react脚手架create-react-app使用

2019/04/14 21:58
阅读数 138

一、安装

npm install -g create-react-app

二、创建react应用

create-react-app是全局命令来创建react项目

$ create-react-app react-cli-demo
Creating a new React app in G:\GitHub\React-demo\react-cli-demo.

Installing packages. This might take a couple of minutes.
Installing react, react-dom, and react-scripts...
1、主要依赖react,react-dom,react-scripts
2、生成目录结构
 
create-react-app生成项目目录结构

3、package.json

 

 
package.json

没有配置文件(webpack.config.js)

 

三、npm 命令

1、npm start

"start": "react-scripts start"
不是熟悉的"node scripts/start.js"

2、react-scripts 是什么?

react-scriptscreate-react-app生成项目所有的依赖。
通常情况下,我们创建spa应用时是使用npm安装项目依赖,在通过配置webpack.config.js进行配置,搭建好环境后在src编写源代码。而create-react-app是自动构建,在package.json中只有react-scripts作为依赖,而在reacr-scripts中已经配置好了项目所有需要的。
有一下支持:

React, JSX, ES6, and Flow syntax support.
Language extras beyond ES6 like the object spread operator.
Import CSS and image files directly from JavaScript.
Autoprefixed CSS, so you don’t need -webkit or other prefixes.
A build script to bundle JS, CSS, and images for production, with sourcemaps. A dev server that lints for common errors. 

react,es6,babel,webpack编辑到打包,react-scripts都做了。

3、react-scripts源码

打开mode-modules\react-scripts\bin \react-scripts.js

'use strict';

const spawn = require('react-dev-utils/crossSpawn');
const args = process.argv.slice(2); const scriptIndex = args.findIndex( x => x === 'build' || x === 'eject' || x === 'start' || x === 'test' ); const script = scriptIndex === -1 ? args[0] : args[scriptIndex]; const nodeArgs = scriptIndex > 0 ? args.slice(0, scriptIndex) : []; switch (script) { case 'build': case 'eject': case 'start': case 'test': { const result = spawn.sync( 'node', nodeArgs .concat(require.resolve('../scripts/' + script)) //根据npm命令引用不同文件 .concat(args.slice(scriptIndex + 1)), { stdio: 'inherit' } ); if (result.signal) { if (result.signal === 'SIGKILL') { console.log( 'The build failed because the process exited too early. ' + 'This probably means the system ran out of memory or someone called ' + '`kill -9` on the process.' ); } else if (result.signal === 'SIGTERM') { console.log( 'The build failed because the process exited too early. ' + 'Someone might have called `kill` or `killall`, or the system could ' + 'be shutting down.' ); } process.exit(1); } process.exit(result.status); break; } default: console.log('Unknown script "' + script + '".'); console.log('Perhaps you need to update react-scripts?'); console.log( 'See: https://github.com/facebookincubator/create-react-app/blob/master/packages/react-scripts/template/README.md#updating-to-new-releases' ); break; } 
 
scripts文件
// start.js
'use strict';

