.StringBuilder方法

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private static void BuilderTest()
        {
            StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
            sb.Append("1");
            sb.Append("2");
            sb.Append("3");
            sb.Append("4");
            sb.Append("5");
            sb.Append("6");
            sb.Append("7");
            sb.Append("8");
        }
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运行时间:

内存情况:

IL代码:

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.method private hidebysig static void  BuilderTest() cil managed
{
  // Code size       101 (0x65)
  .maxstack  3
  IL_0000:  newobj     instance void [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder::.ctor()
  IL_0005:  dup
  IL_0006:  ldstr      "1"
  IL_000b:  callvirt   instance class [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder::Append(string)
  IL_0010:  pop
  IL_0011:  dup
  IL_0012:  ldstr      "2"
  IL_0017:  callvirt   instance class [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder::Append(string)
  IL_001c:  pop
  IL_001d:  dup
  IL_001e:  ldstr      "3"
  IL_0023:  callvirt   instance class [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder::Append(string)
  IL_0028:  pop
  IL_0029:  dup
  IL_002a:  ldstr      "4"
  IL_002f:  callvirt   instance class [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder::Append(string)
  IL_0034:  pop
  IL_0035:  dup
  IL_0036:  ldstr      "5"
  IL_003b:  callvirt   instance class [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder::Append(string)
  IL_0040:  pop
  IL_0041:  dup
  IL_0042:  ldstr      "6"
  IL_0047:  callvirt   instance class [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder::Append(string)
  IL_004c:  pop
  IL_004d:  dup
  IL_004e:  ldstr      "7"
  IL_0053:  callvirt   instance class [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder::Append(string)
  IL_0058:  pop
  IL_0059:  ldstr      "8"
  IL_005e:  callvirt   instance class [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder::Append(string)
  IL_0063:  pop
  IL_0064:  ret
} // end of method Program::BuilderTest
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 在短字符串大量拼接的测试中,可以看出一次使用+进行拼接所耗内存最少,所用时间最短。其余方式所耗内存相差不大,但StringBuilder所耗时间明显较短。

 由于Format方法内部存在对字符串的遍历,可以推测,随着字符串的长度变长,Format方法所耗时间将会增加。

二、字符串变量拼接(多次循环拼接)

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private static void TestPerformanceWithParam<T>(Action<T> action, T t, int times)
        {
            Stopwatch sw = new Stopwatch();
            sw.Start();
            for (int i = 0; i < times; i++)
            {
                action(t);
            }
            sw.Stop();
            Console.WriteLine(action.Method.Name + ", FullTime: " + sw.ElapsedMilliseconds);
        }
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1.+方法

1.1连续拼接

private static void AddTest(string t)
        {
            string s = string.Empty;
            s = t + t + t + t + t + t + t + t;
        }

运行时间:

 内存情况:

IL代码:

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.method private hidebysig static void  AddTest(string t) cil managed
{
  // Code size       51 (0x33)
  .maxstack  8
  IL_0000:  ldsfld     string [System.Runtime]System.String::Empty
  IL_0005:  pop
  IL_0006:  ldc.i4.8
  IL_0007:  newarr     [System.Runtime]System.String
  IL_000c:  dup
  IL_000d:  ldc.i4.0
  IL_000e:  ldarg.0
  IL_000f:  stelem.ref
  IL_0010:  dup
  IL_0011:  ldc.i4.1
  IL_0012:  ldarg.0
  IL_0013:  stelem.ref
  IL_0014:  dup
  IL_0015:  ldc.i4.2
  IL_0016:  ldarg.0
  IL_0017:  stelem.ref
  IL_0018:  dup
  IL_0019:  ldc.i4.3
  IL_001a:  ldarg.0
  IL_001b:  stelem.ref
  IL_001c:  dup
  IL_001d:  ldc.i4.4
  IL_001e:  ldarg.0
  IL_001f:  stelem.ref
  IL_0020:  dup
  IL_0021:  ldc.i4.5
  IL_0022:  ldarg.0
  IL_0023:  stelem.ref
  IL_0024:  dup
  IL_0025:  ldc.i4.6
  IL_0026:  ldarg.0
  IL_0027:  stelem.ref
  IL_0028:  dup
  IL_0029:  ldc.i4.7
  IL_002a:  ldarg.0
  IL_002b:  stelem.ref
  IL_002c:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string[])
  IL_0031:  pop
  IL_0032:  ret
} // end of method Program::AddTest
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从IL代码可见,在使用+连续拼接字符串变量时,内部调用了String.Concat(string[])方法。

