对COVID-19论文进行自动分类——文献聚合分类实现方案

2020/10/28 14:09
阅读数 359

概述

在这里插入图片描述

实现步骤:

  • 使用自然语言处理(NLP)从每个文档的正文中解析文本。
  • 使用术语频率-逆文档频率(TF-IDF)将每个文档实例𝑑𝑖转换为特征向量 feature。
  • 使用 t 分布随机近邻嵌入(t-SNE)对每个特征向量进行降维,将相似的文章聚集在二维平面 𝑋1 中。
  • 使用主成分分析(PCA)将数据的维数投影到多个维,这些维将保持 0.95 的方差,同时消除嵌入 𝑌2 时的噪声和离群值。
  • 在 𝑌2 上应用 k-means 聚类,其中𝑘为 10,以标记 𝑌1 上的每个聚类。
  • 使用潜在狄利克雷分配(LDA)建模,以从每个聚类中发现关键字。
  • 在可视化图形上可视地查找聚类,并使用随机梯度下降(SGD)进行分类。

数据获取和加载

数据集说明:
为了应对COVID-19大流行,白宫和主要研究小组的联盟已经准备好了COVID-19开放研究数据集(CORD-19)。 CORD-19的资源超过300,000篇学术文章,涉及COVID-19,SARS-CoV-2和相关的冠状病毒。 我们本文中采用的就是改数据集。

import numpy as np # linear algebra
import pandas as pd # data processing, CSV file I/O (e.g. pd.read_csv)
import glob
import json

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

#设置字体、图形样式
%matplotlib inline
%config InlineBackend.figure_format = 'retina'
plt.rcParams['font.sans-serif'] = [u'SimHei']
plt.rcParams['axes.unicode_minus'] = False
plt.rcParams['font.sans-serif'] = ['Arial Unicode MS']
plt.style.use('ggplot')

实验数据

我们可以通过:https://www.kaggle.com/allen-institute-for-ai/CORD-19-research-challenge/download 下载文献数据。下载完成后,先加载文献集的元数据,如下:

root_path = '/Users/shen/Documents/local jupyter/COVID-19/archive/'
metadata_path = f'{root_path}/metadata.csv'
meta_df = pd.read_csv(metadata_path, dtype={
   
   
    'pubmed_id': str,
    'Microsoft Academic Paper ID': str, 
    'doi': str
})
meta_df.head()
/usr/local/lib/python3.8/site-packages/IPython/core/interactiveshell.py:3145: DtypeWarning: Columns (5,13,14,16) have mixed types.Specify dtype option on import or set low_memory=False.
  has_raised = await self.run_ast_nodes(code_ast.body, cell_name,
cord_uid sha source_x title doi pmcid pubmed_id license abstract publish_time authors journal mag_id who_covidence_id arxiv_id pdf_json_files pmc_json_files url s2_id
0 ug7v899j d1aafb70c066a2068b02786f8929fd9c900897fb PMC Clinical features of culture-proven Mycoplasma... 10.1186/1471-2334-1-6 PMC35282 11472636 no-cc OBJECTIVE: This retrospective chart review des... 2001-07-04 Madani, Tariq A; Al-Ghamdi, Aisha A BMC Infect Dis NaN NaN NaN document_parses/pdf_json/d1aafb70c066a2068b027... document_parses/pmc_json/PMC35282.xml.json https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3... NaN
1 02tnwd4m 6b0567729c2143a66d737eb0a2f63f2dce2e5a7d PMC Nitric oxide: a pro-inflammatory mediator in l... 10.1186/rr14 PMC59543 11667967 no-cc Inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract... 2000-08-15 Vliet, Albert van der; Eiserich, Jason P; Cros... Respir Res NaN NaN NaN document_parses/pdf_json/6b0567729c2143a66d737... document_parses/pmc_json/PMC59543.xml.json https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5... NaN
2 ejv2xln0 06ced00a5fc04215949aa72528f2eeaae1d58927 PMC Surfactant protein-D and pulmonary host defense 10.1186/rr19 PMC59549 11667972 no-cc Surfactant protein-D (SP-D) participates in th... 2000-08-25 Crouch, Erika C Respir Res NaN NaN NaN document_parses/pdf_json/06ced00a5fc04215949aa... document_parses/pmc_json/PMC59549.xml.json https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5... NaN
3 2b73a28n 348055649b6b8cf2b9a376498df9bf41f7123605 PMC Role of endothelin-1 in lung disease 10.1186/rr44 PMC59574 11686871 no-cc Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a 21 amino acid peptide... 2001-02-22 Fagan, Karen A; McMurtry, Ivan F; Rodman, David M Respir Res NaN NaN NaN document_parses/pdf_json/348055649b6b8cf2b9a37... document_parses/pmc_json/PMC59574.xml.json https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5... NaN
4 9785vg6d 5f48792a5fa08bed9f56016f4981ae2ca6031b32 PMC Gene expression in epithelial cells in respons... 10.1186/rr61 PMC59580 11686888 no-cc Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and pneumoni... 2001-05-11 Domachowske, Joseph B; Bonville, Cynthia A; Ro... Respir Res NaN NaN NaN document_parses/pdf_json/5f48792a5fa08bed9f560... document_parses/pmc_json/PMC59580.xml.json https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5... NaN

当我们后续将文章聚类,以查看哪些文章聚类在一起时,“title”和“journal”属性可能在以后有用。

meta_df.info()
<class 'pandas.core.frame.DataFrame'>
RangeIndex: 301667 entries, 0 to 301666
Data columns (total 19 columns):
 #   Column            Non-Null Count   Dtype  
---  ------            --------------   -----  
 0   cord_uid          301667 non-null  object 
 1   sha               111985 non-null  object 
 2   source_x          301667 non-null  object 
 3   title             301587 non-null  object 
 4   doi               186832 non-null  object 
 5   pmcid             116337 non-null  object 
 6   pubmed_id         164429 non-null  object 
 7   license           301667 non-null  object 
 8   abstract          214463 non-null  object 
 9   publish_time      301501 non-null  object 
 10  authors           291797 non-null  object 
 11  journal           282758 non-null  object 
 12  mag_id            0 non-null       float64
 13  who_covidence_id  99624 non-null   object 
 14  arxiv_id          3884 non-null    object 
 15  pdf_json_files    111985 non-null  object 
 16  pmc_json_files    85059 non-null   object 
 17  url               203159 non-null  object 
 18  s2_id             268534 non-null  float64
dtypes: float64(2), object(17)
memory usage: 43.7+ MB

