网络爬虫之页面解析

2019/04/10 10:10
阅读数 40

<div class="output_wrapper" id="output_wrapper_id" style="font-size: 16px; color: rgb(62, 62, 62); line-height: 1.6; word-spacing: 0px; letter-spacing: 0px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Hiragino Sans GB', 'Microsoft YaHei', Arial, sans-serif; background-image: linear-gradient(90deg, rgba(50, 0, 0, 0.05) 3%, rgba(0, 0, 0, 0) 3%), linear-gradient(360deg, rgba(50, 0, 0, 0.05) 3%, rgba(0, 0, 0, 0) 3%); background-size: 20px 20px; background-position: center center;"><figure style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"><img src="https://imgkr.cn-bj.ufileos.com/84359b07-75b5-4bdd-ab44-93f8161a3e53.png" alt="" title="" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; padding: 0px; display: block; margin: 0px auto; max-width: 100%;"><figcaption style="line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-top: 10px; text-align: center; color: rgb(153, 153, 153); font-size: 0.7em;"></figcaption></figure> <blockquote style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-left-color: rgb(131, 175, 155); margin-top: 1.2em; margin-bottom: 1.2em; padding-right: 1em; padding-left: 1em; border-left-width: 6px; color: rgb(119, 119, 119); quotes: none; background: rgb(240, 240, 240);"> <p style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; font-size: 15px; font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Helvetica Neue', 'PingFang SC', 'Hiragino Sans GB', 'Microsoft YaHei UI', 'Microsoft YaHei', Arial, sans-serif; color: rgb(119, 119, 119); line-height: 1.75em;">作者:玩世不恭的Coder<br>时间:2020-03-13<br>说明:本文为原创文章,未经允许不可转载,转载前请联系涛耶</p> </blockquote> <h1 id="h" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; padding: 0px; margin: 1.5em 0px; font-weight: bold; margin-top: -0.46em; margin-bottom: 0.1em; border-bottom: 2px solid rgb(198, 196, 196); box-sizing: border-box;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; padding-top: 5px; padding-bottom: 5px; color: rgb(160, 160, 160); font-size: 13px; line-height: 2; box-sizing: border-box;">网络爬虫之页面解析</span></h1> <p class="toc" id="tocid_0" style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em; margin-left: 25px;"><span class="toc_item" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; display: block;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><a href="#h-1" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">前言</a></span></span><span class="toc_item" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; display: block;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><a href="#hbeautifulsoup" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">一、Beautiful Soup就该这样使用</a></span></span><span class="toc_item" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; display: block;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><a href="#h-2" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">节点选择</a></span></span></span><span class="toc_item" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; display: block;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><a href="#h-3" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">数据提取</a></span></span></span><span class="toc_item" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; display: block;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><a href="#hbeautifulsoup-1" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">Beautiful Soup小结</a></span></span></span><span class="toc_item" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; display: block;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><a href="#hxpath" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">二、XPath解析页面</a></span></span><span class="toc_item" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; display: block;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><a href="#h-4" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">节点选择</a></span></span></span><span class="toc_item" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; display: block;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><a href="#h-5" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">数据提取</a></span></span></span><span class="toc_item" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; display: block;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><a href="#hxpath-1" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">XPath小结</a></span></span></span><span class="toc_item" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; display: block;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><a href="#hpyquery" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">三、pyquery入门使用</a></span></span><span class="toc_item" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; display: block;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><a href="#h-6" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">节点选择</a></span></span></span><span class="toc_item" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; display: block;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><a href="#h-7" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">数据提取</a></span></span></span><span class="toc_item" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; display: block;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><a href="#hpyquery-1" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">pyquery小结</a></span></span></span><span class="toc_item" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; display: block;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><a href="#h-8" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">四、腾讯招聘网解析实战</a></span></span><span class="toc_item" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; display: block;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><a href="#h-9" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">网页分析:</a></span></span></span><span class="toc_item" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; display: block;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><a href="#h-10" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">案例源码</a></span></span></span><span class="toc_item" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; display: block;"><span class="toc_left" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: 25px;"><a href="#h-11" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">总结</a></span></span></p> <h2 id="h-1" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; padding: 0px; font-weight: bold; margin: 10px auto; height: 40px; background-color: rgb(251, 251, 251); border-bottom: 1px solid rgb(246, 246, 246); overflow: hidden; box-sizing: border-box;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: -10px; display: inline-block; width: auto; height: 40px; background-color: rgb(33, 33, 34); border-bottom-right-radius: 100px; color: rgb(255, 255, 255); padding-right: 30px; padding-left: 30px; line-height: 40px; font-size: 16px;">前言</span></h2> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">With the rapid development of the Internet,越来越多的信息充斥着各大网络平台。正如<a href="https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%AD%BB%E4%BA%A1%E7%AC%94%E8%AE%B0/25476?fr=aladdin" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">《死亡笔记》</a>中L·Lawliet这一角色所提到的<a href="https://baike.baidu.com/item/大数定律/410082?fr=aladdin" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">大数定律</a>,在众多繁杂的数据中必然存在着某种规律,偶然中必然包含着某种必然的发生。不管是我们提到的大数定律,还是最近火热的大数据亦或其他领域都离不开大量而又干净数据的支持,为此,网络爬虫能够满足我们的需求,即在互联网上按照我们的意愿来爬取我们任何想要得到的信息,以便我们分析出其中的必然规律,进而做出正确的决策。同样,在我们平时上网的过程中,无时无刻可见爬虫的影子,比如我们广为熟知的“度娘”就是其中一个大型而又名副其实的“蜘蛛王”(SPIDER KING)。而要想写出一个强大的爬虫程序,则离不开熟练的对各种网络页面的解析,这篇文章将给读者介绍如何在Python中使用各大主流的页面解析工具。</p> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">常用的解析方式主要有正则、Beautiful Soup、XPath、pyquery,本文主要是讲解后三种工具的使用,而对正则表达式的使用这里不做讲解,对正则有兴趣了解的读者可以跳转:<a href="https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%AD%A3%E5%88%99%E8%A1%A8%E8%BE%BE%E5%BC%8F/1700215?fr=aladdin" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">正则表达式</a></p> <ul style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; padding-left: 32px; list-style-type: disc;"> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><a href="https://www.crummy.com/software/BeautifulSoup/bs4/doc/index.zh.html#contents-children" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">Beautiful Soup</a>的使用</li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/xpath/all/" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">XPath</a>的使用</li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><a href="https://pythonhosted.org/pyquery/" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">pyquery</a>的使用</li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;">Beautiful Soup、XPath、pyquery解析<a href="https://hr.tencent.com/" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">腾讯招聘网</a>案例</li> </ul> <h2 id="hbeautifulsoup" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; padding: 0px; font-weight: bold; margin: 10px auto; height: 40px; background-color: rgb(251, 251, 251); border-bottom: 1px solid rgb(246, 246, 246); overflow: hidden; box-sizing: border-box;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: -10px; display: inline-block; width: auto; height: 40px; background-color: rgb(33, 33, 34); border-bottom-right-radius: 100px; color: rgb(255, 255, 255); padding-right: 30px; padding-left: 30px; line-height: 40px; font-size: 16px;">一、Beautiful Soup就该这样使用</span></h2> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">Beautiful Soup是Python爬虫中针对HTML、XML的其中一个解析工具,熟练的使用之可以很方便的提取页面中我们想要的数据。此外,在Beautiful Soup中,为我们提供了以下四种解析器:</p> <ul style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; padding-left: 32px; list-style-type: disc;"> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;">标准库,<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">soup = BeautifulSoup(content, "html.parser")</code></li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;">lxml解析器,<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">soup = BeautifulSoup(content, "lxml")</code></li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;">xml解析器,<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">soup = BeautifulSoup(content, "xml")</code></li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;">html5lib解析器,<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">soup = BeautifulSoup(content, "html5lib")</code></li> </ul> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">在以上四种解析库中,lxml解析具有解析速度快兼容错能力强的merits,综合考虑之下性能也较为不错,所以本文主要使用的是lxml解析器,下面我们主要拿百度首页的html来具体讲解下Beautiful Soup应该如何使用,在此之前,我们且看一下这段小爬虫:</p> <pre style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"><code class="python language-python hljs" style="overflow-wrap: break-word; margin: 0px 2px; line-height: 18px; font-size: 14px; font-weight: normal; word-spacing: 0px; letter-spacing: 0px; font-family: Consolas, Inconsolata, Courier, monospace; border-radius: 0px; color: rgb(169, 183, 198); background: rgb(40, 43, 46); overflow-x: auto; padding: 0.5em; white-space: pre !important; word-wrap: normal !important; word-break: normal !important; overflow: auto !important; display: -webkit-box !important;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">from</span>&nbsp;bs4&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">import</span>&nbsp;BeautifulSoup<br><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">import</span>&nbsp;requests<br><br><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">if</span>&nbsp;__name__&nbsp;==&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"__main__"</span>:<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;response&nbsp;=&nbsp;requests.get(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"https://www.baidu.com"</span>)<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;encoding&nbsp;=&nbsp;response.apparent_encoding<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;response.encoding&nbsp;=&nbsp;encoding<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;print(BeautifulSoup(response.text,&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"lxml"</span>))<br></code></pre> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">代码解读:</p> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">首先我们使用python中<strong style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; font-weight: bold; color: orangered;">requests</strong>请求库对百度首先进行get请求,然后获取其编码并将相应修改为对应的编码格式以防止乱码的可能性,最后通过BeautifluSoup对相应转化为其能解析的形式,使用的解析器是lxml。</p> <ul style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; padding-left: 32px; list-style-type: disc;"> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">response = requests.get("https://www.baidu.com")</code>,requests请求百度链接</li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">encoding = response.apparent_encoding</code>,获取页面编码格式</li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">response.encoding = encoding</code>,修改请求编码为页面对应的编码格式,以避免乱码</li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">print(BeautifulSoup(response.text, "lxml"))</code>,使用lxml解析器来对百度首页html进行解析并打印结果</li> </ul> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">打印后的结果如下所示:</p> <pre style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"><code class="html language-html hljs xml" style="overflow-wrap: break-word; margin: 0px 2px; line-height: 18px; font-size: 14px; font-weight: normal; word-spacing: 0px; letter-spacing: 0px; font-family: Consolas, Inconsolata, Courier, monospace; border-radius: 0px; color: rgb(169, 183, 198); background: rgb(40, 43, 46); overflow-x: auto; padding: 0.5em; white-space: pre !important; word-wrap: normal !important; word-break: normal !important; overflow: auto !important; display: -webkit-box !important;"><span class="hljs-meta" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(91, 218, 237); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;!DOCTYPE&nbsp;html&gt;</span><br><span class="hljs-comment" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(128, 128, 128); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;!