Docker学习笔记二

2020/01/08 09:33
阅读数 42

3.操作Docker容器

3.1.创建容器

3.1.1.新建容器

命令:docker [container] create

新建的容器处于停止状态,可以使用docker [container] start命令来启动它。 输入命令 --help即可查看相关用法

3.1.2.启动容器

命令:docker [container] start

Usage:	docker start [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]
Start one or more stopped containers
Options:
  -a, --attach               Attach STDOUT/STDERR and forward signals
      --detach-keys string   Override the key sequence for detaching a container
      --help                 Print usage
  -i, --interactive          Attach container's STDIN

3.1.3.新建并启动容器

命令: docker [container]run

相当于先执行docker [container] create新建容器再执行docker [container] start

该命令执行的操作:

  1. 检查本地是否存在指定的镜像,不存在就从公有仓库下载;
  2. 利用镜像创建一个容器,并启动该容器; 口分配一个文件系统给容器,并在只读的镜像层外面挂载一层可读写层;
  3. 从宿主主机配置的网桥接口中桥接一个虚拟接口到容器中去;
  4. 从网桥的地址池配置一个 IP 地址给容器;
  5. 执行用户指定的应用程序;
  6. 执行完毕后容器被自动终止。

下面的命令启动一个 bash 终端,允许用户进行交互:

其中,-t 选项让 Docker 分配一个伪终端并绑定到容器的标准输入上,-i则让容器的标准输入保持打开。

3.1.4.守护态运行

-d参数可以让Docker容器在后台以守护态运行:

3.1.5.查看容器输出

命令:docker [container] logs

Usage:	docker container logs [OPTIONS] CONTAINER
Fetch the logs of a container
Options:
      --details        Show extra details provided to logs
  -f, --follow         Follow log output
      --help           Print usage
      --since string   Show logs since timestamp
      --tail string    Number of lines to show from the end of the logs (default "all")
  -t, --timestamps     Show timestamps

3.2.停止容器

3.2.1.暂停容器

命令:docker [container] pause 容器ID/容器名 ,可以用 docker [container] unpause 容器ID/容器名 来恢复

3.2.2.终止容器

命令:docker [containter] stop

Usage:	docker stop [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]
Stop one or more running containers
Options:
      --help       Print usage
  -t, --time int   Seconds to wait for stop before killing it (default 10)

可以通过docker [containter] start命令重新启动,docker [containter] restart则会使正在运行的容器先停止,然后再重新启动。

3.3.进入容器

在使用-d参数时,容器启动后会进入后台,用户无法看到容器中的信息,也无法进行操作。如果要进入容器进行操作,可以使用attachexec命令

3.3.1.attach命令

命令:docker attach 容器名/容器ID

Usage:	docker attach [OPTIONS] CONTAINER
Attach to a running container
Options:
      --detach-keys string   Override the key sequence for detaching a container
      --help                 Print usage
      --no-stdin             Do not attach STDIN
      --sig-proxy            Proxy all received signals to the process (default true)

如果多个窗口同时attach到同一个容器的时候,所有的窗口都会同步显示;当某个窗口因为命令阻塞时,其他窗口也无法进行操作。

3.3.2.exec命令

命令:docker [container] exec 容器名/容器ID 命令

Usage:	docker exec [OPTIONS] CONTAINER COMMAND [ARG...]
Run a command in a running container
Options:
  -d, --detach               Detached mode: run command in the background
      --detach-keys string   Override the key sequence for detaching a container
  -e, --env list             Set environment variables (default [])
      --help                 Print usage
  -i, --interactive          Keep STDIN open even if not attached
      --privileged           Give extended privileges to the command
  -t, --tty                  Allocate a pseudo-TTY
  -u, --user string          Username or UID (format: <name|uid>[:<group|gid>])

3.4.删除容器

命令:docker [container] rm 容器名/容器ID

可以用来删除处于终止状态或退出状态的容器,-f参数可以强行删除

Usage:	docker rm [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]
Remove one or more containers
Options:
  -f, --force     Force the removal of a running container (uses SIGKILL)
      --help      Print usage
  -l, --link      Remove the specified link
  -v, --volumes   Remove the volumes associated with the container

3.5.导入和导出容器

3.5.1.导出容器

命令:docker [container] export

Usage:	docker export [OPTIONS] CONTAINER
Export a container's filesystem as a tar archive
Options:
      --help            Print usage
  -o, --output string   Write to a file, instead of STDOUT

3.5.2.导入容器

命令:docker [container] import

Usage:	docker import [OPTIONS] file|URL|- [REPOSITORY[:TAG]]
Import the contents from a tarball to create a filesystem image
Options:
  -c, --change list      Apply Dockerfile instruction to the created image (default [])
      --help             Print usage
  -m, --message string   Set commit message for imported image

3.6.查看容器

3.6.1.查看容器详情

命令:docker container inspect [OPTIONS] 容器名/容器ID

Usage:	docker container inspect [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]
Display detailed information on one or more containers
Options:
  -f, --format string   Format the output using the given Go template
      --help            Print usage
  -s, --size            Display total file sizes

内容太多,下面的部分就省略了...

3.6.2.查看容器内进程

命令:docker top CONTAINER [ps OPTIONS]

3.6.3.查看统计信息

命令:docker stats [OPTIONS] [CONTAINER...]

Usage:	docker stats [OPTIONS] [CONTAINER...]
Display a live stream of container(s) resource usage statistics
Options:
  -a, --all             Show all containers (default shows just running)
      --format string   Pretty-print images using a Go template
      --help            Print usage
      --no-stream       Disable streaming stats and only pull the first result

3.7.其他容器命令

3.7.1.复制文件

命令:docker cp

Usage:	docker cp [OPTIONS] CONTAINER:SRC_PATH DEST_PATH|-
	docker cp [OPTIONS] SRC_PATH|- CONTAINER:DEST_PATH
Copy files/folders between a container and the local filesystem
Options:
  -a, --archive       Archive mode (copy all uid/gid information)
  -L, --follow-link   Always follow symbol link in SRC_PATH
      --help          Print usage

3.7.2.查看变更

命令:docker [container] diff 容器名/容器ID

3.7.3.查看端口映射

命令:docker container port 容器名/容器ID [PRIVATE_PORT[/PROTO]]

3.7.4.更新配置

命令:docker update [OPTIONS] 容器名/容器ID

Usage:	docker update [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]
Update configuration of one or more containers
Options:
      --blkio-weight uint16         Block IO (relative weight), between 10 and 1000, or 0 to disable (default 0)
      --cpu-period int              Limit CPU CFS (Completely Fair Scheduler) period
      --cpu-quota int               Limit CPU CFS (Completely Fair Scheduler) quota
      --cpu-rt-period int           Limit the CPU real-time period in microseconds
      --cpu-rt-runtime int          Limit the CPU real-time runtime in microseconds
  -c, --cpu-shares int              CPU shares (relative weight)
      --cpuset-cpus string          CPUs in which to allow execution (0-3, 0,1)
      --cpuset-mems string          MEMs in which to allow execution (0-3, 0,1)
      --help                        Print usage
      --kernel-memory string        Kernel memory limit
  -m, --memory string               Memory limit
      --memory-reservation string   Memory soft limit
      --memory-swap string          Swap limit equal to memory plus swap: '-1' to enable unlimited swap
      --restart string              Restart policy to apply when a container exits
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