mysql日常维护

2018/05/04 08:59
阅读数 11

一、Linux内核和发行版本

uname -a
cat /etc/issue

二、glibc的版本
/lib/libc.so.6 ---没有man函数据的动态链接库

三、MySQL的版本
MySQL二进制分发版的文件名格式为:mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz
例如:Linux-Generic(glibc 2.5) (x86,64bit),Compressed TAR Archive(mysql-5.6.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64.tar.gz)

1、下载
https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mysql/
2、查rpm包装在什么目录下
rpm -qpl MySQL-server-5.6.23-1.el6.i686.rpm |more
rpm -qpl MySQL-client-5.6.23-1.el6.x86_64.rpm |more
3、更改rpm安装路径
rpm --help
rpm --prefix --relocate
rpmbuild spec binary rpm
yum install


四、rpm安装
rpm -ivh xxx.rmp
rpm -pql xxx.rmp


MySQL 实例安装和启动
1. 安装
mysql_install_db --defaults-file=/root/data/mysql3306/my.cnf --basedir=/usr/ --datadir=/root/data/mysql3306/data
2. 启动
mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/root/data/mysql3306/my.cnf &
3. 登录
mysql -h127.0.0.1 -uroot -P3306 -p




五、安装演示:

1.关闭mysql
ps -ef |grep mysqld
kill 3397 3801

2.安装
cat init3306
sh init3306.sh


3.启动
cat start3306.sh
sh start3306.sh

注意:mysql_install_db(通过安装rpm包产生mysql_install_db),有如下命令查看:
rpm -pql MySQL-server-5.5.42-1.linux2.6.i386.rpm |grep install
which mysql_install_db


4.看日志
tail -100f /root/data/mysql3306/log/alert.log
发生数据字典不存在,就会自动创建。。。。


5.查看进程
ps -ef |grep mysqld
mysqld_safe是mysqld的父进程



6.登录
sh my3306.sh --mysql -h127.0.0.1 -uroot --P3306


六、脚本:
1.---安装mysql: init3306.sh
rm -rf /root/data/mysql3306/data/*
rm -rf /root/log/mysql3306/iblog/*
rm -rf /root/log/mysql3306/binlog/*
chmod -R 777 /root/data/mysql3306/data/
chmod -R 777 /root/log/mysql3306/iblog/
chmod -R 777 /root/log/mysql3306/binlog/

chmod 755 /root/data/mysql3306/my.cnf

mysql_install_db --defaults-file=/root/data/mysql3306/my.cnf --basedir=/usr/ --datadir=/root/data/mysql3306/data

chmod -R 777 /root/data/mysql/3306/data/
chmod -R 777 /root/log/mysql3306/iblog/
chmod -R 777 /root/log/mysql3306/binlog/



2.--启动mysql: start336.sh
mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/root/data/mysql3306/my.cnf &


3.--登录mysql: my3306.sh
mysql -h127.0.0.1 -uroot -P3306 -p


------研究下
cd /root/data/mysql3306/data/mysql
cd /root/data/mysql3306/data/performance_schema --性能相关的
cd /root/data/mysql3306/data/test ---测试库
cd /root/log/mysql3306/iblog/ ---innodb自己的数据和日志




------了解my.cnf(多实例用端口来取分)
vi /root/data/mysql3306/my.cnf


[client]
port=3306
socket=/root/data/mysql3306/run/mysql.sock


[mysql]
port=3306
promprt=\\u@\\d \\r:\\m:\\s>


[mysqld]
default-storage-engine=INNODB
character-set-server=iatin1
explicit_defaults_for_timestamp=true


#dir
innodb_log_group_home_dir=/root/log/mysql3306/iblog
innodb_data_home_dir=/root/log/mysql3306/iblog
basedir=/usr
datadir=/root/data/mysql3306/data
tmpdir=/root/data/mysql3306/tmp
slave_load_tmpdir=/root/data/mysql3306/tmp
log-error=/root/data/mysql3306/log/alert.log
slow_query_log_file=/root/data/mysql3306/log/slow.log
relay_log_info_file=/root/log/mysql3306/binlog/relay-log.info
master-info-file=/root/log/mysql3306/binlog/master.info
socket=/root/data/mysql3306/run/mysql.sock
log-bin=/root/log/mysql3306/binlog/binlog
relay-log=/root/log/mysql3306/binlog/relaylog


innodb_force_recovery=0


七、操作mysql


1、登录mysql:
本地: mysql -u$usrename -p$password
远程: mysql -u$username -p$passwrod -h$ip
多实例:mysql -u$username -p$passwrod -P$port