--STATUS&nbsp;OK--&gt;</span><span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">html</span>&gt;</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">head</span>&gt;</span><span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">meta</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">content</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"text/html;charset=utf-8"</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">http-equiv</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"content-type"</span>/&gt;</span><span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">meta</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">content</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"IE=Edge"</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">http-equiv</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"X-UA-Compatible"</span>/&gt;</span><span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">meta</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">content</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"always"</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">name</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"referrer"</span>/&gt;</span><span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">link</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">href</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"https://ss1.bdstatic.com/5eN1bjq8AAUYm2zgoY3K/r/www/cache/bdorz/baidu.min.css"</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">rel</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"stylesheet"</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">type</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"text/css"</span>/&gt;</span><span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">title</span>&gt;</span>百度一下,你就知道<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;/<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">title</span>&gt;</span><span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;/<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">head</span>&gt;</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">body</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">link</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"#0000cc"</span>&gt;</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">div</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">id</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"wrapper"</span>&gt;</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">div</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">id</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"head"</span>&gt;</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">div</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">class</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"head_wrapper"</span>&gt;</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">div</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">class</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"s_form"</span>&gt;</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">div</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">class</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"s_form_wrapper"</span>&gt;</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">div</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">id</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"lg"</span>&gt;</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">img</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">height</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"129"</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">hidefocus</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"true"</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">src</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"//www.baidu.com/img/bd_logo1.png"</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">width</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"270"</span>/&gt;</span>&nbsp;<br><br>#&nbsp;...&nbsp;...此处省略若干输出<br></code></pre> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">从上述代码中,我们可以看见打印出的内容过于杂乱无章,为了使得解析后的页面与我们而言更加的清晰直观,我们可以使用<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">prettify()</code>方法来对其进行标准的缩进操作,为了方便讲解,涛耶对结果进行适当的删除,只留下有价值的内容,源码及输出如下:</p> <pre style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"><code class="python language-python hljs" style="overflow-wrap: break-word; margin: 0px 2px; line-height: 18px; font-size: 14px; font-weight: normal; word-spacing: 0px; letter-spacing: 0px; font-family: Consolas, Inconsolata, Courier, monospace; border-radius: 0px; color: rgb(169, 183, 198); background: rgb(40, 43, 46); overflow-x: auto; padding: 0.5em; white-space: pre !important; word-wrap: normal !important; word-break: normal !important; overflow: auto !important; display: -webkit-box !important;">bd_soup&nbsp;=&nbsp;BeautifulSoup(response.text,&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"lxml"</span>)<br>print(bd_soup.prettify())<br></code></pre> <pre style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"><code class="html language-html hljs xml" style="overflow-wrap: break-word; margin: 0px 2px; line-height: 18px; font-size: 14px; font-weight: normal; word-spacing: 0px; letter-spacing: 0px; font-family: Consolas, Inconsolata, Courier, monospace; border-radius: 0px; color: rgb(169, 183, 198); background: rgb(40, 43, 46); overflow-x: auto; padding: 0.5em; white-space: pre !important; word-wrap: normal !important; word-break: normal !important; overflow: auto !important; display: -webkit-box !important;"><span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">html</span>&gt;</span><br>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">head</span>&gt;</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">title</span>&gt;</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;百度一下,你就知道<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;/<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">title</span>&gt;</span><br>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;/<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">head</span>&gt;</span><br>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">body</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">link</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"#0000cc"</span>&gt;</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">div</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">id</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"wrapper"</span>&gt;</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">div</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">id</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"head"</span>&gt;</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">div</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">class</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"head_wrapper"</span>&gt;</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">div</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">class</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"s_form"</span>&gt;</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">div</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">class</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"s_form_wrapper"</span>&gt;</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">div</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">id</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"lg"</span>&gt;</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">img</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">height</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"129"</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">hidefocus</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"true"</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">src</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"//www.baidu.com/img/bd_logo1.png"</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">width</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"270"</span>/&gt;</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;/<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">div</span>&gt;</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;/<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">div</span>&gt;</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;/<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">div</span>&gt;</span><br><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;#&nbsp;...&nbsp;...此处省略若干输出<br><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;/<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">div</span>&gt;</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;/<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">div</span>&gt;</span><br>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;/<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">body</span>&gt;</span><br><span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;/<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">html</span>&gt;</span><br></code></pre> <h3 id="h-2" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; padding: 0px; font-weight: bold; margin: 20px auto 5px; border-top: 1px solid rgb(221, 221, 221); box-sizing: border-box;"><span style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-top: -1px; padding-top: 6px; padding-right: 5px; padding-left: 5px; font-size: 17px; border-top: 2px solid rgb(33, 33, 34); display: inline-block; line-height: 1.1;">节点选择</span></h3> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">在Beautiful Soup中,我们可以很方便的选择想要得到的节点,只需要在<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">bd_soup</code>对象中使用<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.</code>的方式即可获得想要的对象,其内置api丰富,完全足够我们实际的使用,其使用规则如下:</p> <pre style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"><code class="python language-python hljs" style="overflow-wrap: break-word; margin: 0px 2px; line-height: 18px; font-size: 14px; font-weight: normal; word-spacing: 0px; letter-spacing: 0px; font-family: Consolas, Inconsolata, Courier, monospace; border-radius: 0px; color: rgb(169, 183, 198); background: rgb(40, 43, 46); overflow-x: auto; padding: 0.5em; white-space: pre !important; word-wrap: normal !important; word-break: normal !important; overflow: auto !important; display: -webkit-box !important;">bd_title_bj&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_soup.title&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-comment" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(128, 128, 128); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;获取html中的title内容</span><br>bd_title_bj_name&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_soup.title.name&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-comment" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(128, 128, 128); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;.name获取对应节点的名称</span><br>bd_title_name&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_soup.title.string&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<br>bd_title_parent_bj_name&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_soup.title.parent.name&nbsp;<span class="hljs-comment" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(128, 128, 128); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;.parent获取父节点</span><br>bd_image_bj&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_soup.img&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-comment" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(128, 128, 128); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;.img获取img节点</span><br>bd_image_bj_dic&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_soup.img.attrs&nbsp;<span class="hljs-comment" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(128, 128, 128); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;.attrs获取属性值</span><br>bd_image_all&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_soup.find_all(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"img"</span>)&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-comment" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(128, 128, 128); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;通过find_all查找对应的指定的所有节点</span><br>bd_image_idlg&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_soup.find(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"div"</span>,&nbsp;id=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"lg"</span>)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-comment" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(128, 