// Do this as the first thing so that any code reading it knows the right env.
process.env.BABEL_ENV = 'development';
process.env.NODE_ENV = 'development'; // Makes the script crash on unhandled rejections instead of silently // ignoring them. In the future, promise rejections that are not handled will // terminate the Node.js process with a non-zero exit code. process.on('unhandledRejection', err => { throw err; }); // Ensure environment variables are read. require('../config/env'); const fs = require('fs'); const chalk = require('chalk'); const webpack = require('webpack'); //引入webpack const WebpackDevServer = require('webpack-dev-server'); // 引入webpack-dev-server const clearConsole = require('react-dev-utils/clearConsole'); const checkRequiredFiles = require('react-dev-utils/checkRequiredFiles'); const { choosePort, createCompiler, prepareProxy, prepareUrls, } = require('react-dev-utils/WebpackDevServerUtils'); const openBrowser = require('react-dev-utils/openBrowser'); const paths = require('../config/paths'); //文件路径 const config = require('../config/webpack.config.dev'); const createDevServerConfig = require('../config/webpackDevServer.config'); const useYarn = fs.existsSync(paths.yarnLockFile); const isInteractive = process.stdout.isTTY; // Warn and crash if required files are missing if (!checkRequiredFiles([paths.appHtml, paths.appIndexJs])) { process.exit(1); } // Tools like Cloud9 rely on this. const DEFAULT_PORT = parseInt(process.env.PORT, 10) || 3000; // 端口3000,可以修改在执行npm run start const HOST = process.env.HOST || '0.0.0.0'; if (process.env.HOST) { console.log( chalk.cyan( `Attempting to bind to HOST environment variable: ${chalk.yellow( chalk.bold(process.env.HOST) )}` ) ); console.log( `If this was unintentional, check that you haven't mistakenly set it in your shell.` ); console.log(`Learn more here: ${chalk.yellow('http://bit.ly/2mwWSwH')}`); console.log(); } // We attempt to use the default port but if it is busy, we offer the user to // run on a different port. `choosePort()` Promise resolves to the next free port. choosePort(HOST, DEFAULT_PORT) .then(port => { if (port == null) { // We have not found a port. return; } const protocol = process.env.HTTPS === 'true' ? 'https' : 'http'; const appName = require(paths.appPackageJson).name; const urls = prepareUrls(protocol, HOST, port); // Create a webpack compiler that is configured with custom messages. const compiler = createCompiler(webpack, config, appName, urls, useYarn); // Load proxy config const proxySetting = require(paths.appPackageJson).proxy; const proxyConfig = prepareProxy(proxySetting, paths.appPublic); // Serve webpack assets generated by the compiler over a web sever. const serverConfig = createDevServerConfig( proxyConfig, urls.lanUrlForConfig ); const devServer = new WebpackDevServer(compiler, serverConfig); // Launch WebpackDevServer. devServer.listen(port, HOST, err => { if (err) { return console.log(err); } if (isInteractive) { clearConsole(); } console.log(chalk.cyan('Starting the development server...\n')); openBrowser(urls.localUrlForBrowser); }); ['SIGINT', 'SIGTERM'].forEach(function(sig) { process.on(sig, function() { devServer.close(); process.exit(); }); }); }) .catch(err => { if (err && err.message) { console.log(err.message); } process.exit(1); }); 
// path.js 文件
// @remove-on-eject-begin
/**
 * Copyright (c) 2015-present, Facebook, Inc.
 *
 * This source code is licensed under the MIT license found in the
 * LICENSE file in the root directory of this source tree.
 */
// @remove-on-eject-end
