AspNetCore3.1_Middleware源码解析_1_CORS中间件

2019/04/10 10:10
阅读数 14

概述

什么是跨域

在前后端分离开发方式中,跨域是我们经常会遇到的问题。所谓的跨域,就是出于安全考虑,A域名向B域名发出Ajax请求,浏览器会拒绝,抛出类似下图的错误。

image

JSONP

JSONP不是标准跨域协议,更像是聪明程序员投机取巧的办法。这种方式的原理就是js是没有跨域限制的,你想想你引用bootstrap.js是不是网络地址放进来就可以用了。
实际上,所有src属性都不限制跨域的,比如img标签使用跨域图片是不会有问题的。

过程大体分下面四步。

  • 首先约定数据格式和回调函数名
  • A网站引用B网站的js
  • B网站用约定好的回调函数将数据包裹起来,在A引用的js里返回
  • A网站在回调函数中获取数据

这个方案的优点是兼容性比较好,古老版本的IE都可以支持,毕竟只是基于js的一个技巧,并没有新的技术或协议。
缺点比较明显,只支持GET,理解起来比较别扭,调用失败不会返回http状态码,安全性存在一定问题。

CORS

CORS的全称是Cross Origin Resource Sharing,翻译过来就是跨域资源共享。

跨域问题本质就是浏览器处于安全考虑,阻止了客户端跨域请求。但说到底,客户端请求安不安全还不是服务端说了算的,服务端都说我们家大米你们随便吃,浏览器还阻止,这不是碍事吗,你个物业还当自己业主啦?

但是浏览器也不能随便放行,毕竟网上冲浪的不仅有正经客人,还有小偷,真出问题了还得吐槽物业稀烂。浏览器说,服务端,这个客户端要去你家吃大米,你得告诉我你同不同意啊,服务端说我咋告诉你啊,我总不能来个人就冲着岗亭喊 I'M OK吧。浏览器说那我们搞个协议吧,整个互联网小区都按这个规范来,你们就按这个格式回复我。

这个协议就是CORS了。

下图描述了简单请求的流程。

<div class="mermaid"> graph LR; A(客户端)-->B(不带Orgin跨域请求); B-->C(浏览器拒绝); A-->D(带Origin跨域请求); D-->E(服务端返回白名单); E-->F(白名单内); E-->G(白名单外); F-->H(浏览器放行); G-->C </div> <script src="https://unpkg.com/mermaid/dist/mermaid.min.js"></script>

关于CORS简单请求,复杂请求,以及详细内容参考下面文章,不再赘述。 http://www.ruanyifeng.com/blog/2016/04/cors.html

CORS的缺点就是IE10以下不支持,如果你的项目需要兼容这些浏览器的话需要注意。

怎么实现CORS

CORS说白了其实就是在响应头里加东西,你可以在运维环节比如nginx加,可以在代码里加,常见的做法是中间件统一处理。AspNetCore为我们提供了CORS中间件。

AspNetCore_CORS中间件的使用

使用CORS中间件两句代码就够了,在Startup文件中

//注入CORS相关的服务,配置跨域策略
public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
{
    //策略1,允许所有域名跨域访问
    config.AddPolicy("policy1", policy => {
                    policy.AllowAnyOrigin().
                        AllowAnyMethod().
                        AllowAnyOrigin().
                        AllowAnyMethod();
                        //注意:AllowAnyOrigin和AllowCredential不能同时出现,否则会报错
                        //AllowCredential即是否允许客户端发送cookie,基于安全原因,CORS协议规定不允许AllowOrigin为通配符的情况下设置允许发送cookie
                        //.AllowCredentials();
                });

    //策略2,仅允许特定域名、方法、请求头访问
    config.AddPolicy("policy2",policy=> {
        //只允许https://www.holdengong.com跨域访问
        policy.WithOrigins("https://www.holdengong.com")
        //只允许get,post方法
        .WithMethods("GET", "POST")
        //请求头中只允许有额外的头Authorization
        .WithHeaders("Authorization")
        //对于复杂请求,浏览器会首先发送预检请求(OPTIONS),服务端返回204,并在响应头中返回跨域设置
        //此处可以设置预检请求的有效时长,即30分钟内不会再检查是否允许跨域
        .SetPreflightMaxAge(TimeSpan.FromMinutes(30));
    });
}