128, 128); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;通过class属性查找节点</span><br></code></pre> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">上述代码中解析的结果对应打印如下,大家对应输出理解其意即可:</p> <pre style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"><code class="hljs coffeescript" style="overflow-wrap: break-word; margin: 0px 2px; line-height: 18px; font-size: 14px; font-weight: normal; word-spacing: 0px; letter-spacing: 0px; font-family: Consolas, Inconsolata, Courier, monospace; border-radius: 0px; color: rgb(169, 183, 198); background: rgb(40, 43, 46); overflow-x: auto; padding: 0.5em; white-space: pre !important; word-wrap: normal !important; word-break: normal !important; overflow: auto !important; display: -webkit-box !important;">&lt;title&gt;百度一下,你就知道&lt;/title&gt;<br>title<br>百度一下,你就知道<br>head<br>&lt;img&nbsp;height=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"129"</span>&nbsp;hidefocus=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"true"</span>&nbsp;src=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"//www.baidu.com/img/bd_logo1.png"</span>&nbsp;width=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"270"</span>/&gt;<br>{<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">'hidefocus'</span>:&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">'true'</span>,&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">'src'</span>:&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">'//www.baidu.com/img/bd_logo1.png'</span>,&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">'width'</span>:&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">'270'</span>,&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">'height'</span>:&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">'129'</span>}<br>[&lt;img&nbsp;height=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"129"</span>&nbsp;hidefocus=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"true"</span>&nbsp;src=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"//www.baidu.com/img/bd_logo1.png"</span>&nbsp;width=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"270"</span><span class="hljs-regexp" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">/&gt;,&nbsp;&lt;img&nbsp;src="/</span><span class="hljs-regexp" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">/www.baidu.com/img</span><span class="hljs-regexp" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">/gs.gif"/</span>&gt;]<br>&lt;div&nbsp;id=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"lg"</span>&gt;&nbsp;&lt;img&nbsp;height=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"129"</span>&nbsp;hidefocus=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"true"</span>&nbsp;src=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"//www.baidu.com/img/bd_logo1.png"</span>&nbsp;width=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"270"</span>/&gt;&nbsp;&lt;/div&gt;<br></code></pre> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">代码解读:</p> <ul style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; padding-left: 32px; list-style-type: disc;"> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">bd_soup.title</code>,正如前面所说,Beautiful Soup可以很简单的解析对应的页面,只需要使用<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">bd_soup.</code>的方式进行选择节点即可,该行代码正是获得百度首页html的<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">title</code>节点内容</li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">bd_soup.title.name</code>,使用<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.name</code>的形式即可获取节点的名称</li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">bd_soup.title.string</code>,使用<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.string</code>的形式即可获得节点当中的内容,这句代码就是获取百度首页的title节点的内容,即浏览器导航条中所显示的<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">百度一下,你就知道</code></li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">bd_soup.title.parent.name</code>,使用<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.parent</code>可以该节点的父节点,通俗地讲就是该节点所对应的上一层节点,然后使用<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.name</code>获取父节点名称</li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">bd_soup.img</code>,如<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">bd_soup.title</code>一样,该代码获取的是<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">img</code>节点,只不过需要注意的是:在上面html中我们可以看见总共有两个<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">img</code>节点,而如果使用<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.img</code>的话默认是获取html中的第一个<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">img</code>节点,而不是所有</li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">bd_soup.img.attrs</code>,获取<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">img</code>节点中所有的属性及属性内容,该代码输出的结果是一个键值对的字典格式,所以之后我们只需要通过字典的操作来获取属性所对应的内容即可。比如<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">bd_soup.img.attrs.get("src")</code>和<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">bd_soup.img.attrs["src"]</code>的方式来获取<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">img</code>节点所对应的<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">src</code>属性的内容,即图片链接</li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">bd_soup.find_all("img")</code>,在上述中的<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.img</code>操作默认只能获取第一个<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">img</code>节点,而要想获取html中所有的<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">img</code>节点,我们需要使用<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.find_all("img")</code>方法,所返回的是一个列表格式,列表内容为所有的选择的节点</li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">bd_soup.find("div", id="lg")</code>,在实际运用中,我们往往会选择指定的节点,这个时候我们可以使用<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.find()</code>方法,里面可传入所需查找节点的属性,这里需要注意的是:在传入<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">class</code>属性的时候其中的写法是<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.find("div", class_="XXX")</code>的方式。所以该行代码表示的是获取<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">id</code>属性为<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">lg</code>的<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">div</code>节点,此外,在上面的<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.find_all()</code>同样可以使用该方法来获取指定属性所对应的所有节点</li> </ul> <h3 id="h-3" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; padding: 0px; font-weight: bold; margin: 20px auto 5px; border-top: 1px solid rgb(221, 221, 221); box-sizing: border-box;"><span style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-top: -1px; padding-top: 6px; padding-right: 5px; padding-left: 5px; font-size: 17px; border-top: 2px solid rgb(33, 33, 34); display: inline-block; line-height: 1.1;">数据提取</span></h3> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">在上一小节节点选择我们讲到了部分数据提取的方法,然而,Beautiful Soup的强大之处还不止步于此。接下来我们继续揭开其神秘的面纱。(注意:以下只是进行常用的一些api,如若有更高的需求可查看官方文档)</p> <ul style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; padding-left: 32px; list-style-type: disc;"> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><span style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;">.get_text()</span></li> </ul> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">获取对象中所有的<strong style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; font-weight: bold; color: orangered;">文本</strong>内容(即我们在页面中肉眼可见的文本):</p> <pre style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"><code class="hljs ini" style="overflow-wrap: break-word; margin: 0px 2px; line-height: 18px; font-size: 14px; font-weight: normal; word-spacing: 0px; letter-spacing: 0px; font-family: Consolas, Inconsolata, Courier, monospace; border-radius: 0px; color: rgb(169, 183, 198); background: rgb(40, 43, 46); overflow-x: auto; padding: 0.5em; white-space: pre !important; word-wrap: normal !important; word-break: normal !important; overflow: auto !important; display: -webkit-box !important;"><span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">all_content</span>&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_soup.get_text()<br></code></pre> <pre style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"><code class="hljs javascript" style="overflow-wrap: break-word; margin: 0px 2px; line-height: 18px; font-size: 14px; font-weight: normal; word-spacing: 0px; letter-spacing: 0px; font-family: Consolas, Inconsolata, Courier, monospace; border-radius: 0px; color: rgb(169, 183, 198); background: rgb(40, 43, 46); overflow-x: auto; padding: 0.5em; white-space: pre !important; word-wrap: normal !important; word-break: normal !important; overflow: auto !important; display: -webkit-box !important;">&nbsp;百度一下,你就知道&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;新闻&nbsp;hao123&nbsp;地图&nbsp;视频&nbsp;贴吧&nbsp;&nbsp;登录&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-built_in" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">document</span>.write(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">'&lt;a&nbsp;href="http://www.baidu.com/bdorz/login.gif?login&amp;tpl=mn&amp;u='</span>+&nbsp;<span class="hljs-built_in" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">encodeURIComponent</span>(<span class="hljs-built_in" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">window</span>.location.href+&nbsp;(<span class="hljs-built_in" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">window</span>.location.search&nbsp;===&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">""</span>&nbsp;?&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"?"</span>&nbsp;:&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"&amp;"</span>)+&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"bdorz_come=1"</span>)+&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">'"&nbsp;name="tj_login"&nbsp;class="lb"&gt;登录&lt;/a&gt;'</span>);<br><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;更多产品&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;关于百度&nbsp;About&nbsp;Baidu&nbsp;&nbsp;©<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">2017</span>&nbsp;Baidu&nbsp;使用百度前必读&nbsp;&nbsp;意见反馈&nbsp;京ICP证<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">030173</span>号&nbsp;<br></code></pre> <ul style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; padding-left: 32px; list-style-type: disc;"> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><span style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;">.strings,.stripped_strings</span></li> </ul> <pre style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"><code class="hljs bash" style="overflow-wrap: break-word; margin: 0px 2px; line-height: 18px; font-size: 14px; font-weight: normal; word-spacing: 0px; letter-spacing: 0px; font-family: Consolas, Inconsolata, Courier, monospace; border-radius: 0px; color: rgb(169, 183, 198); background: rgb(40, 43, 46); overflow-x: auto; padding: 0.5em; white-space: pre !important; word-wrap: normal !important; word-break: normal !important; overflow: auto !important; display: -webkit-box !important;"><span class="hljs-built_in" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">print</span>(<span class="hljs-built_in" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">type</span>(bd_soup.strings))<br><span class="hljs-comment" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(128, 128, 128); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;&lt;class&nbsp;'generator'&gt;</span><br></code></pre> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.strings</code>用于提取<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">bd_soup</code>对象中所有的内容,而从上面的输出结果我们可以看出<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.strings</code>的类型是一个生成器,对此可以使用循环来提取出其中的内容。但是我们在使用<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.strings</code>的过程中会发现提取出来的内容有很多的空格以及换行,对此我们可以使用<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.stripped_strings</code>方法来解决该问题,用法如下:</p> <pre style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"><code class="hljs perl" style="overflow-wrap: break-word; margin: 0px 2px; line-height: 18px; font-size: 14px; font-weight: normal; word-spacing: 0px; letter-spacing: 0px; font-family: Consolas, Inconsolata, Courier, monospace; border-radius: 0px; color: rgb(169, 183, 198); background: rgb(40, 43, 46); overflow-x: auto; padding: 0.5em; white-space: pre !important; word-wrap: normal !important; word-break: normal !important; overflow: auto !important; display: -webkit-box !important;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">for</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">each</span>&nbsp;in&nbsp;bd_soup.stripped_strings:<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">print</span>(<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">each</span>)<br></code></pre> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">输出结果:</p> <pre style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"><code class="hljs" style="overflow-wrap: break-word; margin: 0px 2px; line-height: 18px; font-size: 14px; font-weight: normal; word-spacing: 0px; letter-spacing: 0px; font-family: Consolas, Inconsolata, Courier, monospace; border-radius: 0px; color: rgb(169, 183, 198); background: rgb(40, 43, 46); overflow-x: auto; padding: 0.5em; white-space: pre !important; word-wrap: normal !important; word-break: normal !important; overflow: auto !important; display: -webkit-box !important;">百度一下,你就知道<br>新闻<br>hao123<br>地图<br>视频<br>贴吧<br>登录<br>更多产品<br>关于百度<br>About&nbsp;Baidu<br>©2017&nbsp;Baidu<br>使用百度前必读<br>意见反馈<br>京ICP证030173号<br></code></pre> <ul style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; padding-left: 32px; list-style-type: disc;"> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><span style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;">.parent,.children,.parents</span></li> </ul> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.parent</code>可以选择该节点的父节点,<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.children</code>可以选择该节点的孩子节点,<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.parents</code>选择该节点所有的上层节点,返回的是<strong style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; font-weight: bold; color: orangered;">生成器类型</strong>,各用法如下:</p> <pre style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"><code class="hljs lua" style="overflow-wrap: break-word; margin: 0px 2px; line-height: 18px; font-size: 14px; font-weight: normal; word-spacing: 0px; letter-spacing: 0px; font-family: Consolas, Inconsolata, Courier, monospace; border-radius: 0px; color: rgb(169, 183, 198); background: rgb(40, 43, 46); overflow-x: auto; padding: 0.5em; white-space: pre !important; word-wrap: normal !important; word-break: normal !important; overflow: auto !important; display: -webkit-box !important;">bd_div_bj&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_soup.