'use strict'; const path = require('path'); const fs = require('fs'); const url = require('url'); // Make sure any symlinks in the project folder are resolved: // https://github.com/facebookincubator/create-react-app/issues/637 const appDirectory = fs.realpathSync(process.cwd()); const resolveApp = relativePath => path.resolve(appDirectory, relativePath); const envPublicUrl = process.env.PUBLIC_URL; function ensureSlash(path, needsSlash) { const hasSlash = path.endsWith('/'); if (hasSlash && !needsSlash) { return path.substr(path, path.length - 1); } else if (!hasSlash && needsSlash) { return `${path}/`; } else { return path; } } const getPublicUrl = appPackageJson => envPublicUrl || require(appPackageJson).homepage; // We use `PUBLIC_URL` environment variable or "homepage" field to infer // "public path" at which the app is served. // Webpack needs to know it to put the right <script> hrefs into HTML even in // single-page apps that may serve index.html for nested URLs like /todos/42. // We can't use a relative path in HTML because we don't want to load something // like /todos/42/static/js/bundle.7289d.js. We have to know the root. function getServedPath(appPackageJson) { const publicUrl = getPublicUrl(appPackageJson); const servedUrl = envPublicUrl || (publicUrl ? url.parse(publicUrl).pathname : '/'); return ensureSlash(servedUrl, true); } // config after eject: we're in ./config/ module.exports = { // 熟悉的各种文件的配置,也要求了在项目中index.js和index.html不能改名 dotenv: resolveApp('.env'), appBuild: resolveApp('build'), appPublic: resolveApp('public'), appHtml: resolveApp('public/index.html'), appIndexJs: resolveApp('src/index.js'), appPackageJson: resolveApp('package.json'), appSrc: resolveApp('src'), yarnLockFile: resolveApp('yarn.lock'), testsSetup: resolveApp('src/setupTests.js'), appNodeModules: resolveApp('node_modules'), publicUrl: getPublicUrl(resolveApp('package.json')), servedPath: getServedPath(resolveApp('package.json')), }; // @remove-on-eject-begin const resolveOwn = relativePath => path.resolve(__dirname, '..', relativePath); // config before eject: we're in ./node_modules/react-scripts/config/ module.exports = { dotenv: resolveApp('.env'), appPath: resolveApp('.'), appBuild: resolveApp('build'), appPublic: resolveApp('public'), appHtml: resolveApp('public/index.html'), appIndexJs: resolveApp('src/index.js'), appPackageJson: resolveApp('package.json'), appSrc: resolveApp('src'), yarnLockFile: resolveApp('yarn.lock'), testsSetup: resolveApp('src/setupTests.js'), appNodeModules: resolveApp('node_modules'), publicUrl: getPublicUrl(resolveApp('package.json')), servedPath: getServedPath(resolveApp('package.json')), // These properties only exist before ejecting: ownPath: resolveOwn('.'), ownNodeModules: resolveOwn('node_modules'), // This is empty on npm 3 }; const ownPackageJson = require('../package.json'); const reactScriptsPath = resolveApp(`node_modules/${ownPackageJson.name}`); const reactScriptsLinked = fs.existsSync(reactScriptsPath) && fs.lstatSync(reactScriptsPath).isSymbolicLink(); // config before publish: we're in ./packages/react-scripts/config/ if ( !reactScriptsLinked && __dirname.indexOf(path.join('packages', 'react-scripts', 'config')) !== -1 ) { module.exports = { dotenv: resolveOwn('template/.env'), appPath: resolveApp('.'), appBuild: resolveOwn('../../build'), appPublic: resolveOwn('template/public'), appHtml: resolveOwn('template/public/index.html'), appIndexJs: resolveOwn('template/src/index.js'), appPackageJson: resolveOwn('package.json'), appSrc: resolveOwn('template/src'), yarnLockFile: resolveOwn('template/yarn.lock'), testsSetup: resolveOwn('template/src/setupTests.js'), appNodeModules: resolveOwn('node_modules'), publicUrl: getPublicUrl(resolveOwn('package.json')), servedPath: getServedPath(resolveOwn('package.json')), // These properties only exist before ejecting: ownPath: resolveOwn('.'), ownNodeModules: resolveOwn('node_modules'), }; } // @remove-on-eject-end 
// webpack-config-dev.js
'use strict';