//使用CORS中间件, 指定使用CorsPolicy
public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app)
{
    //使用policy1
    app.UseCors("policy1");
}

注意:AllowAnyOrigin和AllowCredential不能同时配置,否则会报错。如果要允许客户端发送cookie的话,只能使用WithOrgin来执行允许跨域白名单

微软使用的策略设计模式,方便我们灵活使用跨域策略。比如,开发环境允许localhost跨域访问,方便开发调试,正式环境只允许指定域名访问。

源码解析

核心对象

services.TryAdd(ServiceDescriptor.Transient<ICorsService, CorsService>());

services.TryAdd(ServiceDescriptor.Transient<ICorsPolicyProvider, DefaultCorsPolicyProvider>());

services.Configure(setupAction);
  • CorsOptions:主要定义了字典PolicyMap,键是策略名称,值是跨域策略。用户可以在注入的时候往这个对象里面加跨域策略。然后提供了一些新增策略的操作方法。
// DefaultCorsPolicyProvider returns a Task<CorsPolicy>. We'll cache the value to be returned alongside
// the actual policy instance to have a separate lookup.
internal IDictionary<string, (CorsPolicy policy, Task<CorsPolicy> policyTask)> PolicyMap { get; }
    = new Dictionary<string, (CorsPolicy, Task<CorsPolicy>)>(StringComparer.Ordinal);
  • ICorsService:有两个方法,EvaluatePolicy--评估策略,主要做一些校验、记录日志和分流预检请求和真实请求的工作; PopulateResult--执行策略,将结果填充到CorsResult对象中。

    public class CorsService : ICorsService
    {
        private readonly CorsOptions _options;
        private readonly ILogger _logger;

        /// <summary>
        /// Creates a new instance of the <see cref="CorsService"/>.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="options">The option model representing <see cref="CorsOptions"/>.</param>
        /// <param name="loggerFactory">The <see cref="ILoggerFactory"/>.</param>
        public CorsService(IOptions<CorsOptions> options, ILoggerFactory loggerFactory)
        {
            if (options == null)
            {
                throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(options));
            }

            if (loggerFactory == null)
            {
                throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(loggerFactory));
            }

            _options = options.Value;
            _logger = loggerFactory.CreateLogger<CorsService>();
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Looks up a policy using the <paramref name="policyName"/> and then evaluates the policy using the passed in
        /// <paramref name="context"/>.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="context"></param>
        /// <param name="policyName"></param>
        /// <returns>A <see cref="CorsResult"/> which contains the result of policy evaluation and can be
        /// used by the caller to set appropriate response headers.</returns>
        public CorsResult EvaluatePolicy(HttpContext context, string policyName)
        {
            if (context == null)
            {
                throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(context));
            }

            var policy = _options.GetPolicy(policyName);
            return EvaluatePolicy(context, policy);
        }

        /// <inheritdoc />
        public CorsResult EvaluatePolicy(HttpContext context, CorsPolicy policy)
        {
            if (context == null)
            {
                throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(context));
            }

            if (policy == null)
            {
                throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(policy));
            }

            if (policy.AllowAnyOrigin && policy.SupportsCredentials)
            {
                throw new ArgumentException(Resources.InsecureConfiguration, nameof(policy));
            }

            var requestHeaders = context.Request.Headers;
            var origin = requestHeaders[CorsConstants.Origin];

            var isOptionsRequest = string.Equals(context.Request.Method, CorsConstants.PreflightHttpMethod, StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase);
            var isPreflightRequest = isOptionsRequest && requestHeaders.ContainsKey(CorsConstants.AccessControlRequestMethod);

            if (isOptionsRequest && !isPreflightRequest)
            {
                _logger.IsNotPreflightRequest();
            }

            var corsResult = new CorsResult
            {
                IsPreflightRequest = isPreflightRequest,
                IsOriginAllowed = IsOriginAllowed(policy, origin),
            };

            if (isPreflightRequest)
            {
                EvaluatePreflightRequest(context, policy, corsResult);
            }
            else
            {
                EvaluateRequest(context, policy, corsResult);
            }

            return corsResult;
        }

        private static void PopulateResult(HttpContext context, CorsPolicy policy, CorsResult result)
        {
            var headers = context.Request.Headers;
            if (policy.AllowAnyOrigin)
            {
                result.AllowedOrigin = CorsConstants.AnyOrigin;
                result.VaryByOrigin = policy.SupportsCredentials;
            }
            else
            {
                var origin = headers[CorsConstants.Origin];
                result.AllowedOrigin = origin;
                result.VaryByOrigin = policy.Origins.Count > 1;
            }

            result.SupportsCredentials = policy.SupportsCredentials;
            result.PreflightMaxAge = policy.PreflightMaxAge;