<span class="hljs-built_in" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">find</span>(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"div"</span>,&nbsp;id=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"u1"</span>)<br><span class="hljs-built_in" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">print</span>(<span class="hljs-built_in" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">type</span>(bd_div_bj.parent))<br><span class="hljs-built_in" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">print</span>(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"*"</span>&nbsp;*&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">50</span>)<br><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">for</span>&nbsp;child&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">in</span>&nbsp;bd_div_bj.children:<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-built_in" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">print</span>(child)<br><span class="hljs-built_in" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">print</span>(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"*"</span>&nbsp;*&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">50</span>)<br><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">for</span>&nbsp;parent&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">in</span>&nbsp;bd_div_bj.parents:<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-built_in" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">print</span>(parent.name)<br></code></pre> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">结果输出:</p> <pre style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"><code class="hljs xml" style="overflow-wrap: break-word; margin: 0px 2px; line-height: 18px; font-size: 14px; font-weight: normal; word-spacing: 0px; letter-spacing: 0px; font-family: Consolas, Inconsolata, Courier, monospace; border-radius: 0px; color: rgb(169, 183, 198); background: rgb(40, 43, 46); overflow-x: auto; padding: 0.5em; white-space: pre !important; word-wrap: normal !important; word-break: normal !important; overflow: auto !important; display: -webkit-box !important;"><span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">class</span>&nbsp;'<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">bs4.element.Tag</span>'&gt;</span><br>**************************************************<br><br><span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">a</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">class</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"mnav"</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">href</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"http://news.baidu.com"</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">name</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"tj_trnews"</span>&gt;</span>新闻<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;/<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">a</span>&gt;</span><br><br><span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">a</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">class</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"mnav"</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">href</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"https://www.hao123.com"</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">name</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"tj_trhao123"</span>&gt;</span>hao123<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;/<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">a</span>&gt;</span><br><br><span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">a</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">class</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"mnav"</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">href</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"http://map.baidu.com"</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">name</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"tj_trmap"</span>&gt;</span>地图<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;/<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">a</span>&gt;</span><br><br><span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">a</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">class</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"mnav"</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">href</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"http://v.baidu.com"</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">name</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"tj_trvideo"</span>&gt;</span>视频<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;/<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">a</span>&gt;</span><br><br><span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">a</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">class</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"mnav"</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">href</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"http://tieba.baidu.com"</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">name</span>=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"tj_trtieba"</span>&gt;</span>贴吧<span class="hljs-tag" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">&lt;/<span class="hljs-name" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">a</span>&gt;</span><br><br>**************************************************<br>div<br>div<br>div<br>body<br>html<br></code></pre> <h3 id="hbeautifulsoup-1" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; padding: 0px; font-weight: bold; margin: 20px auto 5px; border-top: 1px solid rgb(221, 221, 221); box-sizing: border-box;"><span style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-top: -1px; padding-top: 6px; padding-right: 5px; padding-left: 5px; font-size: 17px; border-top: 2px solid rgb(33, 33, 34); display: inline-block; line-height: 1.1;">Beautiful Soup小结</span></h3> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">Beautiful Soup主要的用法就是以上一些,还有其他一些操作在实际开发过程中使用的并不是很多,这里不做过多的讲解了,所以整体来讲Beautiful Soup的使用还是比较简单的,其他一些操作可见官方文档:<a href="https://www.crummy.com/software/BeautifulSoup/bs4/doc/index.zh.html#contents-children" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;"><strong style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; font-weight: bold; color: orangered;">https://www.crummy.com/software/BeautifulSoup/bs4/doc/index.zh.html#contents-children</strong></a></p> <h2 id="hxpath" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; padding: 0px; font-weight: bold; margin: 10px auto; height: 40px; background-color: rgb(251, 251, 251); border-bottom: 1px solid rgb(246, 246, 246); overflow: hidden; box-sizing: border-box;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: -10px; display: inline-block; width: auto; height: 40px; background-color: rgb(33, 33, 34); border-bottom-right-radius: 100px; color: rgb(255, 255, 255); padding-right: 30px; padding-left: 30px; line-height: 40px; font-size: 16px;">二、XPath解析页面</span></h2> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">XPath全称是XML Path Language,它既可以用来解析XML,也可以用来解析HTML。在上一部分已经讲解了Beautiful Soup的一些常见的骚操作,在这里,我们继续来看看XPath的使用,瞧一瞧XPath的功能到底有多么的强大以致于受到了不少开发者的青睐。同Beautiful Soup一样,在XPath中提供了非常简洁的节点选择的方法,Beautiful Soup主要是通过<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.</code>的方式来进行子节点或者子孙节点的选择,而在XPath中则主要通过<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">/</code>的方式来选择节点。除此之外,在XPath中还提供了大量的内置函数来处理各个数据之间的匹配关系。</p> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">首先,我们先来看看XPath常见的节点匹配规则:</p> <table style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; display: table; width: 100%; text-align: left;"> <thead style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"> <tr style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-width: 1px 0px 0px; border-right-style: initial; border-bottom-style: initial; border-left-style: initial; border-right-color: initial; border-bottom-color: initial; border-left-color: initial; border-image: initial; border-top-style: solid; border-top-color: rgb(204, 204, 204); background-color: white;"> <th style="color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; font-size: 1em; border: 1px solid rgb(204, 204, 204); padding: 0.5em 1em; font-weight: bold; background-color: rgb(240, 240, 240); text-align: center;">表达式</th> <th style="color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; font-size: 1em; border: 1px solid rgb(204, 204, 204); padding: 0.5em 1em; font-weight: bold; background-color: rgb(240, 240, 240); text-align: center;">解释说明</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px;"> <tr style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-width: 1px 0px 0px; border-right-style: initial; border-bottom-style: initial; border-left-style: initial; border-right-color: initial; border-bottom-color: initial; border-left-color: initial; border-image: initial; border-top-style: solid; border-top-color: rgb(204, 204, 204); background-color: white;"> <td style="color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; font-size: 1em; border: 1px solid rgb(204, 204, 204); padding: 0.5em 1em; text-align: center;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">/</code></td> <td style="color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; font-size: 1em; border: 1px solid rgb(204, 204, 204); padding: 0.5em 1em; text-align: center;">在当前节点中选取直接子节点</td> </tr> <tr style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-width: 1px 0px 0px; border-right-style: initial; border-bottom-style: initial; border-left-style: initial; border-right-color: initial; border-bottom-color: initial; border-left-color: initial; border-image: initial; border-top-style: solid; border-top-color: rgb(204, 204, 204); background-color: white;"> <td style="color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; font-size: 1em; border: 1px solid rgb(204, 204, 204); padding: 0.5em 1em; text-align: center;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">//</code></td> <td style="color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; font-size: 1em; border: 1px solid rgb(204, 204, 204); padding: 0.5em 1em; text-align: center;">在当前节点中选取子孙节点</td> </tr> <tr style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-width: 1px 0px 0px; border-right-style: initial; border-bottom-style: initial; border-left-style: initial; border-right-color: initial; border-bottom-color: initial; border-left-color: initial; border-image: initial; border-top-style: solid; border-top-color: rgb(204, 204, 204); background-color: white;"> <td style="color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; font-size: 1em; border: 1px solid rgb(204, 204, 204); padding: 0.5em 1em; text-align: center;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.</code></td> <td style="color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; font-size: 1em; border: 1px solid rgb(204, 204, 204); padding: 0.5em 1em; text-align: center;">选取当前节点</td> </tr> <tr style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-width: 1px 0px 0px; border-right-style: initial; border-bottom-style: initial; border-left-style: initial; border-right-color: initial; border-bottom-color: initial; border-left-color: initial; border-image: initial; border-top-style: solid; border-top-color: rgb(204, 204, 204); background-color: white;"> <td style="color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; font-size: 1em; border: 1px solid rgb(204, 204, 204); padding: 0.5em 1em; text-align: center;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">..