从零开始开发区块链(2):区块链开发中的密码学知识

2019/11/12 15:42
阅读数 13

手写区块链中会采用各种密码学知识

对称加密-加密秘钥和解密秘钥是同一个,缺点是秘钥无法被安全传递,常用的对称加密算法有

DES,3DES(TripleDES),AES

非对称加密-公钥加密,私钥解密

公钥由私钥生成,私钥可以推导出公钥,公钥无法推导出私钥。优点:解决秘钥传输中的安全行问题。

常用算法RSA,ECC

如何验证发送方是正确的

哈希:将一段数据经过计算转换成一段定长数据

不可逆性:几乎无法通过哈希推导出原文

无碰撞性:两个不同的原文hash后值一定不一样

常用算法MD5,SHA256

数字签名

公私钥对,私钥签名,公钥解签名

下面是这几个签名算法的具体java实现

package com.fj.blockchainmy.security;

import sun.misc.BASE64Decoder;
import sun.misc.BASE64Encoder;

import javax.crypto.KeyGenerator;
import javax.crypto.Mac;
import javax.crypto.SecretKey;
import javax.crypto.spec.SecretKeySpec;
import java.security.MessageDigest;

/**
* @author: yangchun
* @description:
* @date: Created in 2019-11-12 15:38
*/
public class Coder {
public static final String KEY_SHA = "SHA";
public static final String KEY_MD5 = "MD5";

/**
* MAC算法可选以下多种算法
*
* <pre>
* HmacMD5
* HmacSHA1
* HmacSHA256
* HmacSHA384
* HmacSHA512
* </pre>
*/
public static final String KEY_MAC = "HmacMD5";

/**
* BASE64解密
*
* @param key
* @return
* @throws Exception
*/
public static byte[] decryptBASE64(String key) throws Exception {
return (new BASE64Decoder()).decodeBuffer(key);
}

/**
* BASE64加密
*
* @param key
* @return
* @throws Exception
*/
public static String encryptBASE64(byte[] key) throws Exception {
return (new BASE64Encoder()).encodeBuffer(key);
}

/**
* MD5加密
*
* @param data
* @return
* @throws Exception
*/
public static byte[] encryptMD5(byte[] data) throws Exception {

MessageDigest md5 = MessageDigest.getInstance(KEY_MD5);
md5.update(data);

return md5.digest();

}

/**
* SHA加密
*
* @param data
* @return
* @throws Exception
*/
public static byte[] encryptSHA(byte[] data) throws Exception {

MessageDigest sha = MessageDigest.getInstance(KEY_SHA);
sha.update(data);

return sha.digest();

}

/**
* 初始化HMAC密钥
*
* @return
* @throws Exception
*/
public static String initMacKey() throws Exception {
KeyGenerator keyGenerator = KeyGenerator.getInstance(KEY_MAC);

SecretKey secretKey = keyGenerator.generateKey();
return encryptBASE64(secretKey.getEncoded());
}

/**
* HMAC加密
*
* @param data
* @param key
* @return
* @throws Exception
*/
public static byte[] encryptHMAC(byte[] data, String key) throws Exception {

SecretKey secretKey = new SecretKeySpec(decryptBASE64(key), KEY_MAC);
Mac mac = Mac.getInstance(secretKey.getAlgorithm());
mac.init(secretKey);

return mac.doFinal(data);

}
}
package com.fj.blockchainmy.security;

import sun.misc.BASE64Decoder;
import sun.misc.BASE64Encoder;

import javax.crypto.Cipher;
import java.security.*;
import java.security.interfaces.RSAPrivateKey;
import java.security.interfaces.RSAPublicKey;
import java.security.spec.PKCS8EncodedKeySpec;
import java.security.spec.X509EncodedKeySpec;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;