            // https://fetch.spec.whatwg.org/#http-new-header-syntax
            AddHeaderValues(result.AllowedExposedHeaders, policy.ExposedHeaders);

            var allowedMethods = policy.AllowAnyMethod ?
                new[] { result.IsPreflightRequest ? (string)headers[CorsConstants.AccessControlRequestMethod] : context.Request.Method } :
                policy.Methods;
            AddHeaderValues(result.AllowedMethods, allowedMethods);

            var allowedHeaders = policy.AllowAnyHeader ?
                headers.GetCommaSeparatedValues(CorsConstants.AccessControlRequestHeaders) :
                policy.Headers;
            AddHeaderValues(result.AllowedHeaders, allowedHeaders);
        }

        public virtual void EvaluateRequest(HttpContext context, CorsPolicy policy, CorsResult result)
        {
            PopulateResult(context, policy, result);
        }

        public virtual void EvaluatePreflightRequest(HttpContext context, CorsPolicy policy, CorsResult result)
        {
            PopulateResult(context, policy, result);
        }

        /// <inheritdoc />
        public virtual void ApplyResult(CorsResult result, HttpResponse response)
        {
            if (result == null)
            {
                throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(result));
            }

            if (response == null)
            {
                throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(response));
            }

            if (!result.IsOriginAllowed)
            {
                // In case a server does not wish to participate in the CORS protocol, its HTTP response to the
                // CORS or CORS-preflight request must not include any of the above headers.
                return;
            }

            var headers = response.Headers;
            headers[CorsConstants.AccessControlAllowOrigin] = result.AllowedOrigin;

            if (result.SupportsCredentials)
            {
                headers[CorsConstants.AccessControlAllowCredentials] = "true";
            }

            if (result.IsPreflightRequest)
            {
                _logger.IsPreflightRequest();

                // An HTTP response to a CORS-preflight request can include the following headers:
                // `Access-Control-Allow-Methods`, `Access-Control-Allow-Headers`, `Access-Control-Max-Age`
                if (result.AllowedHeaders.Count > 0)
                {
                    headers.SetCommaSeparatedValues(CorsConstants.AccessControlAllowHeaders, result.AllowedHeaders.ToArray());
                }

                if (result.AllowedMethods.Count > 0)
                {
                    headers.SetCommaSeparatedValues(CorsConstants.AccessControlAllowMethods, result.AllowedMethods.ToArray());
                }

                if (result.PreflightMaxAge.HasValue)
                {
                    headers[CorsConstants.AccessControlMaxAge] = result.PreflightMaxAge.Value.TotalSeconds.ToString(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture);
                }
            }
            else
            {
                // An HTTP response to a CORS request that is not a CORS-preflight request can also include the following header:
                // `Access-Control-Expose-Headers`
                if (result.AllowedExposedHeaders.Count > 0)
                {
                    headers.SetCommaSeparatedValues(CorsConstants.AccessControlExposeHeaders, result.AllowedExposedHeaders.ToArray());
                }
            }

            if (result.VaryByOrigin)
            {
                headers.Append("Vary", "Origin");
            }
        }

        private static void AddHeaderValues(IList<string> target, IList<string> headerValues)
        {
            if (headerValues == null)
            {
                return;
            }

            for (var i = 0; i < headerValues.Count; i++)
            {
                target.Add(headerValues[i]);
            }
        }

        private bool IsOriginAllowed(CorsPolicy policy, StringValues origin)
        {
            if (StringValues.IsNullOrEmpty(origin))
            {
                _logger.RequestDoesNotHaveOriginHeader();
                return false;
            }