</code></td> <td style="color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; font-size: 1em; border: 1px solid rgb(204, 204, 204); padding: 0.5em 1em; text-align: center;">选取当前节点的父节点</td> </tr> <tr style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-width: 1px 0px 0px; border-right-style: initial; border-bottom-style: initial; border-left-style: initial; border-right-color: initial; border-bottom-color: initial; border-left-color: initial; border-image: initial; border-top-style: solid; border-top-color: rgb(204, 204, 204); background-color: white;"> <td style="color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; font-size: 1em; border: 1px solid rgb(204, 204, 204); padding: 0.5em 1em; text-align: center;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">@</code></td> <td style="color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; font-size: 1em; border: 1px solid rgb(204, 204, 204); padding: 0.5em 1em; text-align: center;">指定属性(id、class……)</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">下面我们继续拿上面的百度首页的HTML来讲解下XPath的使用。</p> <h3 id="h-4" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; padding: 0px; font-weight: bold; margin: 20px auto 5px; border-top: 1px solid rgb(221, 221, 221); box-sizing: border-box;"><span style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-top: -1px; padding-top: 6px; padding-right: 5px; padding-left: 5px; font-size: 17px; border-top: 2px solid rgb(33, 33, 34); display: inline-block; line-height: 1.1;">节点选择</span></h3> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">要想正常使用Xpath,我们首先需要正确导入对应的模块,在此我们一般使用的是<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">lxml</code>,操作示例如下:</p> <pre style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"><code class="hljs coffeescript" style="overflow-wrap: break-word; margin: 0px 2px; line-height: 18px; font-size: 14px; font-weight: normal; word-spacing: 0px; letter-spacing: 0px; font-family: Consolas, Inconsolata, Courier, monospace; border-radius: 0px; color: rgb(169, 183, 198); background: rgb(40, 43, 46); overflow-x: auto; padding: 0.5em; white-space: pre !important; word-wrap: normal !important; word-break: normal !important; overflow: auto !important; display: -webkit-box !important;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">from</span>&nbsp;lxml&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">import</span>&nbsp;etree<br><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">import</span>&nbsp;requests<br><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">import</span>&nbsp;html<br><br><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">if</span>&nbsp;__name__&nbsp;==&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"__main__"</span>:<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;response&nbsp;=&nbsp;requests.get(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"https://www.baidu.com"</span>)<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;encoding&nbsp;=&nbsp;response.apparent_encoding<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;response.encoding&nbsp;=&nbsp;encoding<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-built_in" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">print</span>(response.text)<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;bd_bj&nbsp;=&nbsp;etree.HTML(response.text)<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;bd_html&nbsp;=&nbsp;etree.tostring(bd_bj).decode(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"utf-8"</span>)<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-built_in" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">print</span>(html.unescape(bd_html))<br></code></pre> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">1~9行代码如Beautiful Soup一致,下面对之后的代码进行解释:</p> <ul style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; padding-left: 32px; list-style-type: disc;"> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">etree.HTML(response.text)</code>,使用<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">etree</code>模块中的<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">HTML</code>类来对百度html<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">(response.text)</code>进行初始化以构造XPath解析对象,返回的类型为<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);"><element html="" at="" 0x1aba86b1c08="" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"></element></code></li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">etree.tostring(bd_html_elem).decode("utf-8")</code>,将上述的对象转化为字符串类型且编码为<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">utf-8</code></li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">html.unescape(bd_html)</code>,使用HTML5标准定义的规则将<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">bd_html</code>转换成对应的unicode字符。</li> </ul> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">打印出的结果如Beautiful Soup使用时一致,这里就不再显示了,不知道的读者可回翻。既然我们已经得到了Xpath可解析的对象<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">(bd_bj)</code>,下面我们就需要针对这个对象来选择节点了,在上面我们也已经提到了,XPath主要是通过<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">/</code>的方式来提取节点,请看下面Xpath中节点选择的一些常见操作:</p> <pre style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"><code class="hljs makefile" style="overflow-wrap: break-word; margin: 0px 2px; line-height: 18px; font-size: 14px; font-weight: normal; word-spacing: 0px; letter-spacing: 0px; font-family: Consolas, Inconsolata, Courier, monospace; border-radius: 0px; color: rgb(169, 183, 198); background: rgb(40, 43, 46); overflow-x: auto; padding: 0.5em; white-space: pre !important; word-wrap: normal !important; word-break: normal !important; overflow: auto !important; display: -webkit-box !important;">all_bj&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_bj.xpath(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"//*"</span>)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-comment" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(128, 128, 128); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;选取所有节点</span><br>img_bj&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_bj.xpath(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"//img"</span>)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-comment" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(128, 128, 128); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;选取指定名称的节点</span><br>p_a_zj_bj&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_bj.xpath(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"//p/a"</span>)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-comment" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(128, 128, 128); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;选取直接节点</span><br>p_a_all_bj&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_bj.xpath(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"//p//a"</span>)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-comment" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(128, 128, 128); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;选取所有节点</span><br>head_bj&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_bj.xpath(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"//title/.."</span>)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-comment" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(128, 128, 128); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;选取父节点</span><br></code></pre> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">结果如下:</p> <pre style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"><code class="hljs json" style="overflow-wrap: break-word; margin: 0px 2px; line-height: 18px; font-size: 14px; font-weight: normal; word-spacing: 0px; letter-spacing: 0px; font-family: Consolas, Inconsolata, Courier, monospace; border-radius: 0px; color: rgb(169, 183, 198); background: rgb(40, 43, 46); overflow-x: auto; padding: 0.5em; white-space: pre !important; word-wrap: normal !important; word-break: normal !important; overflow: auto !important; display: -webkit-box !important;">[&lt;Element&nbsp;html&nbsp;at&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">0x14d6a6d1c88</span>&gt;,&nbsp;&lt;Element&nbsp;head&nbsp;at&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">0x14d6a6e4408</span>&gt;,&nbsp;&lt;Element&nbsp;meta&nbsp;at&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">0x14d6a6e4448</span>&gt;,&nbsp;&lt;Element&nbsp;meta&nbsp;at&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">0x14d6a6e4488</span>&gt;,&nbsp;&lt;Element&nbsp;meta&nbsp;at&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">0x14d6a6e44c8</span>&gt;,&nbsp;&lt;Element&nbsp;link&nbsp;at&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">0x14d6a6e4548</span>&gt;,&nbsp;&lt;Element&nbsp;title&nbsp;at&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">0x14d6a6e4588</span>&gt;,&nbsp;&lt;Element&nbsp;body&nbsp;at&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">0x14d6a6e45c8</span>&gt;,&nbsp;&lt;Element&nbsp;div&nbsp;at&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">0x14d6a6e4608</span>&gt;,&nbsp;&lt;Element&nbsp;div&nbsp;at&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">0x14d6a6e4508</span>&gt;,&nbsp;&lt;Element&nbsp;div&nbsp;at&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">0x14d6a6e4648</span>&gt;,&nbsp;&lt;Element&nbsp;div&nbsp;at&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">0x14d6a6e4688</span>&gt;,&nbsp;......]<br><br>[&lt;Element&nbsp;img&nbsp;at&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">0x14d6a6e4748</span>&gt;,&nbsp;&lt;Element&nbsp;img&nbsp;at&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">0x14d6a6e4ec8</span>&gt;]<br><br>[&lt;Element&nbsp;a&nbsp;at&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">0x14d6a6e4d88</span>&gt;,&nbsp;&lt;Element&nbsp;a&nbsp;at&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">0x14d6a6e4dc8</span>&gt;,&nbsp;&lt;Element&nbsp;a&nbsp;at&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">0x14d6a6e4e48</span>&gt;,&nbsp;&lt;Element&nbsp;a&nbsp;at&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">0x14d6a6e4e88</span>&gt;]<br><br>[&lt;Element&nbsp;a&nbsp;at&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">0x14d6a6e4d88</span>&gt;,&nbsp;&lt;Element&nbsp;a&nbsp;at&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">0x14d6a6e4dc8</span>&gt;,&nbsp;&lt;Element&nbsp;a&nbsp;at&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">0x14d6a6e4e48</span>&gt;,&nbsp;&lt;Element&nbsp;a&nbsp;at&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">0x14d6a6e4e88</span>&gt;]<br><br>[&lt;Element&nbsp;head&nbsp;at&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">0x14d6a6e4408</span>&gt;]<br></code></pre> <ul style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; padding-left: 32px; list-style-type: disc;"> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">all_bj = bd_bj.xpath("//*")</code>,使用<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">//</code>可以选择当前节点<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">(html)</code>下的所有子孙节点,且以一个列表的形式来返回,列表元素通过<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">bd_bj</code>一样是<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">element</code>对象,下面的返回类型一致</li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">img_bj = bd_bj.xpath("//img")</code>,选取当前节点下指定名称的节点,这里建议与Beautiful Soup的使用相比较可增强记忆,Beautiful Soup是通过<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.find_all("img")</code>的形式</li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">p_a_zj_bj = bd_bj.xpath("//p/a")</code>,选取当前节点下的所有<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">p</code>节点下的直接子<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">a</code>节点,这里需要注意的是<strong style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; font-weight: bold; color: orangered;">”直接“</strong>,如果<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">a</code>不是<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">p</code>节点的直接子节点则选取失败</li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">p_a_all_bj = bd_bj.xpath("//p//a")</code> ,选取当前节点下的所有<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">p</code>节点下的所有子孙<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">a</code>节点,这里需要注意的是<strong style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; font-weight: bold; color: orangered;">”所有“</strong>,注意与上一个操作进行区分</li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">head_bj = bd_bj.xpath("//title/..")