提取文献路径

所有的文献资料已转化为 json 格式的数据,直接加载即可,资料中提供了两种格式的文献资料,分别是PDF的和pmc的,因为数据较多,运行比较耗时,我们这里中选择了PDF的文献。

all_json = glob.glob(f'{root_path}document_parses/pdf_json/*.json', recursive=True)
len(all_json)
118839

一些方法和类的定义

先来定义一个文档阅读器

class FileReader:
    def __init__(self, file_path):
        with open(file_path) as file:
            content = json.load(file)
            self.paper_id = content['paper_id']
            self.abstract = []
            self.body_text = []
            # Abstract
            for entry in content['abstract']:
                self.abstract.append(entry['text'])
            # Body text
            for entry in content['body_text']:
                self.body_text.append(entry['text'])
            self.abstract = '\n'.join(self.abstract)
            self.body_text = '\n'.join(self.body_text)
    def __repr__(self):
        return f'{self.paper_id}: {self.abstract[:200]}... {self.body_text[:200]}...'
first_row = FileReader(all_json[0])
print(first_row)
efe13333c69a364cb5d4463ba93815e6fc2d91c6: Background... a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 available data; 78%). In addition, significant increases in the levels of lactate dehydrogenase and α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase were det...

辅助功能会在字符长度达到一定数量时在每个单词后添加断点。

def get_breaks(content, length):
    data = ""
    words = content.split(' ')
    total_chars = 0

    # 添加每个长度的字符
    for i in range(len(words)):
        total_chars += len(words[i])
        if total_chars > length:
            data = data + "<br>" + words[i]
            total_chars = 0
        else:
            data = data + " " + words[i]
    return data

将数据加载到DataFrame

将文章读入 DataFrame 数据中,这里会比较慢:

%%time

dict_ = {
   
   'paper_id': [], 'doi':[], 'abstract': [], 'body_text': [], 'authors': [], 'title': [], 'journal': [], 'abstract_summary': []}
for idx, entry in enumerate(all_json):
    if idx % (len(all_json) // 10) == 0:
        print(f'Processing index: {idx} of {len(all_json)}')
    
    try:
        content = FileReader(entry)
    except Exception as e:
        continue  # 无效的文章格式,跳过
    
    # 获取元数据信息
    meta_data = meta_df.loc[meta_df['sha'] == content.paper_id]
    # 没有元数据,跳过本文
    if len(meta_data) == 0:
        continue
    
    dict_['abstract'].append(content.abstract)
    dict_['paper_id'].append(content.paper_id)
    dict_['body_text'].append(content.body_text)
    
    # 为要在绘图中使用的摘要创建一列
    if len(content.abstract) == 0: 
        # 没有提供摘要
        dict_['abstract_summary'].append("Not provided.")
    elif len(content.abstract.split(' ')) > 100:
        # 提供的摘要太长,取前100个字 + ...
        info = content.abstract.split(' ')[:100]
        summary = get_breaks(' '.join(info), 40)
        dict_['abstract_summary'].append(summary + "...")
    else:
        summary = get_breaks(content.abstract, 40)
        dict_['abstract_summary'].append(summary)
        
    # 获取元数据信息
    meta_data = meta_df.loc[meta_df['sha'] == content.paper_id]
    
    try:
        # 如果超过一位作者
        authors = meta_data['authors'].values[0].split(';')
        if len(authors) > 2:
            # 如果作者多于2名,在两者之间用html标记分隔
            dict_['authors'].append(get_breaks('. '.join(authors), 40))
        else:
            dict_['authors'].append(". ".join(authors))
    except Exception as e:
        # 如果只有一位作者或为Null值
        dict_['authors'].append(meta_data['authors'].values[0])
    
    # 添加标题信息
    try:
        title = get_breaks(meta_data['title'].values[0], 40)
        dict_['title'].append(title)
    # 没有提供标题
    except Exception as e:
        dict_['title'].append(meta_data['title'].values[0])
    
    # 添加日记信息
    dict_['journal'].append(meta_data['journal'].values[0])
    
    # 添加 doi
    dict_['doi'].append(meta_data['doi'].values[0])
    
df_covid = pd.DataFrame(dict_, columns=['paper_id', 'doi', 'abstract', 'body_text', 'authors', 'title', 'journal', 'abstract_summary'])
df_covid.head()
Processing index: 0 of 118839
Processing index: 11883 of 118839
Processing index: 23766 of 118839
Processing index: 35649 of 118839
Processing index: 47532 of 118839
Processing index: 59415 of 118839
Processing index: 71298 of 118839
Processing index: 83181 of 118839
Processing index: 95064 of 118839
Processing index: 106947 of 118839
Processing index: 118830 of 118839
paper_id doi abstract body_text authors title journal abstract_summary
0 efe13333c69a364cb5d4463ba93815e6fc2d91c6 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003130 Background a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a111111111... Zhang, Che. Gu, Jiaowei. Chen, Quanjing. D... Clinical and epidemiological<br>characteristi... PLoS Med Background
1 4fcb95cc0c4ea6d1fa4137a4a087715ed6b68cea 10.1007/s00431-019-03543-0 Abnormal levels of end-tidal carbon dioxide (E... Improvements in neonatal intensive care have r... Tamura, Kentaro. Williams, Emma E. Dassios,... End-tidal carbon dioxide levels during<br>res... Eur J Pediatr Abnormal levels of end-tidal carbon dioxide<b...
2 94310f437664763acbb472df37158b9694a3bf3a 10.1371/journal.pone.0236618 This study aimed to develop risk scores based ... The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID- 19) is an... Zhao, Zirun. Chen, Anne. Hou, Wei. Graham,... Prediction model and risk scores of ICU<br>ad... PLoS One This study aimed to develop risk scores based...
3 86d4262de73cf81b5ea6aafb91630853248bff5f 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2011.06.011 The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the biggest ... The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multi-func... Lynes, Emily M.. Simmen, Thomas Urban planning of the endoplasmic reticulum<b... Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the biggest...
4 b2f67d533f2749807f2537f3775b39da3b186051 10.1016/j.fsiml.2020.100013 There is a disproportionate number of individu... Liebrenz, Michael. Bhugra, Dinesh. Buadze,<... Caring for persons in detention suffering wit... Forensic Science International: Mind and Law Not provided.