            _logger.RequestHasOriginHeader(origin);
            if (policy.AllowAnyOrigin || policy.IsOriginAllowed(origin))
            {
                _logger.PolicySuccess();
                return true;
            }
            _logger.PolicyFailure();
            _logger.OriginNotAllowed(origin);
            return false;
        }
  • ICorsPolicyProvider: 很简单,只有一个方法,GetPolicyAsync--根据policyName取出跨域策略。

中间件

CorsMiddleware
// Copyright (c) .NET Foundation. All rights reserved.
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0. See License.txt in the project root for license information.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Globalization;
using System.Linq;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Http;
using Microsoft.Extensions.Logging;
using Microsoft.Extensions.Options;
using Microsoft.Extensions.Primitives;

namespace Microsoft.AspNetCore.Cors.Infrastructure
{
    /// <summary>
    /// Default implementation of <see cref="ICorsService"/>.
    /// </summary>
    public class CorsService : ICorsService
    {
        private readonly CorsOptions _options;
        private readonly ILogger _logger;

        /// <summary>
        /// Creates a new instance of the <see cref="CorsService"/>.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="options">The option model representing <see cref="CorsOptions"/>.</param>
        /// <param name="loggerFactory">The <see cref="ILoggerFactory"/>.</param>
        public CorsService(IOptions<CorsOptions> options, ILoggerFactory loggerFactory)
        {
            if (options == null)
            {
                throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(options));
            }

            if (loggerFactory == null)
            {
                throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(loggerFactory));
            }

            _options = options.Value;
            _logger = loggerFactory.CreateLogger<CorsService>();
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Looks up a policy using the <paramref name="policyName"/> and then evaluates the policy using the passed in
        /// <paramref name="context"/>.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="context"></param>
        /// <param name="policyName"></param>
        /// <returns>A <see cref="CorsResult"/> which contains the result of policy evaluation and can be
        /// used by the caller to set appropriate response headers.</returns>
        public CorsResult EvaluatePolicy(HttpContext context, string policyName)
        {
            if (context == null)
            {
                throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(context));
            }

            var policy = _options.GetPolicy(policyName);
            return EvaluatePolicy(context, policy);
        }

        /// <inheritdoc />
        public CorsResult EvaluatePolicy(HttpContext context, CorsPolicy policy)
        {
            if (context == null)
            {
                throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(context));
            }

            if (policy == null)
            {
                throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(policy));
            }

            if (policy.AllowAnyOrigin && policy.SupportsCredentials)
            {
                throw new ArgumentException(Resources.InsecureConfiguration, nameof(policy));
            }

            var requestHeaders = context.Request.Headers;
            var origin = requestHeaders[CorsConstants.Origin];

            var isOptionsRequest = string.Equals(context.Request.Method, CorsConstants.PreflightHttpMethod, StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase);
            var isPreflightRequest = isOptionsRequest && requestHeaders.ContainsKey(CorsConstants.AccessControlRequestMethod);

            if (isOptionsRequest && !isPreflightRequest)
            {
                _logger.IsNotPreflightRequest();
            }

            var corsResult = new CorsResult
            {
                IsPreflightRequest = isPreflightRequest,
                IsOriginAllowed = IsOriginAllowed(policy, origin),
            };

            if (isPreflightRequest)
            {
                EvaluatePreflightRequest(context, policy, corsResult);
            }
            else
            {
                EvaluateRequest(context, policy, corsResult);
            }

            return corsResult;
        }

        private static void PopulateResult(HttpContext context, CorsPolicy policy, CorsResult result)
        {
            var headers = context.Request.Headers;
            if (policy.AllowAnyOrigin)
            {
                result.AllowedOrigin = CorsConstants.AnyOrigin;
                result.VaryByOrigin = policy.SupportsCredentials;
            }
            else
            {
                var origin = headers[CorsConstants.Origin];
                result.AllowedOrigin = origin;
                result.VaryByOrigin = policy.Origins.Count > 1;
            }

            result.SupportsCredentials = policy.SupportsCredentials;
            result.PreflightMaxAge = policy.PreflightMaxAge;