2、用户操用
(1)创建用户
方法一:
insert into mysql.user(user,host,password) values('mytest','localhost',password('1234'));
flush privilege;
方法二:create user mystest@'%' identified by '1234';

(2)用户授权
单纯的授权
grant all privileges on *.* to mytest@localhost;
grant insert,update,delete,select on *.* to mytest@localhost;
授权并创建用户
grant all privileges on *.* to mytest@localhost identified by '1234';--创建用户并刷缓存,
(等同于:insert into mysql.user ,flush privilege)
grant all privileges on *.* to mytest@localhost; --对象权限
grant super on *.* to mytest@'%'; --系统权限 (supert相当于oracle中的dba权限)



3、实操
show databases; --查看所有的数据库
use mysql; --切到mysql数据库
use tables; --在mysql库的tables
select user,host,password from mysql.user; ----查mysql的所有用户,这个是由mysql_install_db创建的
grant all privilege on *.* to test_1@'%'; --all代表(select update,delete,alter admin,super_acl),第一个*用户,第二个*对象,%所有的主机
mysql -h127.0.0.1 -utest_1 ----用grant创建的用户登录mysql
select user(); ---当前是什么用户
create database jianfeng; ---创建数据库(mysql中的数据库类似于oracle中的schema
create table user(id int) engine=innodb ---创建表;
grant select on jianfeng.user to test_1@'%'; ---jianfeng.user表的查询授权给test_1用户
insert into mysql.user(user,host,password) values('test_2','%',password('1234')); --用这种方法创建test_2用户,有个问题权限没有
flush privileges; ---把mysql.user表的用户权限重新刷到内存中
show master status\G;
change master to xxx;
show processlist; ---查看当前用户的连接,线程形式(类似oracle中的v$session)


4、drop table处理
rename table test_1 to test;(可以快速切回来rename table test to test_1;)
备份mysqldump:mysqldump -h127.0.0.1 -uroot mydb gyj_t1 >/tmp/gyj_t1.sql
drop table test;


5、自增主键(最好是自己定义主键,系统默认的是全局的增量)
create table test (id int primary key auto_increment,name varchar(100)) engine=innodb;
show create table test\G;
create index test_name_idx on test(name);
show create table test\G;
insert into test(name) values('test');
commit;
select * from test;




6、alter table处理 --会动原来的数据,需要拷贝数据
alter table test add coll int;


7、执行计划
select * from test where id=1\G;
explain select * from test where id=1;
create index test_id_coll_idx on test(id,coll);
explain select * from test where id=1;
create index test_col_name on test(coll,name);
explain select * from test where coll>10 and name='xx';
show create table test\G;
alter table test drop index test_name_idx;
explain select * from test where coll>10 and name>'xx';


8、数据导出
(1)用dump导出数据
mysqldump -h127.0.0.1 -uroot mydb gyj_t1 >/tmp/xx.sql
drop table test;
source /tmp/xx.sql --导入数据


(2)用select导出数据
select * from test into outfile '/tmp/yy.sql';


9、数据迁移
(1)停机方式
mysqldump/loadata
(2)不停机方式
物理上:搭备库(可以级联5.5-->5.6,向下兼容的)
把主库read only,备库就能把主库转过来的binlog消化完,再把备库切为主
show variables like '%read%';
set global read_only=on;
insert into test(name) values('xx'); --插不进的,不能用root用户
(3)不同平台小表:oracle--->mysql
脚本:synfull.pl

(4)不同平台的一个大表迁多:增量迁移
a.把数据的全量迁过去
b.把迁的过程中产生的日志传过去
c.apply增量
d.锁表切切换

(5)增量
a.Oracle:物化视图
b.MySQL:trigger
create trigger tri_test
before insert,delete,update
insert test_log value(type,id);
end;
/
insert into test values(1,'xxx');
test_log value('insert','1');
lock table test;
应用切换

10、binlog
reset master; --会把当前的binlog清掉
show binlog events;
create table x1(id int);
show binlog events;
insert into x1 values(1);
commit;
show binlog events;
类似于: mysqlbinlog -vvv binlog.00001 > /tmp/binlog.log
vi /tmp/binlog.log
WAL: write ahead log,日志优先写


11、归档
flush logs;
show master status;


write ahead log. recover backup, duriably. undo acid mvcc

12、参数和统计信息
show variables; ----参数
show variables like '%bin%';
show status; ----统计信息
show global status like'%insert%';
insert into test(name) values('xxxxx');


show variables like '%default%';
set global default_storage_engine=myisam; ---不影响当前会话的操作,影响新建立的连接
set session default_storage_engine=myisam; ---影响当前会话的操作


---连接池
max_connect
min_connect
max_idle
time_out

disconnect --释放

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