熟悉数据

对摘要和正文的字数进行统计

# 摘要中的字数统计
df_covid['abstract_word_count'] = df_covid['abstract'].apply(lambda x: len(x.strip().split()))
# 正文中的字数统计
df_covid['body_word_count'] = df_covid['body_text'].apply(lambda x: len(x.strip().split()))
# 正文中唯一词的统计
df_covid['body_unique_words']=df_covid['body_text'].apply(lambda x:len(set(str(x).split())))
df_covid.head()
paper_id doi abstract body_text authors title journal abstract_summary abstract_word_count body_word_count body_unique_words
0 efe13333c69a364cb5d4463ba93815e6fc2d91c6 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003130 Background a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a111111111... Zhang, Che. Gu, Jiaowei. Chen, Quanjing. D... Clinical and epidemiological<br>characteristi... PLoS Med Background 1 3667 1158
1 4fcb95cc0c4ea6d1fa4137a4a087715ed6b68cea 10.1007/s00431-019-03543-0 Abnormal levels of end-tidal carbon dioxide (E... Improvements in neonatal intensive care have r... Tamura, Kentaro. Williams, Emma E. Dassios,... End-tidal carbon dioxide levels during<br>res... Eur J Pediatr Abnormal levels of end-tidal carbon dioxide<b... 218 2601 830
2 94310f437664763acbb472df37158b9694a3bf3a 10.1371/journal.pone.0236618 This study aimed to develop risk scores based ... The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID- 19) is an... Zhao, Zirun. Chen, Anne. Hou, Wei. Graham,... Prediction model and risk scores of ICU<br>ad... PLoS One This study aimed to develop risk scores based... 225 3223 1187
3 86d4262de73cf81b5ea6aafb91630853248bff5f 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2011.06.011 The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the biggest ... The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multi-func... Lynes, Emily M.. Simmen, Thomas Urban planning of the endoplasmic reticulum<b... Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the biggest... 234 8069 2282
4 b2f67d533f2749807f2537f3775b39da3b186051 10.1016/j.fsiml.2020.100013 There is a disproportionate number of individu... Liebrenz, Michael. Bhugra, Dinesh. Buadze,<... Caring for persons in detention suffering wit... Forensic Science International: Mind and Law Not provided. 0 1126 540

处理重复项

df_covid.info()
<class 'pandas.core.frame.DataFrame'>
RangeIndex: 105888 entries, 0 to 105887
Data columns (total 11 columns):
 #   Column               Non-Null Count   Dtype 
---  ------               --------------   ----- 
 0   paper_id             105888 non-null  object
 1   doi                  102776 non-null  object
 2   abstract             105888 non-null  object
 3   body_text            105888 non-null  object
 4   authors              104211 non-null  object
 5   title                105887 non-null  object
 6   journal              95374 non-null   object
 7   abstract_summary     105888 non-null  object
 8   abstract_word_count  105888 non-null  int64 
 9   body_word_count      105888 non-null  int64 
 10  body_unique_words    105888 non-null  int64 
dtypes: int64(3), object(8)
memory usage: 8.9+ MB
df_covid['abstract'].describe(include='all')
count     105888
unique     71331
top             
freq       34018
Name: abstract, dtype: object

根据唯一值,我们可以看到一些重复项,这可能是由于作者将文章提交到多个期刊引起的。我们从数据集中删除重复项:

df_covid.drop_duplicates(['abstract', 'body_text'], inplace=True)
df_covid['abstract'].describe(include='all')
count     105675
unique     71331
top             
freq       33877
Name: abstract, dtype: object
df_covid['body_text'].describe(include='all')
count                              105675
unique                             105668
top       J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f 
freq                                    2
Name: body_text, dtype: object

现在看来没有重复项了。

再来看看数据

df_covid.head()
paper_id doi abstract body_text authors title journal abstract_summary abstract_word_count body_word_count body_unique_words
0 efe13333c69a364cb5d4463ba93815e6fc2d91c6 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003130 Background a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a111111111... Zhang, Che. Gu, Jiaowei. Chen, Quanjing. D... Clinical and epidemiological<br>characteristi... PLoS Med Background 1 3667 1158
1 4fcb95cc0c4ea6d1fa4137a4a087715ed6b68cea 10.1007/s00431-019-03543-0 Abnormal levels of end-tidal carbon dioxide (E... Improvements in neonatal intensive care have r... Tamura, Kentaro. Williams, Emma E. Dassios,... End-tidal carbon dioxide levels during<br>res... Eur J Pediatr Abnormal levels of end-tidal carbon dioxide<b... 218 2601 830
2 94310f437664763acbb472df37158b9694a3bf3a 10.1371/journal.pone.0236618 This study aimed to develop risk scores based ... The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID- 19) is an... Zhao, Zirun. Chen, Anne. Hou, Wei. Graham,... Prediction model and risk scores of ICU<br>ad... PLoS One This study aimed to develop risk scores based... 225 3223 1187
3 86d4262de73cf81b5ea6aafb91630853248bff5f 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2011.06.011 The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the biggest ... The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multi-func... Lynes, Emily M.. Simmen, Thomas Urban planning of the endoplasmic reticulum<b... Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the biggest... 234 8069 2282
4 b2f67d533f2749807f2537f3775b39da3b186051 10.1016/j.fsiml.2020.100013 There is a disproportionate number of individu... Liebrenz, Michael. Bhugra, Dinesh. Buadze,<... Caring for persons in detention suffering wit... Forensic Science International: Mind and Law Not provided. 0 1126 540