</code>,选取当前节点下的<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">title</code>节点的父节点,即<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">head</code>节点</li> </ul> <h3 id="h-5" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; padding: 0px; font-weight: bold; margin: 20px auto 5px; border-top: 1px solid rgb(221, 221, 221); box-sizing: border-box;"><span style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-top: -1px; padding-top: 6px; padding-right: 5px; padding-left: 5px; font-size: 17px; border-top: 2px solid rgb(33, 33, 34); display: inline-block; line-height: 1.1;">数据提取</span></h3> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">在了解如何选择指定的节点之后,我们就需要提取节点中所包含的数据了,具体提取请看下面的示例:</p> <pre style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"><code class="hljs ini" style="overflow-wrap: break-word; margin: 0px 2px; line-height: 18px; font-size: 14px; font-weight: normal; word-spacing: 0px; letter-spacing: 0px; font-family: Consolas, Inconsolata, Courier, monospace; border-radius: 0px; color: rgb(169, 183, 198); background: rgb(40, 43, 46); overflow-x: auto; padding: 0.5em; white-space: pre !important; word-wrap: normal !important; word-break: normal !important; overflow: auto !important; display: -webkit-box !important;"><span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">img_href_ls</span>&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_bj.xpath(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"//img/@src"</span>)<br><span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">img_href</span>&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_bj.xpath(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"//div[@id='lg']/img[@hidefocus='true']/@src"</span>)<br><span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">a_content_ls</span>&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_bj.xpath(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"//a//text()"</span>)<br><span class="hljs-attr" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">a_news_content</span>&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_bj.xpath(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"//a[@class='mnav'&nbsp;and&nbsp;@name='tj_trnews']/text()"</span>)<br></code></pre> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">输出结果:</p> <pre style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"><code class="hljs json" style="overflow-wrap: break-word; margin: 0px 2px; line-height: 18px; font-size: 14px; font-weight: normal; word-spacing: 0px; letter-spacing: 0px; font-family: Consolas, Inconsolata, Courier, monospace; border-radius: 0px; color: rgb(169, 183, 198); background: rgb(40, 43, 46); overflow-x: auto; padding: 0.5em; white-space: pre !important; word-wrap: normal !important; word-break: normal !important; overflow: auto !important; display: -webkit-box !important;">['//www.baidu.com/img/bd_logo1.png',&nbsp;'//www.baidu.com/img/gs.gif']<br><br>['//www.baidu.com/img/bd_logo1.png']<br><br>['新闻',&nbsp;'hao123',&nbsp;'地图',&nbsp;'视频',&nbsp;'贴吧',&nbsp;'登录',&nbsp;'更多产品',&nbsp;'关于百度',&nbsp;'About&nbsp;Baidu',&nbsp;'使用百度前必读',&nbsp;'意见反馈']<br><br>['新闻']<br></code></pre> <ul style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; padding-left: 32px; list-style-type: disc;"> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">img_href_ls = bd_bj.xpath("//img/@src")</code>,该代码先选取了当前节点下的所有<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">img</code>节点,然后将所有<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">img</code>节点的<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">src</code>属性值选取出来,返回的是一个列表形式</li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">img_href = bd_bj.xpath("//div[@id='lg']/img[@hidefocus='true']/@src")</code>,该代码首先选取了当前节点下所有<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">id</code>属性值为<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">lg</code>的<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">div</code>,然后继续选取<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">div</code>节点下的直接子<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">img</code>节点(<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">hidefoucus=true</code>),最后选取其中的<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">src</code>属性值</li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">a_content_ls = bd_bj.xpath("//a//text()")</code>,选取当前节点所有的<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">a</code>节点的所遇文本内容</li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">a_news_content = bd_bj.xpath("//a[@class='mnav' and @name='tj_trnews']/text()")</code>,多属性选择,在xpath中可以指定满足多个属性的节点,只需要<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">and</code>即可</li> </ul> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;"><font color="red" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;">Tips:读者在阅读的过程中注意将代码和输出的结果仔细对应起来,只要理解其中的意思在加上适当的训练也就不难记忆了。</font></p> <h3 id="hxpath-1" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; padding: 0px; font-weight: bold; margin: 20px auto 5px; border-top: 1px solid rgb(221, 221, 221); box-sizing: border-box;"><span style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-top: -1px; padding-top: 6px; padding-right: 5px; padding-left: 5px; font-size: 17px; border-top: 2px solid rgb(33, 33, 34); display: inline-block; line-height: 1.1;">XPath小结</span></h3> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">耐心看完了XPath的使用方法之后,聪明的读者应该不难发现,其实Beautiful Soup和XPath的本质和思路上基本相同,只要我们在阅读XPath用法的同时在脑袋中不断的思考,相信聪明的你阅读至此已经能够基本掌握了XPath用法。</p> <h2 id="hpyquery" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; padding: 0px; font-weight: bold; margin: 10px auto; height: 40px; background-color: rgb(251, 251, 251); border-bottom: 1px solid rgb(246, 246, 246); overflow: hidden; box-sizing: border-box;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: -10px; display: inline-block; width: auto; height: 40px; background-color: rgb(33, 33, 34); border-bottom-right-radius: 100px; color: rgb(255, 255, 255); padding-right: 30px; padding-left: 30px; line-height: 40px; font-size: 16px;">三、pyquery入门使用</span></h2> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">对于pyquery,官方的解释如下:</p> <blockquote style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-left-color: rgb(131, 175, 155); margin-top: 1.2em; margin-bottom: 1.2em; padding-right: 1em; padding-left: 1em; border-left-width: 6px; color: rgb(119, 119, 119); quotes: none; background: rgb(240, 240, 240);"> <p style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; font-size: 15px; font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Helvetica Neue', 'PingFang SC', 'Hiragino Sans GB', 'Microsoft YaHei UI', 'Microsoft YaHei', Arial, sans-serif; color: rgb(119, 119, 119); line-height: 1.75em;">pyquery allows you to make jquery queries on xml documents. The API is as much as possible the similar to jquery. pyquery uses lxml for fast xml and html manipulation.<br>This is not (or at least not yet) a library to produce or interact with javascript code. I just liked the jquery API and I missed it in python so I told myself “Hey let’s make jquery in python”. This is the result.<br>It can be used for many purposes, one idea that I might try in the future is to use it for templating with pure http templates that you modify using pyquery. I can also be used for web scrapping or for theming applications with Deliverance.<br>The project is being actively developped on a git repository on Github. I have the policy of giving push access to anyone who wants it and then to review what he does. So if you want to contribute just email me.<br>Please report bugs on the github issue tracker.</p> </blockquote> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">在网页解析过程中,除了强大的Beautiful Soup和XPath之外,还有qyquery的存在,qyquery同样受到了不少“蜘蛛er”的欢迎,下面我们来介绍下qyquery的使用。</p> <h3 id="h-6" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; padding: 0px; font-weight: bold; margin: 20px auto 5px; border-top: 1px solid rgb(221, 221, 221); box-sizing: border-box;"><span style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-top: -1px; padding-top: 6px; padding-right: 5px; padding-left: 5px; font-size: 17px; border-top: 2px solid rgb(33, 33, 34); display: inline-block; line-height: 1.1;">节点选择</span></h3> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">与Beautiful Soup和XPath明显不同的是,在qyquery中,一般存在着三种解析方式,一种是<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">requests</code>请求链接之后把html进行传递,一种是将<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">url</code>直接进行传递,还有一种是直接传递本地<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">html</code>文件路径即可,读者在实际使用的过程中根据自己的习惯来编码即可,下面我们来看下这三种方式的表达:</p> <pre style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"><code class="hljs perl" style="overflow-wrap: break-word; margin: 0px 2px; line-height: 18px; font-size: 14px; font-weight: normal; word-spacing: 0px; letter-spacing: 0px; font-family: Consolas, Inconsolata, Courier, monospace; border-radius: 0px; color: rgb(169, 183, 198); background: rgb(40, 43, 46); overflow-x: auto; padding: 0.5em; white-space: pre !important; word-wrap: normal !important; word-break: normal !important; overflow: auto !important; display: -webkit-box !important;">import&nbsp;requests<br>from&nbsp;pyquery&nbsp;import&nbsp;PyQuery&nbsp;as&nbsp;pq<br><br>bd_html&nbsp;=&nbsp;requests.get(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"https://www.baidu.com"</span>).text<br>bd_url&nbsp;=&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"https://www.baidu.com"</span><br>bd_path&nbsp;=&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"./bd.html"</span><br><br><span class="hljs-comment" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(128, 128, 128); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;使用html参数进行传递</span><br>def&nbsp;way1(html):<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">return</span>&nbsp;p<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">q(html)</span><br><br><span class="hljs-comment" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(128, 128, 128); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;使用url参数进行传递</span><br>def&nbsp;way2(url):<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">return</span>&nbsp;p<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">q(url=url)</span><br><br>def&nbsp;way3(path):<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">return</span>&nbsp;p<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">q(filename=path)</span><br><br><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">print</span>(type(way1(html=bd_html)))<br><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">print</span>(type(way2(url=bd_url)))<br><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">print</span>(type(way3(path=bd_path)))<br><br><span class="hljs-comment" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(128, 128, 128); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;&lt;class&nbsp;'pyquery.pyquery.PyQuery'&gt;</span><br><span class="hljs-comment" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(128, 128, 128); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;&lt;class&nbsp;'pyquery.pyquery.PyQuery'&gt;</span><br><span class="hljs-comment" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(128, 128, 128); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;&lt;class&nbsp;'pyquery.pyquery.PyQuery'&gt;</span><br></code></pre> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">从上面三种获得解析对象方法的代码中我们可以明显看见都可以得到一样的解析对象,接下来我们只要利用这个对象来对页面进行解析从而提取出我们想要得到的有效信息即可,在qyquery中一般使用的是CSS选择器来选取。下面我们仍然使用百度首页来讲解pyquery的使用,在这里我们假设解析对象为<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">bd_bj</code>。</p> <pre style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"><code class="hljs makefile" style="overflow-wrap: break-word; margin: 0px 2px; line-height: 18px; font-size: 14px; font-weight: normal; word-spacing: 0px; letter-spacing: 0px; font-family: Consolas, Inconsolata, Courier, monospace; border-radius: 0px; color: rgb(169, 183, 198); background: rgb(40, 43, 46); overflow-x: auto; padding: 0.5em; white-space: pre !important; word-wrap: normal !important; word-break: normal !important; overflow: auto !important; display: -webkit-box !important;">response&nbsp;=&nbsp;requests.get(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"https://www.baidu.com"</span>)<br>response.encoding&nbsp;=&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"utf-8"</span><br><br>bd_bj&nbsp;=&nbsp;pq(response.text)<br><br>bd_title&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_bj(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"title"</span>)<br>bd_img_ls&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_bj(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"img"</span>)<br>bd_img_ls2&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_bj.find(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"img"</span>)<br>bd_mnav&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_bj(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">".mnav"</span>)<br>bd_img&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_bj(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"#u1&nbsp;a"</span>)<br>bd_a_video&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_bj(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"#u1&nbsp;.mnav"</span>)<br><br><span class="hljs-comment" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(128, 128, 128); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;&lt;title&gt;百度一下,你就知道&lt;/title&gt;</span><br><span class="hljs-comment" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(128, 128, 128); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;&lt;img&nbsp;hidefocus="true"&nbsp;src="//www.baidu.com/img/bd_logo1.png"&nbsp;width="270"&nbsp;height="129"/&gt;&nbsp;&lt;img&nbsp;src="//www.baidu.com/img/gs.gif"/&gt;&nbsp;</span><br><span class="hljs-comment" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(128, 128, 128); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;......</span><br><span class="hljs-comment" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(128, 128, 128); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;输出结果较长,读者可自行运行</span><br></code></pre> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">正如上面代码所示,pyquery在进行节点提取的时候通常有三种方式,一种是直接提取出节点名即可提取出整个节点,当然这种方式你也可以使用<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">find</code>方法,这种提取节点的方式是不加任何属性限定的,所以提取出的节点往往会含有多个,所以我们可以使用循环<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.items()</code>来进行操作;一种是提取出含有特定<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">class</code>属性的节点,这种形式采用的是<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.