const autoprefixer = require('autoprefixer'); const path = require('path'); const webpack = require('webpack'); //各种webpack配置 const HtmlWebpackPlugin = require('html-webpack-plugin'); const CaseSensitivePathsPlugin = require('case-sensitive-paths-webpack-plugin'); const InterpolateHtmlPlugin = require('react-dev-utils/InterpolateHtmlPlugin'); const WatchMissingNodeModulesPlugin = require('react-dev-utils/WatchMissingNodeModulesPlugin'); const eslintFormatter = require('react-dev-utils/eslintFormatter'); const ModuleScopePlugin = require('react-dev-utils/ModuleScopePlugin'); const getClientEnvironment = require('./env'); const paths = require('./paths'); // Webpack uses `publicPath` to determine where the app is being served from. // In development, we always serve from the root. This makes config easier. const publicPath = '/'; const env = getClientEnvironment(publicUrl); module.exports = { // 相关配置 devtool: 'cheap-module-source-map', entry: [ // We ship a few polyfills by default: require.resolve('./polyfills'), require.resolve('react-dev-utils/webpackHotDevClient'), // Finally, this is your app's code: paths.appIndexJs ], output: { // Add /* filename */ comments to generated require()s in the output. pathinfo: true, // This does not produce a real file. It's just the virtual path that is // served by WebpackDevServer in development. This is the JS bundle // containing code from all our entry points, and the Webpack runtime. filename: 'static/js/bundle.js', // There are also additional JS chunk files if you use code splitting. chunkFilename: 'static/js/[name].chunk.js', // This is the URL that app is served from. We use "/" in development. publicPath: publicPath, // Point sourcemap entries to original disk location (format as URL on Windows) devtoolModuleFilenameTemplate: info => path.resolve(info.absoluteResourcePath).replace(/\\/g, '/'), }, resolve: { // This allows you to set a fallback for where Webpack should look for modules. // We placed these paths second because we want `node_modules` to "win" // if there are any conflicts. This matches Node resolution mechanism. // https://github.com/facebookincubator/create-react-app/issues/253 modules: ['node_modules', paths.appNodeModules].concat( // It is guaranteed to exist because we tweak it in `env.js` process.env.NODE_PATH.split(path.delimiter).filter(Boolean) ), // These are the reasonable defaults supported by the Node ecosystem. // We also include JSX as a common component filename extension to support // some tools, although we do not recommend using it, see: // https://github.com/facebookincubator/create-react-app/issues/290 // `web` extension prefixes have been added for better support // for React Native Web. extensions: ['.web.js', '.mjs', '.js', '.json', '.web.jsx', '.jsx'], alias: { // @remove-on-eject-begin // Resolve Babel runtime relative to react-scripts. // It usually still works on npm 3 without this but it would be // unfortunate to rely on, as react-scripts could be symlinked, // and thus babel-runtime might not be resolvable from the source. 'babel-runtime': path.dirname( require.resolve('babel-runtime/package.json') ), // @remove-on-eject-end // Support React Native Web // https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2016/08/a-glimpse-into-the-future-with-react-native-for-web/ 'react-native': 'react-native-web', }, plugins: [ // Prevents users from importing files from outside of src/ (or node_modules/). // This often causes confusion because we only process files within src/ with babel. // To fix this, we prevent you from importing files out of src/ -- if you'd like to, // please link the files into your node_modules/ and let module-resolution kick in. // Make sure your source files are compiled, as they will not be processed in any way. new ModuleScopePlugin(paths.appSrc, [paths.appPackageJson]), ], }, module: { strictExportPresence: true, rules: [ // TODO: Disable require.ensure as it's not a standard language feature. // We are waiting for https://github.com/facebookincubator/create-react-app/issues/2176. // { parser: { requireEnsure: false } }, // First, run the linter. // It's important to do this before Babel processes the JS. { test: /\.(js|jsx|mjs)$/, enforce: 'pre', use: [ { options: { formatter: eslintFormatter, eslintPath: require.resolve('eslint'), // @remove-on-eject-begin baseConfig: { extends: [require.resolve('eslint-config-react-app')], }, ignore: false, useEslintrc: false, // @remove-on-eject-end }, loader: require.resolve('eslint-loader'), }, ], include: paths.appSrc, }, { // "oneOf" will traverse all following loaders until one will // match the requirements. When no loader matches it will fall // back to the "file" loader at the end of the loader list. oneOf: [ // "url" loader works like "file" loader except that it embeds assets // smaller than specified limit in bytes as data URLs to avoid requests. // A missing `test` is equivalent to a match. { test: [/\.bmp$/, /\.gif$/, /\.jpe?g$/, /\.png$/], loader: require.resolve('url-loader'), options: { limit: 10000, name: 'static/media/[name].