论文主体,使用body_text字段

论文链接,使用doi字段

df_covid.describe()
abstract_word_count body_word_count body_unique_words
count 105675.000000 105675.000000 105675.000000
mean 153.020251 3953.499115 1219.518656
std 196.612981 7889.414632 1331.522819
min 0.000000 1.000000 1.000000
25% 0.000000 1436.000000 641.000000
50% 141.000000 2872.000000 1035.000000
75% 231.000000 4600.000000 1467.000000
max 7415.000000 279623.000000 38298.000000

数据预处理

现在已经加载了数据集,我们为了聚类效果,需要先清洗文本。首先,删除 Null 值:

df_covid.dropna(inplace=True)
df_covid.info()
<class 'pandas.core.frame.DataFrame'>
Int64Index: 93295 entries, 0 to 105887
Data columns (total 11 columns):
 #   Column               Non-Null Count  Dtype 
---  ------               --------------  ----- 
 0   paper_id             93295 non-null  object
 1   doi                  93295 non-null  object
 2   abstract             93295 non-null  object
 3   body_text            93295 non-null  object
 4   authors              93295 non-null  object
 5   title                93295 non-null  object
 6   journal              93295 non-null  object
 7   abstract_summary     93295 non-null  object
 8   abstract_word_count  93295 non-null  int64 
 9   body_word_count      93295 non-null  int64 
 10  body_unique_words    93295 non-null  int64 
dtypes: int64(3), object(8)
memory usage: 8.5+ MB

接下来,我们将确定每篇论文的语言。大部分都是英语,但不全是,因此需要识别语言,以便我们知道如何处理。

from tqdm import tqdm
from langdetect import detect
from langdetect import DetectorFactory

# 设置种子
DetectorFactory.seed = 0

# 保留标签-语言
languages = []

# 文本遍历
for ii in tqdm(range(0,len(df_covid))):
    # 按body_text分成列表
    text = df_covid.iloc[ii]['body_text'].split(" ")
    
    lang = "en"
    try:
        if len(text) > 50:
            lang = detect(" ".join(text[:50]))
        elif len(text) > 0:
            lang = detect(" ".join(text[:len(text)]))
    # 文档开头的格式不正确
    except Exception as e:
        all_words = set(text)
        try:
            lang = detect(" ".join(all_words))
        except Exception as e:
            
            try:
                # 通过摘要标记
                lang = detect(df_covid.iloc[ii]['abstract_summary'])
            except Exception as e:
                lang = "unknown"
                pass
    
    languages.append(lang)
100%|██████████| 93295/93295 [09:31<00:00, 163.21it/s]
from pprint import pprint

languages_dict = {
   
   }
for lang in set(languages):
    languages_dict[lang] = languages.count(lang)
    
print("Total: {}\n".format(len(languages)))
pprint(languages_dict)
Total: 93295

{'af': 3,
 'ca': 4,
 'cy': 7,
 'de': 1158,
 'en': 90495,
 'es': 840,
 'et': 1,
 'fr': 566,
 'id': 1,
 'it': 42,
 'nl': 123,
 'pl': 1,
 'pt': 43,
 'ro': 1,
 'sq': 1,
 'sv': 1,
 'tl': 2,
 'tr': 1,
 'vi': 1,
 'zh-cn': 4}

看一下各语言的分布情况:

df_covid['language'] = languages
plt.bar(range(len(languages_dict)), list(languages_dict.values()), align='center')
plt.xticks(range(len(languages_dict)), list(languages_dict.keys()))
plt.title("Distribution of Languages in Dataset")
plt.show()

在这里插入图片描述

其他语言的论文很少,删除所有非英语的语言:

df_covid = df_covid[df_covid['language'] == 'en'] 
df_covid.info()
<class 'pandas.core.frame.DataFrame'>
Int64Index: 90495 entries, 0 to 105887
Data columns (total 12 columns):
 #   Column               Non-Null Count  Dtype 
---  ------               --------------  ----- 
 0   paper_id             90495 non-null  object
 1   doi                  90495 non-null  object
 2   abstract             90495 non-null  object
 3   body_text            90495 non-null  object
 4   authors              90495 non-null  object
 5   title                90495 non-null  object
 6   journal              90495 non-null  object
 7   abstract_summary     90495 non-null  object
 8   abstract_word_count  90495 non-null  int64 
 9   body_word_count      90495 non-null  int64 
 10  body_unique_words    90495 non-null  int64 
 11  language             90495 non-null  object
dtypes: int64(3), object(9)
memory usage: 9.0+ MB
# 下载 spacy 解析器
from IPython.utils import io
with io.capture_output() as captured:
    !pip install https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/ai2-s2-scispacy/releases/v0.2.4/en_core_sci_lg-0.2.4.tar.gz
#NLP 
import spacy
from spacy.lang.en.stop_words import STOP_WORDS
import en_core_sci_lg
/usr/local/lib/python3.8/site-packages/spacy/util.py:275: UserWarning: [W031] Model 'en_core_sci_lg' (0.2.4) requires spaCy v2.2 and is incompatible with the current spaCy version (2.3.2). This may lead to unexpected results or runtime errors. To resolve this, download a newer compatible model or retrain your custom model with the current spaCy version. For more details and available updates, run: python -m spacy validate
  warnings.warn(warn_msg)

为了在聚类时降噪,删除英文停用词(一些没有实际含义的词,比如the a it等)

import string

punctuations = string.punctuation
stopwords = list(STOP_WORDS)
stopwords[:10]
['’s',
 'sometimes',
 'until',
 'may',
 'most',
 'each',
 'formerly',
 'nevertheless',
 'ever',
 'though']
custom_stop_words = [
    'doi', 'preprint', 'copyright', 'peer', 'reviewed', 'org', 'https', 'et', 'al', 'author', 'figure', 
    'rights', 'reserved', 'permission', 'used', 'using', 'biorxiv', 'medrxiv', 'license', 'fig', 'fig.', 
    'al.', 'Elsevier', 'PMC', 'CZI', 'www'
]

for w in custom_stop_words:
    if w not in stopwords:
        stopwords.append(w)