/**
* @author: yangchun
* @description:
* @date: Created in 2019-11-12 15:24
*/
public class RSACoder extends Coder{
public static final String KEY_ALGORITHM = "RSA";
public static final String SIGNATURE_ALGORITHM = "MD5withRSA";

private static final String PUBLIC_KEY = "RSAPublicKey";
private static final String PRIVATE_KEY = "RSAPrivateKey";

/**
* 用私钥对信息生成数字签名
*
* @param data
* 加密数据
* @param privateKey
* 私钥
*
* @return
* @throws Exception
*/
public static String sign(byte[] data, String privateKey) throws Exception {
// 解密由base64编码的私钥
byte[] keyBytes = decryptBASE64(privateKey);

// 构造PKCS8EncodedKeySpec对象
PKCS8EncodedKeySpec pkcs8KeySpec = new PKCS8EncodedKeySpec(keyBytes);

// KEY_ALGORITHM 指定的加密算法
KeyFactory keyFactory = KeyFactory.getInstance(KEY_ALGORITHM);

// 取私钥匙对象
PrivateKey priKey = keyFactory.generatePrivate(pkcs8KeySpec);

// 用私钥对信息生成数字签名
Signature signature = Signature.getInstance(SIGNATURE_ALGORITHM);
signature.initSign(priKey);
signature.update(data);

return encryptBASE64(signature.sign());
}

/**
* 校验数字签名
*
* @param data
* 加密数据
* @param publicKey
* 公钥
* @param sign
* 数字签名
*
* @return 校验成功返回true 失败返回false
* @throws Exception
*
*/
public static boolean verify(byte[] data, String publicKey, String sign) throws Exception {

// 解密由base64编码的公钥
byte[] keyBytes = decryptBASE64(publicKey);

// 构造X509EncodedKeySpec对象
X509EncodedKeySpec keySpec = new X509EncodedKeySpec(keyBytes);

// KEY_ALGORITHM 指定的加密算法
KeyFactory keyFactory = KeyFactory.getInstance(KEY_ALGORITHM);

// 取公钥匙对象
PublicKey pubKey = keyFactory.generatePublic(keySpec);

Signature signature = Signature.getInstance(SIGNATURE_ALGORITHM);
signature.initVerify(pubKey);
signature.update(data);

// 验证签名是否正常
return signature.verify(decryptBASE64(sign));
}

/**
* 解密<br>
* 用私钥解密
*
* @param data
* @param key
* @return
* @throws Exception
*/
public static byte[] decryptByPrivateKey(byte[] data, String key) throws Exception {
// 对密钥解密
byte[] keyBytes = decryptBASE64(key);

// 取得私钥
PKCS8EncodedKeySpec pkcs8KeySpec = new PKCS8EncodedKeySpec(keyBytes);
KeyFactory keyFactory = KeyFactory.getInstance(KEY_ALGORITHM);
Key privateKey = keyFactory.generatePrivate(pkcs8KeySpec);

// 对数据解密
Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance(keyFactory.getAlgorithm());
cipher.init(Cipher.DECRYPT_MODE, privateKey);

return cipher.doFinal(data);
}

/**
* 解密<br>
* 用公钥解密
*
* @param data
* @param key
* @return
* @throws Exception
*/
public static byte[] decryptByPublicKey(byte[] data, String key) throws Exception {
// 对密钥解密
byte[] keyBytes = decryptBASE64(key);

// 取得公钥
X509EncodedKeySpec x509KeySpec = new X509EncodedKeySpec(keyBytes);
KeyFactory keyFactory = KeyFactory.getInstance(KEY_ALGORITHM);
Key publicKey = keyFactory.generatePublic(x509KeySpec);

// 对数据解密
Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance(keyFactory.getAlgorithm());
cipher.init(Cipher.DECRYPT_MODE, publicKey);

return cipher.doFinal(data);
}

/**
* 加密<br>
* 用公钥加密
*
* @param data
* @param key
* @return
* @throws Exception
*/
public static byte[] encryptByPublicKey(byte[] data, String key) throws Exception {
// 对公钥解密
byte[] keyBytes = decryptBASE64(key);