            // https://fetch.spec.whatwg.org/#http-new-header-syntax
            AddHeaderValues(result.AllowedExposedHeaders, policy.ExposedHeaders);

            var allowedMethods = policy.AllowAnyMethod ?
                new[] { result.IsPreflightRequest ? (string)headers[CorsConstants.AccessControlRequestMethod] : context.Request.Method } :
                policy.Methods;
            AddHeaderValues(result.AllowedMethods, allowedMethods);

            var allowedHeaders = policy.AllowAnyHeader ?
                headers.GetCommaSeparatedValues(CorsConstants.AccessControlRequestHeaders) :
                policy.Headers;
            AddHeaderValues(result.AllowedHeaders, allowedHeaders);
        }

        public virtual void EvaluateRequest(HttpContext context, CorsPolicy policy, CorsResult result)
        {
            PopulateResult(context, policy, result);
        }

        public virtual void EvaluatePreflightRequest(HttpContext context, CorsPolicy policy, CorsResult result)
        {
            PopulateResult(context, policy, result);
        }

        /// <inheritdoc />
        public virtual void ApplyResult(CorsResult result, HttpResponse response)
        {
            if (result == null)
            {
                throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(result));
            }

            if (response == null)
            {
                throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(response));
            }

            if (!result.IsOriginAllowed)
            {
                // In case a server does not wish to participate in the CORS protocol, its HTTP response to the
                // CORS or CORS-preflight request must not include any of the above headers.
                return;
            }

            var headers = response.Headers;
            headers[CorsConstants.AccessControlAllowOrigin] = result.AllowedOrigin;

            if (result.SupportsCredentials)
            {
                headers[CorsConstants.AccessControlAllowCredentials] = "true";
            }

            if (result.IsPreflightRequest)
            {
                _logger.IsPreflightRequest();

                // An HTTP response to a CORS-preflight request can include the following headers:
                // `Access-Control-Allow-Methods`, `Access-Control-Allow-Headers`, `Access-Control-Max-Age`
                if (result.AllowedHeaders.Count > 0)
                {
                    headers.SetCommaSeparatedValues(CorsConstants.AccessControlAllowHeaders, result.AllowedHeaders.ToArray());
                }

                if (result.AllowedMethods.Count > 0)
                {
                    headers.SetCommaSeparatedValues(CorsConstants.AccessControlAllowMethods, result.AllowedMethods.ToArray());
                }

                if (result.PreflightMaxAge.HasValue)
                {
                    headers[CorsConstants.AccessControlMaxAge] = result.PreflightMaxAge.Value.TotalSeconds.ToString(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture);
                }
            }
            else
            {
                // An HTTP response to a CORS request that is not a CORS-preflight request can also include the following header:
                // `Access-Control-Expose-Headers`
                if (result.AllowedExposedHeaders.Count > 0)
                {
                    headers.SetCommaSeparatedValues(CorsConstants.AccessControlExposeHeaders, result.AllowedExposedHeaders.ToArray());
                }
            }

            if (result.VaryByOrigin)
            {
                headers.Append("Vary", "Origin");
            }
        }

        private static void AddHeaderValues(IList<string> target, IList<string> headerValues)
        {
            if (headerValues == null)
            {
                return;
            }

            for (var i = 0; i < headerValues.Count; i++)
            {
                target.Add(headerValues[i]);
            }
        }

        private bool IsOriginAllowed(CorsPolicy policy, StringValues origin)
        {
            if (StringValues.IsNullOrEmpty(origin))
            {
                _logger.RequestDoesNotHaveOriginHeader();
                return false;
            }

            _logger.RequestHasOriginHeader(origin);
            if (policy.AllowAnyOrigin || policy.IsOriginAllowed(origin))
            {
                _logger.PolicySuccess();
                return true;
            }
            _logger.PolicyFailure();
            _logger.OriginNotAllowed(origin);
            return false;
        }
    }
}

首先,中间件会判断方法节点是否有实现以下两个接口,如果有的话优先执行节点设置。

IDisableCorsAttribute: 禁用跨域
ICorsPolicyMetadata:使用指定跨域策略

然后,然后判断请求头是否有Origin,没有的话直接略过CORS中间件去下游管道。

if (!context.Request.Headers.ContainsKey(CorsConstants.Origin))
{
return _next(context);
}

然后,中间件执行ICorsService的ApplyResult方法,将跨域策略写到响应头中。

原文地址:holdengong.com

原文出处:https://www.cnblogs.com/holdengong/p/12500322.html

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