接下来,创建一个处理文本数据的函数。该函数会将文本转换为小写字母,删除标点符号和停用词。对于解析器,使用en_core_sci_lg。

parser = en_core_sci_lg.load(disable=["tagger", "ner"])
parser.max_length = 7000000

def spacy_tokenizer(sentence):
    mytokens = parser(sentence)
    mytokens = [ word.lemma_.lower().strip() if word.lemma_ != "-PRON-" else word.lower_ for word in mytokens ]
    mytokens = [ word for word in mytokens if word not in stopwords and word not in punctuations ]
    mytokens = " ".join([i for i in mytokens])
    return mytokens

body_text上应用文本处理功能。

tqdm.pandas()
df_covid["processed_text"] = df_covid["body_text"].progress_apply(spacy_tokenizer)
/usr/local/lib/python3.8/site-packages/tqdm/std.py:697: FutureWarning: The Panel class is removed from pandas. Accessing it from the top-level namespace will also be removed in the next version
  from pandas import Panel
100%|██████████| 90495/90495 [6:34:56<00:00,  3.82it/s]   

让我们看一下论文中的字数统计:

import seaborn as sns

sns.distplot(df_covid['body_word_count'])
df_covid['body_word_count'].describe()
count     90495.000000
mean       3529.074413
std        3817.917262
min           1.000000
25%        1402.500000
50%        2851.000000
75%        4550.000000
max      179548.000000
Name: body_word_count, dtype: float64

在这里插入图片描述

sns.distplot(df_covid['body_unique_words'])
df_covid['body_unique_words'].describe()
count    90495.000000
mean      1153.912758
std        813.610719
min          1.000000
25%        635.000000
50%       1037.000000
75%       1465.000000
max      25156.000000
Name: body_unique_words, dtype: float64

在这里插入图片描述

这两幅图使我们对正在处理的内容有了一个很好的了解。 大多数论文的长度约为5000字。 两个图中的长尾巴都是由异常值引起的。 实际上,约有98%的论文篇幅少于20,000个字,而少数论文则超过200,000个!

向量化

目前,我们已经对数据进行了预处理,现在将其转换为可以由我们算法处理的格式。

我们将使用TF/IDF,这是衡量每个单词对整个文献重要性衡量的标准方式。

from sklearn.feature_extraction.text import TfidfVectorizer
def vectorize(text, maxx_features):
    
    vectorizer = TfidfVectorizer(max_features=maxx_features)
    X = vectorizer.fit_transform(text)
    return X

向量化我们的数据,我们将基于正文的内容进行聚类。特征最大数量我们限制为前2 ** 12,首先为了降低噪声,此外,太多的话运行时间也会过长。

text = df_covid['processed_text'].values
X = vectorize(text, 2 ** 12)
X.shape
(90495, 4096)

PCA

对矢量数据进行主成分分析(PCA)。这样做的原因是,通过PCA保留大部分信息,但是可以从数据中消除一些噪音/离群值,使k-means的聚类更加容易。

注意,X_reduced仅用于k-均值,t-SNE仍使用通过tf-idf对NLP处理的文本生成的原始特征向量X。

from sklearn.decomposition import PCA

pca = PCA(n_components=0.95, random_state=42)
X_reduced= pca.fit_transform(X.toarray())
X_reduced.shape
(90495, 2793)

聚类划分

为了分开文献,将在矢量文本上运行k-means。 给定簇数k,k-means将通过取平均距离到随机初始化的质心的方式对每个向量进行分类,重心迭代更新。

from sklearn.cluster import KMeans

在这里插入图片描述

我们需要找到最佳k值,具体做法是让k从1开始取值直到取到你认为合适的上限(一般来说这个上限不会太大,这里因为文献类目较多,我们选取上限为50),对每一个k值进行聚类并且记下对于的SSE,然后画出k和SSE的关系图(手肘形),最后选取肘部对应的k作为我们的最佳聚类数。

from sklearn import metrics
from scipy.spatial.distance import cdist

# 用不同的k运行kmeans
distortions = []
K = range(2, 50)
for k in K:
    k_means = KMeans(n_clusters=k, random_state=42).fit(X_reduced)
    k_means.fit(X_reduced)
    distortions.append(sum(np.min(cdist(X_reduced, k_means.cluster_centers_, 'euclidean'), axis=1)) / X.shape[0])
X_line = [K[0], K[-1]]
Y_line = [distortions[0], distortions[-1]]

plt.plot(K, distortions, 'b-')
plt.plot(X_line, Y_line, 'r')
plt.xlabel('k')
plt.ylabel('Distortion')
plt.title('肘法显示最优k')
plt.show()

在这里插入图片描述

在该图中,我们可以看到较好的k值在8-15之间。 此后,失真的降低就不那么明显了。 为简单起见,我们将使用k = 10。现在我们有了一个合适的k值,然后在经过PCA处理的特征向量(X_reduced)上运行k-means:

k = 10
kmeans = KMeans(n_clusters=k, random_state=42)
y_pred = kmeans.fit_predict(X_reduced)
df_covid['y'] = y_pred