// 取得公钥
X509EncodedKeySpec x509KeySpec = new X509EncodedKeySpec(keyBytes);
KeyFactory keyFactory = KeyFactory.getInstance(KEY_ALGORITHM);
Key publicKey = keyFactory.generatePublic(x509KeySpec);

// 对数据加密
Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance(keyFactory.getAlgorithm());
cipher.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE, publicKey);

return cipher.doFinal(data);
}

/**
* 加密<br>
* 用私钥加密
*
* @param data
* @param key
* @return
* @throws Exception
*/
public static byte[] encryptByPrivateKey(byte[] data, String key) throws Exception {
// 对密钥解密
byte[] keyBytes = decryptBASE64(key);

// 取得私钥
PKCS8EncodedKeySpec pkcs8KeySpec = new PKCS8EncodedKeySpec(keyBytes);
KeyFactory keyFactory = KeyFactory.getInstance(KEY_ALGORITHM);
Key privateKey = keyFactory.generatePrivate(pkcs8KeySpec);

// 对数据加密
Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance(keyFactory.getAlgorithm());
cipher.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE, privateKey);

return cipher.doFinal(data);
}

/**
* 取得私钥
*
* @param keyMap
* @return
* @throws Exception
*/
public static String getPrivateKey(Map<String, Object> keyMap) throws Exception {
Key key = (Key) keyMap.get(PRIVATE_KEY);

return encryptBASE64(key.getEncoded());
}

/**
* 取得公钥
*
* @param keyMap
* @return
* @throws Exception
*/
public static String getPublicKey(Map<String, Object> keyMap) throws Exception {
Key key = (Key) keyMap.get(PUBLIC_KEY);

return encryptBASE64(key.getEncoded());
}

/**
* 初始化密钥
*
* @return
* @throws Exception
*/
public static Map<String, Object> initKey() throws Exception {
KeyPairGenerator keyPairGen = KeyPairGenerator.getInstance(KEY_ALGORITHM);
keyPairGen.initialize(1024);

KeyPair keyPair = keyPairGen.generateKeyPair();

// 公钥
RSAPublicKey publicKey = (RSAPublicKey) keyPair.getPublic();

// 私钥
RSAPrivateKey privateKey = (RSAPrivateKey) keyPair.getPrivate();

Map<String, Object> keyMap = new HashMap<String, Object>(2);

keyMap.put(PUBLIC_KEY, publicKey);
keyMap.put(PRIVATE_KEY, privateKey);
return keyMap;
}
}
package com.blockchain.security;

import java.security.MessageDigest;
import java.util.UUID;

import org.eclipse.jetty.util.security.Credential.MD5;

/**
* 加密工具类
*
* @author aaron.rao
*
*/
public class CryptoUtil {
private CryptoUtil() {
}

public static String SHA256(String str) {
MessageDigest messageDigest;
String encodeStr = "";
try {
messageDigest = MessageDigest.getInstance("SHA-256");
messageDigest.update(str.getBytes("UTF-8"));
encodeStr = byte2Hex(messageDigest.digest());
} catch (Exception e) {
System.out.println("getSHA256 is error" + e.getMessage());
}
return encodeStr;
}

public static String MD5(String str) {
String resultStr = MD5.digest(str);
return resultStr.substring(4, resultStr.length());
}

public static String UUID() {
return UUID.randomUUID().toString().replaceAll("\\-", "");
}

private static String byte2Hex(byte[] bytes) {
StringBuilder builder = new StringBuilder();
String temp;
for (int i = 0; i < bytes.length; i++) {
temp = Integer.toHexString(bytes[i] & 0xFF);
if (temp.length() == 1) {
builder.append("0");
}
builder.append(temp);
}
return builder.toString();
}

}

 

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