[hash:8].[ext]', }, }, // Process JS with Babel. { test: /\.(js|jsx|mjs)$/, include: paths.appSrc, loader: require.resolve('babel-loader'), options: { // @remove-on-eject-begin babelrc: false, presets: [require.resolve('babel-preset-react-app')], // @remove-on-eject-end // This is a feature of `babel-loader` for webpack (not Babel itself). // It enables caching results in ./node_modules/.cache/babel-loader/ // directory for faster rebuilds. cacheDirectory: true, }, }, // "postcss" loader applies autoprefixer to our CSS. // "css" loader resolves paths in CSS and adds assets as dependencies. // "style" loader turns CSS into JS modules that inject <style> tags. // In production, we use a plugin to extract that CSS to a file, but // in development "style" loader enables hot editing of CSS. { test: /\.css$/, use: [ require.resolve('style-loader'), { loader: require.resolve('css-loader'), options: { importLoaders: 1, }, }, { loader: require.resolve('postcss-loader'), options: { // Necessary for external CSS imports to work // https://github.com/facebookincubator/create-react-app/issues/2677 ident: 'postcss', plugins: () => [ require('postcss-flexbugs-fixes'), autoprefixer({ browsers: [ '>1%', 'last 4 versions', 'Firefox ESR', 'not ie < 9', // React doesn't support IE8 anyway ], flexbox: 'no-2009', }), ], }, }, ], }, // "file" loader makes sure those assets get served by WebpackDevServer. // When you `import` an asset, you get its (virtual) filename. // In production, they would get copied to the `build` folder. // This loader doesn't use a "test" so it will catch all modules // that fall through the other loaders. { // Exclude `js` files to keep "css" loader working as it injects // its runtime that would otherwise processed through "file" loader. // Also exclude `html` and `json` extensions so they get processed // by webpacks internal loaders. exclude: [/\.(js|jsx|mjs)$/, /\.html$/, /\.json$/], loader: require.resolve('file-loader'), options: { name: 'static/media/[name].[hash:8].[ext]', }, }, ], }, // ** STOP ** Are you adding a new loader? // Make sure to add the new loader(s) before the "file" loader. ], }, plugins: [ // Makes some environment variables available in index.html. // The public URL is available as %PUBLIC_URL% in index.html, e.g.: // <link rel="shortcut icon" href="%PUBLIC_URL%/favicon.ico"> // In development, this will be an empty string. new InterpolateHtmlPlugin(env.raw), // Generates an `index.html` file with the <script> injected. new HtmlWebpackPlugin({ inject: true, template: paths.appHtml, }), // Add module names to factory functions so they appear in browser profiler. new webpack.NamedModulesPlugin(), // Makes some environment variables available to the JS code, for example: // if (process.env.NODE_ENV === 'development') { ... }. See `./env.js`. new webpack.DefinePlugin(env.stringified), // This is necessary to emit hot updates (currently CSS only): new webpack.HotModuleReplacementPlugin(), // Watcher doesn't work well if you mistype casing in a path so we use // a plugin that prints an error when you attempt to do this. // See https://github.com/facebookincubator/create-react-app/issues/240 new CaseSensitivePathsPlugin(), // If you require a missing module and then `npm install` it, you still have // to restart the development server for Webpack to discover it. This plugin // makes the discovery automatic so you don't have to restart. // See https://github.com/facebookincubator/create-react-app/issues/186 new WatchMissingNodeModulesPlugin(paths.appNodeModules), // Moment.js is an extremely popular library that bundles large locale files // by default due to how Webpack interprets its code. This is a practical // solution that requires the user to opt into importing specific locales. // https://github.com/jmblog/how-to-optimize-momentjs-with-webpack // You can remove this if you don't use Moment.js: new webpack.IgnorePlugin(/^\.\/locale$/, /moment$/), ], // Some libraries import Node modules but don't use them in the browser. // Tell Webpack to provide empty mocks for them so importing them works. node: { dgram: 'empty', fs: 'empty', net: 'empty', tls: 'empty', child_process: 'empty', }, // Turn off performance hints during development because we don't do any // splitting or minification in interest of speed. These warnings become // cumbersome. performance: { hints: false, }, }; 

4、npm run eject命令

单向操作不可逆,npm eun eject命令暴露项目的配置,可以自由配置项目所需的依赖,不使用的版本零配置即可开发。

 
npm run eject后文件目录

 
npm run eject后package.json文件

执行 npm run eject后,整个项目结构和配置和平时开发就没什么区别了。


作者:芒果加奶
链接:https://www.jianshu.com/p/c6040430b18d
来源:简书
简书著作权归作者所有,任何形式的转载都请联系作者获得授权并注明出处。
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