使用t-SNE降维

t分布随机邻域嵌入(t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding,t-SNE),是一种用于探索高维数据的非线性降维机器学习算法。它将多维数据映射到适合于人类观察的两个或多个维度。PCA是一种线性算法,它不能解释特征之间的复杂多项式关系。而t-SNE是基于在邻域图上随机游走的概率分布来找到数据内的结构。

from sklearn.manifold import TSNE

tsne = TSNE(verbose=1, perplexity=100, random_state=42)
X_embedded = tsne.fit_transform(X.toarray())
[t-SNE] Computing 301 nearest neighbors...
[t-SNE] Indexed 90495 samples in 114.698s...
[t-SNE] Computed neighbors for 90495 samples in 51904.808s...
[t-SNE] Computed conditional probabilities for sample 1000 / 90495
[t-SNE] Computed conditional probabilities for sample 2000 / 90495
[t-SNE] Computed conditional probabilities for sample 3000 / 90495
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[t-SNE] Mean sigma: 0.324191
[t-SNE] KL divergence after 250 iterations with early exaggeration: 110.000687
[t-SNE] KL divergence after 1000 iterations: 3.334843

让我们看一下数据压缩为2维后的样子:

%matplotlib inline
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import seaborn as sns
 
plt.rcParams['font.family'] = ['Arial Unicode MS'] #用来正常显示中文标签
plt.rcParams['axes.unicode_minus'] = False #用来正常显示负号
 
sns.set_style('whitegrid',{
   
   'font.sans-serif':['Arial Unicode MS','Arial']})


# 设置颜色
palette = sns.color_palette("bright", 1)

plt.figure(figsize=(15, 15))
sns.scatterplot(X_embedded[:,0], X_embedded[:,1], palette=palette)
plt.title('无标签显示 t-SNE')
plt.savefig("./t-sne_covid19.png")
plt.show()

在这里插入图片描述

从图上也看不出什么来,我们可以看到一些簇,但是靠近中心的许多实例很难分离。t-SNE在降低尺寸方面做得很好,但是现在我们需要一些标签。我们可以使用k-means发现的聚类作为标签,这样有助于从视觉上区分文献主题。

# 设置颜色
palette = sns.hls_palette(10, l=.4, s=.9)

plt.figure(figsize=(15, 15))
sns.scatterplot(X_embedded[:,0], X_embedded[:,1], hue=y_pred, legend='full', palette=palette)
plt.title('带有Kmeans标签的t-SNE')
plt.savefig("./improved_cluster_tsne.png")
plt.show()

在这里插入图片描述

这张图就能很好的区分文献的分组方式,即使k-means和t-SNE是独立运行的,但是它们也能够在集群上达成共识。通过t-SNE可以确定每个文献在图中的位置,而通过k-means则可以确定标签(颜色)。不过,也有一些标签(k-means)很分散的散布在绘图上(t-SNE),因为有些文献的主题经常相交,很难将它们清晰地分开。

作为一种无监督的方法,这些算法可以找到人类不熟悉的数据划分方式。通过对划分结果的研究,我们可能会发现一些隐藏的数据信息,从而推进进一步的研究。当然数据的这种组织方式并不能充当简单的搜索引擎,我们目前只是对文献的数学相似性执行聚类和降维。

主题建模

现在,我们将尝试在每个聚类中找到可以充当关键字的词。K-means将文章聚类,但未标记主题。通过主题建模,我们将发现每个集群最重要的关键字是什么。通过提供关键字以快速识别集群的主题。

对于主题建模,我们将使用LDA(隐含狄利克雷分布)。 在LDA中,每个文档都可以通过主题分布来描述,每个主题都可以通过单词分布来描述。首先,我们将创建10个矢量化容器,每个集群标签一个。

from sklearn.decomposition import LatentDirichletAllocation
from sklearn.feature_extraction.text import CountVectorizer

vectorizers = []
    
for ii in range(0, 10):
    # Creating a vectorizer
    vectorizers.append(CountVectorizer(min_df=5, max_df=0.9, stop_words='english', lowercase=True, token_pattern='[a-zA-Z\-][a-zA-Z\-]{2,}'))

vectorizers[0]
CountVectorizer(max_df=0.9, min_df=5, stop_words='english',
                token_pattern='[a-zA-Z\\-][a-zA-Z\\-]{2,}')

现在,我们将对每个集群的数据进行矢量化处理:

vectorized_data = []

for current_cluster, cvec in enumerate(vectorizers):
    try:
        vectorized_data.append(cvec.fit_transform(df_covid.loc[df_covid['y'] == current_cluster, 'processed_text']))
    except Exception as e:
        print("集群中实例不足: " + str(current_cluster))
        vectorized_data.append(None)
        
len(vectorized_data)
10

主题建模使用LDA来完成,可以通过共享的主题来解释集群。

NUM_TOPICS_PER_CLUSTER = 10

lda_models = []
for ii in range(0, NUM_TOPICS_PER_CLUSTER):
    # 隐含狄利克雷分布模型
    lda = LatentDirichletAllocation(n_components=NUM_TOPICS_PER_CLUSTER, max_iter=10, learning_method='online',verbose=False, random_state=42)
    lda_models.append(lda)
    
lda_models[0]
LatentDirichletAllocation(learning_method='online', random_state=42,
                          verbose=False)

对于每个集群,我们在上一步中创建了一个对应的LDA模型。现在,我们将对所有LDA模型进行适当的聚类转换。

clusters_lda_data = []

for current_cluster, lda in enumerate(lda_models):
    
    if vectorized_data[current_cluster] != None:
        clusters_lda_data.append((lda.fit_transform(vectorized_data[current_cluster])))

从每个群集中提取关键字:

# 输出每个主题的关键字的功能:
def selected_topics(model, vectorizer, top_n=3):
    current_words = []
    keywords = []
    
    for idx, topic in enumerate(model.components_):
        words = [(vectorizer.get_feature_names()[i], topic[i]) for i in topic.argsort()[:-top_n - 1:-1]]
        for word in words:
            if word[0] not in current_words:
                keywords.append(word)
                current_words.append(word[0])
                
    keywords.sort(key = lambda x: x[1])  
    keywords.reverse()
    return_values = []
    for ii in keywords:
        return_values.append(ii[0])
    return return_values

将单个群集的关键字列表追加到长度为NUM_TOPICS_PER_CLUSTER的列表中:

all_keywords = []
for current_vectorizer, lda in enumerate(lda_models):

    if vectorized_data[current_vectorizer] != None:
        all_keywords.append(selected_topics(lda, vectorizers[current_vectorizer]))
all_keywords[0][:10]
['ang',
 'covid-',
 'patient',
 'bind',
 'protein',
 'lung',
 'sars-cov-',
 'gene',
 'tmprss',
 'effect']
len(all_keywords)
10

