[tensorflow] tensorflow官方例子和传统bp网络的实现 -- 超参数初始化的重要性

2018/02/01 22:04
阅读数 10

首先准备mnist数据集(网上下载)和input.py。

input.py内容如下:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# Copyright 2015 The TensorFlow Authors. All Rights Reserved.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
# ==============================================================================

"""Functions for downloading and reading MNIST data."""
from __future__ import absolute_import
from __future__ import division
from __future__ import print_function

import gzip
import os
import tempfile

import numpy
from six.moves import urllib
from six.moves import xrange  # pylint: disable=redefined-builtin
import tensorflow as tf
from tensorflow.contrib.learn.python.learn.datasets.mnist import read_data_sets

 test_soft.py 官方例子如下(网址):

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
Created on Wed Nov 22 13:24:22 2017

@author: fc
"""
#from tensorflow.examples.tutorials.mnist import input_data
#mnist = input_data.read_data_sets('MNIST_data', one_hot=True)
batchsize=100
import tensorflow as tf
import input_data
def train(): 
    mnist = input_data.read_data_sets("MNIST_data/", one_hot=True)
    sess = tf.InteractiveSession()
    
    x = tf.placeholder("float", [None, 784],name='x-input')
    y_ = tf.placeholder("float", [None,10],name='y-input')

    w = tf.Variable(tf.zeros([784,10]))
    b = tf.Variable(tf.zeros([10]))
    y = tf.nn.softmax(tf.matmul(x,w) + b)
    
    cross_entropy = -tf.reduce_sum(y_*tf.log(y))    
    train_step = tf.train.GradientDescentOptimizer(0.01).minimize(cross_entropy)
    
    init = tf.global_variables_initializer()
    sess.run(init)
    for i in range(1000):
      batch_xs, batch_ys = mnist.train.next_batch(batchsize)
      sess.run(train_step, feed_dict={x: batch_xs, y_: batch_ys}) 
   
    correct_prediction = tf.equal(tf.argmax(y,1), tf.argmax(y_,1))
    accuracy = tf.reduce_mean(tf.cast(correct_prediction, "float"))
    print (sess.run(accuracy, feed_dict={x: mnist.test.images, y_: mnist.test.labels}))

if __name__ == '__main__':
    train()

    

注意这句代码中,传入参数为mnist在电脑中的实际位置。

mnist = input_data.read_data_sets("MNIST_data/", one_hot=True)

运行结果为:

test_nn.py 传统bp神经网络:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
Created on Wed Dec 13 23:11:09 2017

@author: fc
"""
#from tensorflow.examples.tutorials.mnist import input_data
#mnist = input_data.read_data_sets('MNIST_data', one_hot=True)
batchsize=64
import tensorflow as tf
from tensorflow.examples.tutorials.mnist import input_data
mnist = input_data.read_data_sets("MNIST_data/", one_hot=True)
def train(init_bias): 

    sess = tf.InteractiveSession()
    #---------------------------------------初始化网络结构-------------------------------------
    x = tf.placeholder("float", [None, 784],name='x-input')
    y_ = tf.placeholder("float", [None,10],name='y-input')
        
    W1 = tf.Variable(tf.random_uniform([784,100],-0.5+init_bias,0.5+init_bias))
    b1 = tf.Variable(tf.random_uniform([100],-0.5+init_bias,0.5+init_bias))
    u1 = tf.matmul(x,W1) + b1
    y1 = tf.nn.sigmoid(u1)
#    y1=u1
    W2 = tf.Variable(tf.random_uniform([100,10],-0.5+init_bias,0.5+init_bias))
    b2 = tf.Variable(tf.random_uniform([10],-0.5+init_bias,0.5+init_bias))
    y = tf.nn.sigmoid(tf.matmul(y1,W2) + b2)
    #---------------------------------------设置网络的训练方式-------------------------------------
    mse = tf.reduce_sum(tf.square(y-y_))#mse
#    train_step = tf.train.GradientDescentOptimizer(0.02).minimize(mse)
    train_step = tf.train.AdamOptimizer(0.001).minimize(mse)
    
    correct_prediction = tf.equal(tf.argmax(y,1), tf.argmax(y_,1))
    accuracy = tf.reduce_mean(tf.cast(correct_prediction, "float"))
    
    init = tf.global_variables_initializer()
    sess.run(init)
    #---------------------------------------开始训练-------------------------------------
    for i in range(1001):
      batch_xs, batch_ys = mnist.train.next_batch(batchsize)
      sess.run(train_step, feed_dict={x: batch_xs, y_: batch_ys}) 

    print ('权重初始化范围[%.1f,%.1f],1000次训练过后的准确率'
           %(init_bias-0.5,init_bias+0.5),sess.run(accuracy, feed_dict={x: mnist.test.images, y_: mnist.test.labels}))
    
    
if __name__ == '__main__':
    init_bias=-0.6#权重的初始化时的偏置量
    for i in range(11):
        init_bias+=0.1
        train(init_bias)

第一次写这个程序的时候,权重初始化的函数是:

W1 = tf.Variable(tf.random_uniform([784,100],0,1.0))

权重随机分布在(0.0,1.0)之间,训练出来效果极差,大概0.1的准确率(10%)。

后来多番检查,确定问题在此,改为分布在(-0.5,0.5)之间,训练准确率得到了极大的提升。

原理还没想通。

test_nn.py运行结果如下:

 

 

说明不同的超参数(权重)初始化,对网络的影响极大。

 

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