+class属性值</code>;还有一种是提取含有特定<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">id</code>属性的节点,这种形式采用的是<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">#+id属性值</code>。熟悉<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">CSS</code>的读者应该不难理解以上提取节点的方法,正是在<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">CSS</code>中提取节点然后对其进行样式操作的方法。上述三种方式您也可以像提取<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">bd_a_video</code>一样混合使用</p> <h3 id="h-7" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; padding: 0px; font-weight: bold; margin: 20px auto 5px; border-top: 1px solid rgb(221, 221, 221); box-sizing: border-box;"><span style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-top: -1px; padding-top: 6px; padding-right: 5px; padding-left: 5px; font-size: 17px; border-top: 2px solid rgb(33, 33, 34); display: inline-block; line-height: 1.1;">数据提取</span></h3> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">在实际解析网页的过程中,三种解析方式基本上大同小异,为了读者认识<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">pyquery</code>的数据提取的操作以及博主日后的查阅,在这里简单的介绍下</p> <pre style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"><code class="hljs vbnet" style="overflow-wrap: break-word; margin: 0px 2px; line-height: 18px; font-size: 14px; font-weight: normal; word-spacing: 0px; letter-spacing: 0px; font-family: Consolas, Inconsolata, Courier, monospace; border-radius: 0px; color: rgb(169, 183, 198); background: rgb(40, 43, 46); overflow-x: auto; padding: 0.5em; white-space: pre !important; word-wrap: normal !important; word-break: normal !important; overflow: auto !important; display: -webkit-box !important;">img_src1&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_bj(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"img"</span>).attr(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"src"</span>)&nbsp;<span class="hljs-meta" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(91, 218, 237); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;//www.baidu.com/img/bd_logo1.png</span><br>img_src2&nbsp;=&nbsp;bd_bj(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"img"</span>).attr.src&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-meta" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(91, 218, 237); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;//www.baidu.com/img/bd_logo1.png</span><br><br><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">for</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">each</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">in</span>&nbsp;bd_bj.find(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"img"</span>).items():<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;print(<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">each</span>.attr(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"src"</span>))<br><br>print(bd_bj(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"title"</span>).<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">text</span>())&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-meta" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(91, 218, 237); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;百度一下,你就知道</span><br></code></pre> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">如上一二行代码所示,提取节点属性我们可以有两种方式,这里拿<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">src</code>属性来进行说明,一种是<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.attr("src")</code>,另外一种是<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.attr.src</code>,读者根据自己的习惯来操作即可,这里需要注意的是:在节点提取小结中我们说了在不限制属性的情况下是提取出所有满足条件的节点,所以在这种情况下提取出的属性是第一个节点属性。要想提取所有的节点的属性,我们可以如四五行代码那样使用<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.items()</code>然后进行遍历,最后和之前一样提取各个节点属性即可。<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">qyquery</code>提取节点中文本内容如第七行代码那样直接使用<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">.text()</code>即可。</p> <h3 id="hpyquery-1" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; padding: 0px; font-weight: bold; margin: 20px auto 5px; border-top: 1px solid rgb(221, 221, 221); box-sizing: border-box;"><span style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-top: -1px; padding-top: 6px; padding-right: 5px; padding-left: 5px; font-size: 17px; border-top: 2px solid rgb(33, 33, 34); display: inline-block; line-height: 1.1;">pyquery小结</span></h3> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">pyquery解析如Beautiful Soup和XPath思想一致,所以这了只是简单的介绍了下,想要进一步了解的读者可查阅官方文档在加之熟练操作即可。</p> <h2 id="h-8" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; padding: 0px; font-weight: bold; margin: 10px auto; height: 40px; background-color: rgb(251, 251, 251); border-bottom: 1px solid rgb(246, 246, 246); overflow: hidden; box-sizing: border-box;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: -10px; display: inline-block; width: auto; height: 40px; background-color: rgb(33, 33, 34); border-bottom-right-radius: 100px; color: rgb(255, 255, 255); padding-right: 30px; padding-left: 30px; line-height: 40px; font-size: 16px;">四、腾讯招聘网解析实战</span></h2> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">通过上述对Beautiful Soup、XPath以及pyquery的介绍,认真阅读过的读者想必已经有了一定的基础,下面我们通过一个简单的实战案例来强化一下三种解析方式的操作。此次解析的网站为腾讯招聘网,网址url:<a href="https://hr.tencent.com/" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">https://hr.tencent.com/</a>,其社会招聘网首页如下所示:<br><img src="https://gss0.baidu.com/-vo3dSag_xI4khGko9WTAnF6hhy/zhidao/pic/item/aa64034f78f0f7369adfccd70755b319eac413c6.jpg" width="500" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; padding: 0px; display: block; margin: 0px auto; max-width: 100%;"></p> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">此次我们的任务就是分别利用上述三种解析工具来接下该网站下的社会招聘中的所有数据。</p> <h3 id="h-9" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; padding: 0px; font-weight: bold; margin: 20px auto 5px; border-top: 1px solid rgb(221, 221, 221); box-sizing: border-box;"><span style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-top: -1px; padding-top: 6px; padding-right: 5px; padding-left: 5px; font-size: 17px; border-top: 2px solid rgb(33, 33, 34); display: inline-block; line-height: 1.1;">网页分析:</span></h3> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">通过该网站的社会招聘的首页,我们可以发现如下三条主要信息:</p> <ul style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; padding-left: 32px; list-style-type: disc;"> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;">首页url连接为<a href="https://hr.tencent.com/position.php" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">https://hr.tencent.com/position.php</a></li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><span style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;">一共有288页的数据,每页10个职位,总职位共计2871</span></li> <li style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em;"><span style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;">数据字段有五个,分别为:职位名称、职位类别、招聘人数、工作地点、职位发布时间</span></li> </ul> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">既然我们解析的是该网站下所有职位数据,再者我们停留在第一页也没有发现其他有价值的信息,不如进入第二页看看,这时我们可以发现网站的url链接有了一个比较明显的变化,即原链接在用户端提交了一个<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">start</code>参数,此时链接为<a href="https://hr.tencent.com/position.php?&amp;start=10#a" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(30, 107, 184); overflow-wrap: break-word;">https://hr.tencent.com/position.php?&amp;start=10#a</a>,陆续打开后面的页面我们不难发现其规律:每一页提交的<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">start</code>参数以10位公差进行逐步递增。之后,我们使用谷歌开发者工具来审查该网页,我们可以发现全站皆为静态页面,这位我们解析省下了不少麻烦,我们需要的数据就静态的放置在<code style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; overflow-wrap: break-word; padding: 2px 4px; border-radius: 4px; margin: 0px 2px; color: rgb(233, 105, 0); background: rgb(248, 248, 248);">table</code>标签内,如下所示:<br><img src="https://gss0.baidu.com/94o3dSag_xI4khGko9WTAnF6hhy/zhidao/pic/item/e850352ac65c1038f3b24f14bf119313b17e891c.jpg" width="500" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; padding: 0px; display: block; margin: 0px auto; max-width: 100%;"></p> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">下面我们具体来分别使用以上三种工具来解析该站所有职位数据。</p> <h3 id="h-10" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; padding: 0px; font-weight: bold; margin: 20px auto 5px; border-top: 1px solid rgb(221, 221, 221); box-sizing: border-box;"><span style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-top: -1px; padding-top: 6px; padding-right: 5px; padding-left: 5px; font-size: 17px; border-top: 2px solid rgb(33, 33, 34); display: inline-block; line-height: 1.1;">案例源码</span></h3> <pre style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"><code class="python language-python hljs" style="overflow-wrap: break-word; margin: 0px 2px; line-height: 18px; font-size: 14px; font-weight: normal; word-spacing: 0px; letter-spacing: 0px; font-family: Consolas, Inconsolata, Courier, monospace; border-radius: 0px; color: rgb(169, 183, 198); background: rgb(40, 43, 46); overflow-x: auto; padding: 0.5em; white-space: pre !important; word-wrap: normal !important; word-break: normal !important; overflow: auto !important; display: -webkit-box !important;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">import</span>&nbsp;requests<br><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">from</span>&nbsp;bs4&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">import</span>&nbsp;BeautifulSoup<br><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">from</span>&nbsp;lxml&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">import</span>&nbsp;etree<br><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">from</span>&nbsp;pyquery&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">import</span>&nbsp;PyQuery&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">as</span>&nbsp;pq<br><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">import</span>&nbsp;itertools<br><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">import</span>&nbsp;pandas&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">as</span>&nbsp;pd<br><br><span class="hljs-class" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">class</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-title" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">TencentPosition</span><span class="hljs-params" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(255, 152, 35); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">()</span>:</span><br><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"""<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;功能:&nbsp;定义初始变量<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;参数:<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;start:&nbsp;起始数据<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;"""</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-function" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">def</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-title" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">__init__</span><span class="hljs-params" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(255, 152, 35); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">(self,&nbsp;start)</span>:</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;self.url&nbsp;=&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"https://hr.tencent.com/position.php?&amp;start={}#a"</span>.format(start)<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;self.headers&nbsp;=&nbsp;{<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"Host"</span>:&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"hr.tencent.com"</span>,<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"User-Agent"</span>:&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"Mozilla/5.0&nbsp;(Windows&nbsp;NT&nbsp;10.0;&nbsp;Win64;&nbsp;x64)&nbsp;AppleWebKit/537.36&nbsp;(KHTML,&nbsp;like&nbsp;Gecko)&nbsp;Chrome/67.0.3396.99&nbsp;Safari/537.36"</span>,<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;self.file_path&nbsp;=&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"./TencentPosition.csv"</span><br><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"""<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;功能:&nbsp;请求目标页面<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;参数:<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;url:&nbsp;目标链接<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;headers:&nbsp;请求头<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;返回:<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;html,页面源码<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;"""</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-function" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">def</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-title" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">get_page</span><span class="hljs-params" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(255, 152, 35); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">(self,&nbsp;url,&nbsp;headers)</span>:</span>&nbsp;<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;res&nbsp;=&nbsp;requests.get(url,&nbsp;headers=headers)<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">try</span>:<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">if</span>&nbsp;res.status_code&nbsp;==&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">200</span>:<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">return</span>&nbsp;res.text<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">else</span>:<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">return</span>&nbsp;self.get_page(url,&nbsp;headers=headers)<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">except</span>&nbsp;RequestException&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">as</span>&nbsp;e:<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">return</span>&nbsp;self.get_page(url,&nbsp;headers=headers)<br><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"""<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;功能:&nbsp;Beautiful&nbsp;Soup解析页面<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;参数:<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;html:&nbsp;请求页面源码<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;"""</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-function" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">def</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-title" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">soup_analysis</span><span class="hljs-params" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(255, 152, 35); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">(self,&nbsp;html)</span>:</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;soup&nbsp;=&nbsp;BeautifulSoup(html,&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"lxml"</span>)<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;tr_list&nbsp;=&nbsp;soup.find(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"table"</span>,&nbsp;class_=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"tablelist"</span>).find_all(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"tr"</span>)<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">for</span>&nbsp;tr&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">in</span>&nbsp;tr_list[<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">1</span>:<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">-1</span>]:<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;position_info&nbsp;=&nbsp;[td_data&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">for</span>&nbsp;td_data&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">in</span>&nbsp;tr.stripped_strings]<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;self.settle_data(position_info=position_info)<br><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"""<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;功能:&nbsp;xpath解析页面<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;参数:<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;html:&nbsp;请求页面源码<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;"""</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-function" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">def</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-title" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">xpath_analysis</span><span class="hljs-params" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(255, 152, 35); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">(self,&nbsp;html)</span>:</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;result&nbsp;=&nbsp;etree.HTML(html)<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;tr_list&nbsp;=&nbsp;result.xpath(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"//table[@class='tablelist']//tr"</span>)<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">for</span>&nbsp;tr&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">in</span>&nbsp;tr_list[<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">1</span>:<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">-1</span>]:<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;position_info&nbsp;=&nbsp;tr.xpath(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"./td//text()"</span>)<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;self.settle_data(position_info=position_info)<br><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"""<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;功能:&nbsp;pyquery解析页面<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;参数:<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;html:&nbsp;请求页面源码<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;"""</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-function" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">def</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-title" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">pyquery_analysis</span><span class="hljs-params" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(255, 152, 35); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">(self,&nbsp;html)</span>:</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;result&nbsp;=&nbsp;pq(html)<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;tr_list&nbsp;=&nbsp;result.find(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">".tablelist"</span>).find(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"tr"</span>)<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">for</span>&nbsp;tr&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">in</span>&nbsp;itertools.islice(tr_list.items(),&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">1</span>,&nbsp;<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">11</span>):<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;position_info&nbsp;=&nbsp;[td.text()&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">for</span>&nbsp;td&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">in</span>&nbsp;tr.find(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"td"</span>).items()]<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;self.settle_data(position_info=position_info)<br><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"""<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;功能:&nbsp;职位数据整合<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;参数:<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;position_info:&nbsp;字段数据列表<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;"""</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-function" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">def</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-title" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">settle_data</span><span class="hljs-params" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(255, 152, 35); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">(self,&nbsp;position_info)</span>:</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;position_data&nbsp;=&nbsp;{<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"职位名称"</span>:&nbsp;position_info[<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">0</span>].replace(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"\xa0"</span>,&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"&nbsp;"</span>),&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-comment" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(128, 128, 128); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;replace替换\xa0字符防止转码error</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"职位类别"</span>:&nbsp;position_info[<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">1</span>],<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"招聘人数"</span>:&nbsp;position_info[<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">2</span>],<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"工作地点"</span>:&nbsp;position_info[<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">3</span>],<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"发布时间"</span>:&nbsp;position_info[<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">-1</span>],<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;print(position_data)<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;self.save_data(self.file_path,&nbsp;position_data)<br><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"""<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;功能:&nbsp;数据保存<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;参数:<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;file_path:&nbsp;文件保存路径<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;position_data:&nbsp;职位数据<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;"""</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-function" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">def</span>&nbsp;<span class="hljs-title" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(165, 218, 45); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">save_data</span><span class="hljs-params" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(255, 152, 35); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">(self,&nbsp;file_path,&nbsp;position_data)</span>:</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;df&nbsp;=&nbsp;pd.DataFrame([position_data])<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">try</span>:<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;df.to_csv(file_path,&nbsp;header=<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">False</span>,&nbsp;index=<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">False</span>,&nbsp;mode=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"a+"</span>,&nbsp;encoding=<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"gbk"</span>)&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-comment" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(128, 128, 128); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">#&nbsp;数据转码并换行存储</span><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">except</span>:<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">pass</span><br><br><span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">if</span>&nbsp;__name__&nbsp;==&nbsp;<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"__main__"</span>:<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">for</span>&nbsp;page,&nbsp;index&nbsp;<span class="hljs-keyword" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(248, 35, 117); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">in</span>&nbsp;enumerate(range(<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">287</span>)):<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;print(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"正在爬取第{}页的职位数据:"</span>.format(page+<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">1</span>))<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;tp&nbsp;=&nbsp;TencentPosition(start=(index*<span class="hljs-number" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(174, 135, 250); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">10</span>))<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;tp_html&nbsp;=&nbsp;tp.get_page(url=tp.url,&nbsp;headers=tp.headers)<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;tp.pyquery_analysis(html=tp_html)<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;print(<span class="hljs-string" style="font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; color: rgb(238, 220, 112); word-wrap: inherit !important; word-break: inherit !important;">"\n"</span>)<br></code></pre> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">部分结果如下:<br><img src="https://gss0.baidu.com/94o3dSag_xI4khGko9WTAnF6hhy/zhidao/pic/item/d4628535e5dde7115832c220aaefce1b9c166100.jpg" width="500" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; padding: 0px; display: block; margin: 0px auto; max-width: 100%;"></p> <h2 id="h-11" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; padding: 0px; font-weight: bold; margin: 10px auto; height: 40px; background-color: rgb(251, 251, 251); border-bottom: 1px solid rgb(246, 246, 246); overflow: hidden; box-sizing: border-box;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-left: -10px; display: inline-block; width: auto; height: 40px; background-color: rgb(33, 33, 34); border-bottom-right-radius: 100px; color: rgb(255, 255, 255); padding-right: 30px; padding-left: 30px; line-height: 40px; font-size: 16px;">总结</span></h2> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;">在本篇文章中,首先我们分别介绍了Beautiful Soup、XPath、pyquery的常见操作,之后通过使用该三种解析工具来爬取腾讯招聘网中所有的职位招聘数据,从而进一步让读者有一个更加深刻的认识。该案例中,由于本篇文章重点在于网站页面的解析方法,所以未使用多线程、多进程,爬取所有的数据爬取的时间在一两分钟,在之后的文章中有时间的话会再次介绍多线程多进程的使用,案例中的解析方式都已介绍过,所以读者阅读源码即可,如果对爬虫页面解析还有疑问的朋友欢迎在联系涛耶或者在下方留言,公众号:【玩世不恭的Coder】,一个专注技术的分享区。</p> <p style="color: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 16px; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, 'Segoe UI', Arial, freesans, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; text-align: start; white-space: normal; text-size-adjust: auto; line-height: 1.75em;"><font color="red" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;">注意:本文章中所有的内容皆为在实际开发中常见的一些操作,并非所有,想要进一步提升技术能力的读者务必请阅读官方文档。</font></p> <figure style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"><img src="https://imgkr.cn-bj.ufileos.com/74117058-06b5-447a-a790-fdb6b259c6b9.png" alt="" title="" style="font-size: inherit; color: inherit; line-height: inherit; padding: 0px; display: block; margin: 0px auto; max-width: 100%;"><figcaption style="line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; margin-top: 10px; text-align: center; color: rgb(153, 153, 153); font-size: 0.7em;"></figcaption></figure></div>

原文出处:https://www.cnblogs.com/LiT-26647879-510087153/p/12487958.html

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