1.2分段拼接

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private static void AddWithParamTest2(string t)
        {
            string s = string.Empty;
            s += t;
            s += t;
            s += t;
            s += t;
            s += t;
            s += t;
            s += t;
            s += t;
        }
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运行时间:

内存情况:

IL代码:

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.method private hidebysig static void  AddWithParamTest2(string t) cil managed
{
  // Code size       55 (0x37)
  .maxstack  8
  IL_0000:  ldsfld     string [System.Runtime]System.String::Empty
  IL_0005:  ldarg.0
  IL_0006:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_000b:  ldarg.0
  IL_000c:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_0011:  ldarg.0
  IL_0012:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_0017:  ldarg.0
  IL_0018:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_001d:  ldarg.0
  IL_001e:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_0023:  ldarg.0
  IL_0024:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_0029:  ldarg.0
  IL_002a:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_002f:  ldarg.0
  IL_0030:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_0035:  pop
  IL_0036:  ret
} // end of method Program::AddWithParamTest2
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 2.Concat方法

2.1分次concat

IL代码:

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.method private hidebysig static void  ConcatTest(string t) cil managed
{
  // Code size       55 (0x37)
  .maxstack  8
  IL_0000:  ldsfld     string [System.Runtime]System.String::Empty
  IL_0005:  ldarg.0
  IL_0006:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_000b:  ldarg.0
  IL_000c:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_0011:  ldarg.0
  IL_0012:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_0017:  ldarg.0
  IL_0018:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_001d:  ldarg.0
  IL_001e:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_0023:  ldarg.0
  IL_0024:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_0029:  ldarg.0
  IL_002a:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_002f:  ldarg.0
  IL_0030:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_0035:  pop
  IL_0036:  ret
} // end of method Program::ConcatTest
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从IL代码来看,同使用+分段拼接相似。

2.2一次拼接

IL代码:

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.method private hidebysig static void  ConcatTest2(string t) cil managed
{
  // Code size       56 (0x38)
  .maxstack  4
  .locals init (string V_0)
  IL_0000:  ldsfld     string [System.Runtime]System.String::Empty
  IL_0005:  stloc.0
  IL_0006:  ldc.i4.s   9
  IL_0008:  newarr     [System.Runtime]System.String
  IL_000d:  dup
  IL_000e:  ldc.i4.0
  IL_000f:  ldloc.0
  IL_0010:  stelem.ref
  IL_0011:  dup
  IL_0012:  ldc.i4.1
  IL_0013:  ldarg.0
  IL_0014:  stelem.ref
  IL_0015:  dup
  IL_0016:  ldc.i4.2
  IL_0017:  ldarg.0
  IL_0018:  stelem.ref
  IL_0019:  dup
  IL_001a:  ldc.i4.3
  IL_001b:  ldarg.0
  IL_001c:  stelem.ref
  IL_001d:  dup
  IL_001e:  ldc.i4.4
  IL_001f:  ldarg.0
  IL_0020:  stelem.ref
  IL_0021:  dup
  IL_0022:  ldc.i4.5
  IL_0023:  ldarg.0
  IL_0024:  stelem.ref
  IL_0025:  dup
  IL_0026:  ldc.i4.6
  IL_0027:  ldarg.0
  IL_0028:  stelem.ref
  IL_0029:  dup
  IL_002a:  ldc.i4.7
  IL_002b:  ldarg.0
  IL_002c:  stelem.ref
  IL_002d:  dup
  IL_002e:  ldc.i4.8
  IL_002f:  ldarg.0
  IL_0030:  stelem.ref
  IL_0031:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string[])
  IL_0036:  stloc.0
  IL_0037:  ret
} // end of method Program::ConcatTest2
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从IL代码可以看出,同使用+一次拼接相似。

3.Format

private static void FormatTest(string t)
        {
            string s = string.Format("{0}{1}{2}{3}{4}{5}{6}{7}", t, t, t, t, t, t, t, t);
        }

运行时间:

内存情况:

IL代码:

复制代码
.method private hidebysig static void  FormatTest(string t) cil managed
{
  // Code size       50 (0x32)
  .maxstack  8
  IL_0000:  ldstr      "{0}{1}{2}{3}{4}{5}{6}{7}"
  IL_0005:  ldc.i4.8
  IL_0006:  newarr     [System.Runtime]System.Object
  IL_000b:  dup
  IL_000c:  ldc.i4.0
  IL_000d:  ldarg.0
  IL_000e:  stelem.ref
  IL_000f:  dup
  IL_0010:  ldc.i4.1
  IL_0011:  ldarg.0
  IL_0012:  stelem.ref
  IL_0013:  dup
  IL_0014:  ldc.i4.2
  IL_0015:  ldarg.0
  IL_0016:  stelem.ref
  IL_0017:  dup
  IL_0018:  ldc.i4.3
  IL_0019:  ldarg.0
  IL_001a:  stelem.ref
  IL_001b:  dup
  IL_001c:  ldc.i4.4
  IL_001d:  ldarg.0
  IL_001e:  stelem.ref
  IL_001f:  dup
  IL_0020:  ldc.i4.5
  IL_0021:  ldarg.0
  IL_0022:  stelem.ref
  IL_0023:  dup
  IL_0024:  ldc.i4.6
  IL_0025:  ldarg.0
  IL_0026:  stelem.ref
  IL_0027:  dup
  IL_0028:  ldc.i4.7
  IL_0029:  ldarg.0
  IL_002a:  stelem.ref
  IL_002b:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Format(string,
                                                                    object[])
  IL_0030:  pop
  IL_0031:  ret
} // end of method Program::FormatTest
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时间的损耗主要来自于String.Format方法。

4.StringBuilder方法

复制代码
private static void BuilderTest(string t)
        {
            StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
            sb.Append(t);
            sb.Append(t);
            sb.Append(t);
            sb.Append(t);
            sb.Append(t);
            sb.Append(t);
            sb.Append(t);
            sb.Append(t);
        }
复制代码

运行时间:

内存情况:

IL代码:

复制代码
.method private hidebysig static void  BuilderTest(string t) cil managed
{
  // Code size       69 (0x45)
  .maxstack  3
  IL_0000:  newobj     instance void [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder::.ctor()
  IL_0005:  dup
  IL_0006:  ldarg.0
  IL_0007:  callvirt   instance class [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder::Append(string)
  IL_000c:  pop
  IL_000d:  dup
  IL_000e:  ldarg.0
  IL_000f:  callvirt   instance class [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder::Append(string)
  IL_0014:  pop
  IL_0015:  dup
  IL_0016:  ldarg.0
  IL_0017:  callvirt   instance class [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder::Append(string)
  IL_001c:  pop
  IL_001d:  dup
  IL_001e:  ldarg.0
  IL_001f:  callvirt   instance class [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder::Append(string)
  IL_0024:  pop
  IL_0025:  dup
  IL_0026:  ldarg.0
  IL_0027:  callvirt   instance class [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder::Append(string)
  IL_002c:  pop
  IL_002d:  dup
  IL_002e:  ldarg.0
  IL_002f:  callvirt   instance class [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder::Append(string)
  IL_0034:  pop
  IL_0035:  dup
  IL_0036:  ldarg.0
  IL_0037:  callvirt   instance class [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder::Append(string)
  IL_003c:  pop
  IL_003d:  ldarg.0
  IL_003e:  callvirt   instance class [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder::Append(string)
  IL_0043:  pop
  IL_0044:  ret
} // end of method Program::BuilderTest
复制代码

在短字符串(上面所用字符串为“short”)大量循环拼接(上述结果为每个方法循环执行一千万次)时,四种方法的差距并不明显。

当字符串变长后,可见运行结果差距拉大:

此时StringBuilder仍没有明显的优势。

三、字符串变量拼接(循环拼接至一个字符串)

1.+方法

复制代码
private static void TestAddVeryLong(string s, int times)
        {
            Stopwatch sw = new Stopwatch();
            sw.Start();
            string str = string.Empty;
            for(int i = 0; i < times; i++)
            {
                str += s;
            }
            sw.Stop();
            Console.WriteLine("add very long: " + sw.ElapsedMilliseconds);
        }
复制代码

运行时间:

内存情况:

IL代码:

复制代码
.method private hidebysig static void  TestAddVeryLong(string s,
                                                       int32 times) cil managed
{
  // Code size       71 (0x47)
  .maxstack  2
  .locals init (class [System.Runtime.Extensions]System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch V_0,
           string V_1,
           int32 V_2)
  IL_0000:  newobj     instance void [System.Runtime.Extensions]System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch::.ctor()
  IL_0005:  stloc.0
  IL_0006:  ldloc.0
  IL_0007:  callvirt   instance void [System.Runtime.Extensions]System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch::Start()
  IL_000c:  ldsfld     string [System.Runtime]System.String::Empty
  IL_0011:  stloc.1
  IL_0012:  ldc.i4.0
  IL_0013:  stloc.2
  IL_0014:  br.s       IL_0022
  IL_0016:  ldloc.1
  IL_0017:  ldarg.0
  IL_0018:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_001d:  stloc.1
  IL_001e:  ldloc.2
  IL_001f:  ldc.i4.1
  IL_0020:  add
  IL_0021:  stloc.2
  IL_0022:  ldloc.2
  IL_0023:  ldarg.1
  IL_0024:  blt.s      IL_0016
  IL_0026:  ldloc.0
  IL_0027:  callvirt   instance void [System.Runtime.Extensions]System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch::Stop()
  IL_002c:  ldstr      "add very long: "
  IL_0031:  ldloc.0
  IL_0032:  callvirt   instance int64 [System.Runtime.Extensions]System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch::get_ElapsedMilliseconds()
  IL_0037:  box        [System.Runtime]System.Int64
  IL_003c:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(object,
                                                                    object)
  IL_0041:  call       void [System.Console]System.Console::WriteLine(string)
  IL_0046:  ret
} // end of method Program::TestAddVeryLong
复制代码

2.Concat方法

复制代码
private static void TestConcatVeryLong(string s, int times)
        {
            Stopwatch sw = new Stopwatch();
            sw.Start();
            string str = string.Empty;
            for (int i = 0; i < times; i++)
            {
                str = string.Concat(str, s);
            }
            sw.Stop();
            Console.WriteLine("concat very long: " + sw.ElapsedMilliseconds);
        }
复制代码

IL代码:

复制代码
.method private hidebysig static void  TestConcatVeryLong(string s,
                                                          int32 times) cil managed
{
  // Code size       71 (0x47)
  .maxstack  2
  .locals init (class [System.Runtime.Extensions]System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch V_0,
           string V_1,
           int32 V_2)
  IL_0000:  newobj     instance void [System.Runtime.Extensions]System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch::.ctor()
  IL_0005:  stloc.0
  IL_0006:  ldloc.0
  IL_0007:  callvirt   instance void [System.Runtime.Extensions]System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch::Start()
  IL_000c:  ldsfld     string [System.Runtime]System.String::Empty
  IL_0011:  stloc.1
  IL_0012:  ldc.i4.0
  IL_0013:  stloc.2
  IL_0014:  br.s       IL_0022
  IL_0016:  ldloc.1
  IL_0017:  ldarg.0
  IL_0018:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(string,
                                                                    string)
  IL_001d:  stloc.1
  IL_001e:  ldloc.2
  IL_001f:  ldc.i4.1
  IL_0020:  add
  IL_0021:  stloc.2
  IL_0022:  ldloc.2
  IL_0023:  ldarg.1
  IL_0024:  blt.s      IL_0016
  IL_0026:  ldloc.0
  IL_0027:  callvirt   instance void [System.Runtime.Extensions]System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch::Stop()
  IL_002c:  ldstr      "concat very long: "
  IL_0031:  ldloc.0
  IL_0032:  callvirt   instance int64 [System.Runtime.Extensions]System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch::get_ElapsedMilliseconds()
  IL_0037:  box        [System.Runtime]System.Int64
  IL_003c:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(object,
                                                                    object)
  IL_0041:  call       void [System.Console]System.Console::WriteLine(string)
  IL_0046:  ret
} // end of method Program::TestConcatVeryLong
复制代码

由IL代码可见,和使用+性能相似。

3.Format方法

复制代码
private static void TestFormatVeryLong(string s, int times)
        {
            Stopwatch sw = new Stopwatch();
            sw.Start();
            string str = string.Empty;
            for (int i = 0; i < times; i++)
            {
                str = string.Format("{0}{1}", str, s);
            }
            sw.Stop();
            Console.WriteLine("format very long: " + sw.ElapsedMilliseconds);
        }
复制代码

运行时间:

内存情况:

IL代码:

复制代码
.method private hidebysig static void  TestFormatVeryLong(string s,
                                                          int32 times) cil managed
{
  // Code size       76 (0x4c)
  .maxstack  3
  .locals init (class [System.Runtime.Extensions]System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch V_0,
           string V_1,
           int32 V_2)
  IL_0000:  newobj     instance void [System.Runtime.Extensions]System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch::.ctor()
  IL_0005:  stloc.0
  IL_0006:  ldloc.0
  IL_0007:  callvirt   instance void [System.Runtime.Extensions]System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch::Start()
  IL_000c:  ldsfld     string [System.Runtime]System.String::Empty
  IL_0011:  stloc.1
  IL_0012:  ldc.i4.0
  IL_0013:  stloc.2
  IL_0014:  br.s       IL_0027
  IL_0016:  ldstr      "{0}{1}"
  IL_001b:  ldloc.1
  IL_001c:  ldarg.0
  IL_001d:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Format(string,
                                                                    object,
                                                                    object)
  IL_0022:  stloc.1
  IL_0023:  ldloc.2
  IL_0024:  ldc.i4.1
  IL_0025:  add
  IL_0026:  stloc.2
  IL_0027:  ldloc.2
  IL_0028:  ldarg.1
  IL_0029:  blt.s      IL_0016
  IL_002b:  ldloc.0
  IL_002c:  callvirt   instance void [System.Runtime.Extensions]System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch::Stop()
  IL_0031:  ldstr      "format very long: "
  IL_0036:  ldloc.0
  IL_0037:  callvirt   instance int64 [System.Runtime.Extensions]System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch::get_ElapsedMilliseconds()
  IL_003c:  box        [System.Runtime]System.Int64
  IL_0041:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(object,
                                                                    object)
  IL_0046:  call       void [System.Console]System.Console::WriteLine(string)
  IL_004b:  ret
} // end of method Program::TestFormatVeryLong
复制代码

4.StringBuilder方法

复制代码
private static void TestBuilderVeryLong(string s, int times)
        {
            Stopwatch sw = new Stopwatch();
            sw.Start();
            StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
            for (int i = 0; i < times; i++)
            {
                sb.Append(s);
            }
            sw.Stop();
            Console.WriteLine("builder very long: " + sw.ElapsedMilliseconds);
        }
复制代码

运行时间:

内存情况:

IL代码:

复制代码
.method private hidebysig static void  TestBuilderVeryLong(string s,
                                                           int32 times) cil managed
{
  // Code size       71 (0x47)
  .maxstack  2
  .locals init (class [System.Runtime.Extensions]System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch V_0,
           class [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder V_1,
           int32 V_2)
  IL_0000:  newobj     instance void [System.Runtime.Extensions]System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch::.ctor()
  IL_0005:  stloc.0
  IL_0006:  ldloc.0
  IL_0007:  callvirt   instance void [System.Runtime.Extensions]System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch::Start()
  IL_000c:  newobj     instance void [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder::.ctor()
  IL_0011:  stloc.1
  IL_0012:  ldc.i4.0
  IL_0013:  stloc.2
  IL_0014:  br.s       IL_0022
  IL_0016:  ldloc.1
  IL_0017:  ldarg.0
  IL_0018:  callvirt   instance class [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder [System.Runtime]System.Text.StringBuilder::Append(string)
  IL_001d:  pop
  IL_001e:  ldloc.2
  IL_001f:  ldc.i4.1
  IL_0020:  add
  IL_0021:  stloc.2
  IL_0022:  ldloc.2
  IL_0023:  ldarg.1
  IL_0024:  blt.s      IL_0016
  IL_0026:  ldloc.0
  IL_0027:  callvirt   instance void [System.Runtime.Extensions]System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch::Stop()
  IL_002c:  ldstr      "builder very long: "
  IL_0031:  ldloc.0
  IL_0032:  callvirt   instance int64 [System.Runtime.Extensions]System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch::get_ElapsedMilliseconds()
  IL_0037:  box        [System.Runtime]System.Int64
  IL_003c:  call       string [System.Runtime]System.String::Concat(object,
                                                                    object)
  IL_0041:  call       void [System.Console]System.Console::WriteLine(string)
  IL_0046:  ret
} // end of method Program::TestBuilderVeryLong
复制代码

这个差距在拼接字符串更多的时候会更加明显。

拼接一千万次时,+方法运行一个多小时仍无法得出结果:

 而StringBuilder只需要102ms。

 +方法的问题在于由于string的特殊性,每次操作都将新开辟内存空间,随着字符串长度的增加、操作次数的增加等,+方法所耗费的内存会越来越大。

而StringBuilder则可以在原有的内存空间中进行修改和扩张,在进行频繁、长串的操作时极大地提高了效率。

显然,如果是不频繁、短字符串的拼接,使用哪种方式拼接字符串没有明显的性能差别(Format可能稍差一些),但如果是频繁的长串操作,StringBuilder具有绝对的优势。

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