我们先把当前输出内容保存到文件,不然重新运行上面的内容非常耗时(我断断续续的运行了两三天,尤其是矢量化和t-SNE)。

f=open('topics.txt','w')

count = 0

for ii in all_keywords:

    if vectorized_data[count] != None:
        f.write(', '.join(ii) + "\n")
    else:
        f.write("实例数量不足。 \n")
        f.write(', '.join(ii) + "\n")
    count += 1

f.close()
import pickle

# 保存COVID-19 DataFrame
pickle.dump(df_covid, open("df_covid.p", "wb" ))

# 保存最终的t-SNE
pickle.dump(X_embedded, open("X_embedded.p", "wb" ))

# 保存用k-means生成的标签(10)
pickle.dump(y_pred, open("y_pred.p", "wb" ))

分类

在运行kmeans之后,现在已对数据进行“标记”。这意味着我们现在可以使用监督学习来了解聚类的概括程度。这只是评估聚类的一种方法,如果k-means能够在数据中找到有意义的拆分,则应该可以训练分类器来预测给定实例应属于哪个聚类。

# 打印分类模型报告
def classification_report(model_name, test, pred):
    from sklearn.metrics import precision_score, recall_score
    from sklearn.metrics import accuracy_score
    from sklearn.metrics import f1_score
    
    print(model_name, ":\n")
    print("Accuracy Score: ", '{:,.3f}'.format(float(accuracy_score(test, pred)) * 100), "%")
    print("     Precision: ", '{:,.3f}'.format(float(precision_score(test, pred, average='macro')) * 100), "%")
    print("        Recall: ", '{:,.3f}'.format(float(recall_score(test, pred, average='macro')) * 100), "%")
    print("      F1 score: ", '{:,.3f}'.format(float(f1_score(test, pred, average='macro')) * 100), "%")

划分训练集和测试集

from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split

# 测试集大小为数据的20%,随机种子为42
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X.toarray(),y_pred, test_size=0.2, random_state=42)

print("X_train size:", len(X_train))
print("X_test size:", len(X_test), "\n")
X_train size: 72396
X_test size: 18099 

精确率:预测结果为正例样本中真实为正例的比例(查得准);

召回率:真实为正例的样本中预测结果为正例的比例(查的全,对正样本的区分能力);

F1分数:精度和查全率的谐波平均值,只有精度和召回率都很高时,F1分数才会很高。

from sklearn.model_selection import cross_val_score
from sklearn.model_selection import cross_val_predict
from sklearn.linear_model import SGDClassifier

# SGD 实例
sgd_clf = SGDClassifier(max_iter=10000, tol=1e-3, random_state=42, n_jobs=4)
# 训练 SGD
sgd_clf.fit(X_train, y_train)

# 交叉验证
sgd_pred = cross_val_predict(sgd_clf, X_train, y_train, cv=3, n_jobs=4)

# 分类报告
classification_report("随机梯度下降报告(训练集)", y_train, sgd_pred)
随机梯度下降报告(训练集) :

Accuracy Score:  93.015 %
     Precision:  93.202 %
        Recall:  92.543 %
      F1 score:  92.829 %

然后看看测试集表现如何:

sgd_pred = cross_val_predict(sgd_clf, X_test, y_test, cv=3, n_jobs=4)

classification_report("随机梯度下降报告(测试集)", y_test, sgd_pred)
随机梯度下降报告(测试集) :

Accuracy Score:  91.292 %
     Precision:  91.038 %
        Recall:  90.799 %
      F1 score:  90.887 %

现在,让我们看看模型在整个数据集中如何:

sgd_cv_score = cross_val_score(sgd_clf, X.toarray(), y_pred, cv=10)
print("Mean cv Score - SGD: {:,.3f}".format(float(sgd_cv_score.mean()) * 100), "%")
Mean cv Score - SGD: 93.484 %

BokehJS 绘制数据

前面的步骤为我们提供了聚类标签和二维的论文数据集。然后通过k-means,我们可以看到论文的划分情况。为了理解同一聚类的相似之处,我们还对每组论文进行了主题建模,以挑选出关键词。

现在我们会使用Bokeh进行绘图,它会将实际论文与其在t-SNE图上的位置配对。通过这种方法,将更容易看到这些论文是如何组合在一起的,从而可以研究数据集和评估聚类。

import os

# 切换到lib目录以加载绘图python脚本
main_path = os.getcwd()
lib_path = '/Users/shen/Documents/local jupyter/COVID-19/archive/resources'
os.chdir(lib_path)
# 绘图所需的库
import bokeh
from bokeh.models import ColumnDataSource, HoverTool, LinearColorMapper, CustomJS, Slider, TapTool, TextInput
from bokeh.palettes import Category20
from bokeh.transform import linear_cmap, transform
from bokeh.io import output_file, show, output_notebook
from bokeh.plotting import figure
from bokeh.models import RadioButtonGroup, TextInput, Div, Paragraph
from bokeh.layouts import column, widgetbox, row, layout
from bokeh.layouts import column

os.chdir(main_path)

函数加载:

# 处理当前选择的文章
def selected_code():
    code = """
            var titles = [];
            var authors = [];
            var journals = [];
            var links = [];
            cb_data.source.selected.indices.forEach(index => titles.push(source.data['titles'][index]));
            cb_data.source.selected.indices.forEach(index => authors.push(source.data['authors'][index]));
            cb_data.source.selected.indices.forEach(index => journals.push(source.data['journal'][index]));
            cb_data.source.selected.indices.forEach(index => links.push(source.data['links'][index]));
            var title = "<h4>" + titles[0].toString().replace(/<br>/g, ' ') + "</h4>";
            var authors = "<p1><b>作者:</b> " + authors[0].toString().replace(/<br>/g, ' ') + "<br>"
          //  var journal = "<b>刊物:</b>" + journals[0].toString() + "<br>"
            var link = "<b>文章链接:</b> <a href='" + "http://doi.org/" + links[0].toString() + "'>" + "http://doi.org/" + links[0].toString() + "</a></p1>"
            current_selection.text = title + authors + link
            current_selection.change.emit();
    """
    return code

# 处理关键字并搜索
def input_callback(plot, source, out_text, topics):
    

    # slider call back
    callback = CustomJS(args=dict(p=plot, source=source, out_text=out_text, topics=topics), code="""
				var key = text.value;
				key = key.toLowerCase();
				var cluster = slider.value;
                var data = source.data; 
            
                console.log(cluster);
                
                var x = data['x'];
                var y = data['y'];
                var x_backup = data['x_backup'];
                var y_backup = data['y_backup'];
                var labels = data['desc'];
                var abstract = data['abstract'];
                var titles = data['titles'];
                var authors = data['authors'];
                var journal = data['journal'];
                if (cluster == '10') {
                    out_text.text = '关键词:滑动到特定的群集以查看关键词。';
                    for (var i = 0; i < x.length; i++) {
						if(abstract[i].includes(key) || 
						titles[i].includes(key) || 
						authors[i].includes(key) || 
						journal[i].includes(key)) {
							x[i] = x_backup[i];
							y[i] = y_backup[i];
						} else {
							x[i] = undefined;
							y[i] = undefined;
						}
                    }
                }
                else {
                    out_text.text = '关键词: ' + topics[Number(cluster)];
                    for (var i = 0; i < x.length; i++) {
                        if(labels[i] == cluster) {
							if(abstract[i].includes(key) || 
							titles[i].includes(key) || 
							authors[i].includes(key) || 
							journal[i].includes(key)) {
								x[i] = x_backup[i];
								y[i] = y_backup[i];
							} else {
								x[i] = undefined;
								y[i] = undefined;
							}
                        } else {
                            x[i] = undefined;
                            y[i] = undefined;
                        }
                    }
                }
            source.change.emit();
            """)
    return callback

每个集群加载关键字:

import os

topic_path = 'topics.txt'
with open(topic_path) as f:
    topics = f.readlines()
    
# 在notebook中显示
output_notebook()
# 目标标签
y_labels = y_pred

# 数据源
source = ColumnDataSource(data=dict(
    x= X_embedded[:,0], 
    y= X_embedded[:,1],
    x_backup = X_embedded[:,0],
    y_backup = X_embedded[:,1],
    desc= y_labels, 
    titles= df_covid['title'],
    authors = df_covid['authors'],
    journal = df_covid['journal'],
    abstract = df_covid['abstract_summary'],
    labels = ["C-" + str(x) for x in y_labels],
    links = df_covid['doi']
    ))

# 鼠标悬停的信息显示
hover = HoverTool(tooltips=[
    ("标题", "@titles{safe}"),
    ("作者", "@authors{safe}"),
    ("出版物", "@journal"),
    ("简介", "@abstract{safe}"),
    ("文章链接", "@links")
],
point_policy="follow_mouse")

# 绘图颜色
mapper = linear_cmap(field_name='desc', 
                     palette=Category20[10],
                     low=min(y_labels) ,high=max(y_labels))

# 大小
plot = figure(plot_width=1200, plot_height=850, 
           tools=[hover, 'pan', 'wheel_zoom', 'box_zoom', 'reset', 'save', 'tap'], 
           title="用t-SNE和K-Means对COVID-19文献进行聚类", 
           toolbar_location="above")

# 绘图
plot.scatter('x', 'y', size=5, 
          source=source,
          fill_color=mapper,
          line_alpha=0.3,
          line_color="black",
          legend = 'labels')
plot.legend.background_fill_alpha = 0.6
Loading BokehJS ...
BokehDeprecationWarning: 'legend' keyword is deprecated, use explicit 'legend_label', 'legend_field', or 'legend_group' keywords instead

部件加载:

# 关键字
text_banner = Paragraph(text= '关键词:滑动到特定的群集以查看关键词。', height=45)
input_callback_1 = input_callback(plot, source, text_banner, topics)

# 当前选择的文章
div_curr = Div(text="""单击图解以查看文章的链接。""",height=150)
callback_selected = CustomJS(args=dict(source=source, current_selection=div_curr), code=selected_code())
taptool = plot.select(type=TapTool)
taptool.callback = callback_selected

# 工具栏
# slider = Slider(start=0, end=10, value=10, step=1, title="簇 #", callback=input_callback_1)
slider = Slider(start=0, end=10, value=10, step=1, title="簇 #")

# slider.callback = input_callback_1

keyword = TextInput(title="搜索:")
# keyword.callback = input_callback_1

# 回掉参数
input_callback_1.args["text"] = keyword
input_callback_1.args["slider"] = slider

slider.js_on_change('value', input_callback_1)
keyword.js_on_change('value', input_callback_1)

样式设置:

slider.sizing_mode = "stretch_width"
slider.margin=15

keyword.sizing_mode = "scale_both"
keyword.margin=15

div_curr.style={
   
   'color': '#BF0A30', 'font-family': 'Helvetica Neue, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;', 'font-size': '1.1em'}
div_curr.sizing_mode = "scale_both"
div_curr.margin = 20

text_banner.style={
   
   'color': '#0269A4', 'font-family': 'Helvetica Neue, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;', 'font-size': '1.1em'}
text_banner.sizing_mode = "scale_both"
text_banner.margin = 20

plot.sizing_mode = "scale_both"
plot.margin = 5

r = row(div_curr,text_banner)
r.sizing_mode = "stretch_width"

显示:

# 页面布局
l = layout([
    [slider, keyword],
#     [slider],
    [text_banner],
    [div_curr],
    [plot],
])
l.sizing_mode = "scale_both"

output_file('t-sne_covid-19_interactive.html')
show(l)

这里没法放html片段,所以我把最终结果制作成动图展示:
在这里插入图片描述

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