Redis(七):set/sadd/sismember/sinter/sdiffstore 命令源码解析

02/01 09:32
阅读数 9

  上两篇我们讲了hash和list数据类型相关的主要实现方法,同时加上前面对框架服务和string相关的功能介绍,已揭开了大部分redis的实用面纱。

  现在还剩下两种数据类型: set, zset.

  本篇咱们继续来看redis中的数据类型的实现: set 相关操作实现。

 

  研究过jdk的hashmap和hashset实现的同学,肯定都是知道,set其实就是一个简化版的map,只要将map的 k->v 的形式变为 k->1 的形式就可以了。所以set只是map的一个简单包装类。

  同理,对于 redis的 hash 和 set 数据类型,我们是否可以得出这么个结论呢?(如果是那样的话,我们就只需看几个set提供的特殊功能即可)

  

  同样,我们从功能列表开始,到数据结构,再到具体实现的这么个思路,来探索redis set的实现吧。

 

零、redis set相关操作方法


  Redis 的 Set 是 String 类型的无序集合。集合成员是唯一的,这就意味着集合中不能出现重复的数据。可根据应用场景需要选用该数据类型。(比如:好友/关注/粉丝/感兴趣的人/黑白名单)

  从官方的手册中可以查到相关的使用方法。


1> SADD key member1 [member2]
功能: 向集合添加一个或多个成员
返回值: 本次添加到redis的member数量(不包含已存在的member)

2> SCARD key
功能: 获取集合的成员数
返回值: set的元素数量或者0

3> SDIFF key1 [key2]
功能: 返回给定所有集合的差集
返回值: 差集的数组列表

4> SDIFFSTORE destination key1 [key2]
功能: 返回给定所有集合的差集并存储在 destination 中
返回值: 差集元素个数

5> SINTER key1 [key2]
功能: 返回给定所有集合的交集
返回值: 交集的数组列表

6> SINTERSTORE destination key1 [key2]
功能: 返回给定所有集合的交集并存储在 destination 中
返回值: 交集的元素个数

7> SISMEMBER key member
功能: 判断 member 元素是否是集合 key 的成员
返回值: 1:如果member是key的成员, 0:如果member不是key的成员或者key不存在

8> SMEMBERS key
功能: 返回集合中的所有成员
返回值: 所有成员列表

9> SMOVE source destination member
功能: 将 member 元素从 source 集合移动到 destination 集合
返回值: 1:移动操作成功, 0:移动不成功(member不是source的成员)

10> SPOP key [count]
功能: 移除并返回集合中的一个随机元素(因为set是无序的)
返回值: 被移除的元素列表或者nil

11> SRANDMEMBER key [count]
功能: 返回集合中一个或多个随机数
返回值: 1个元素或者count个元素数组列表或者nil

12> SREM key member1 [member2]
功能: 移除集合中一个或多个成员
返回值: 实际移除的元素个数

13> SUNION key1 [key2]
功能: 返回所有给定集合的并集
返回值: 并集元素数组列表

14> SUNIONSTORE destination key1 [key2]
功能: 所有给定集合的并集存储在 destination 集合中
返回值: 并集元素个数

15> SSCAN key cursor [MATCH pattern] [COUNT count]
功能: 迭代集合中的元素
返回值: 元素数组列表

 

一、set 相关数据结构


  redis使用dict和intset 两种数据结构保存set数据。

// 1. inset 数据结构,在set数据量小且都是整型数据时使用
typedef struct intset {
    // 编码范围,由具体存储值决定
    uint32_t encoding;
    // 数组长度
    uint32_t length;
    // 具体存储元素的容器
    int8_t contents[];
} intset;

// 2. dict 相关数据结构,即是 hash 的实现相关的数据结构
/* This is our hash table structure. Every dictionary has two of this as we
 * implement incremental rehashing, for the old to the new table. */
typedef struct dictht {
    dictEntry **table;
    unsigned long size;
    unsigned long sizemask;
    unsigned long used;
} dictht;

typedef struct dict {
    dictType *type;
    void *privdata;
    dictht ht[2];
    long rehashidx; /* rehashing not in progress if rehashidx == -1 */
    unsigned long iterators; /* number of iterators currently running */
} dict;

/* If safe is set to 1 this is a safe iterator, that means, you can call
 * dictAdd, dictFind, and other functions against the dictionary even while
 * iterating. Otherwise it is a non safe iterator, and only dictNext()
 * should be called while iterating. */
typedef struct dictIterator {
    dict *d;
    long index;
    int table, safe;
    dictEntry *entry, *nextEntry;
    /* unsafe iterator fingerprint for misuse detection. */
    long long fingerprint;
} dictIterator;

typedef struct dictEntry {
    void *key;
    union {
        void *val;
        uint64_t u64;
        int64_t s64;
        double d;
    } v;
    struct dictEntry *next;
} dictEntry;

typedef struct dictType {
    unsigned int (*hashFunction)(const void *key);
    void *(*keyDup)(void *privdata, const void *key);
    void *(*valDup)(void *privdata, const void *obj);
    int (*keyCompare)(void *privdata, const void *key1, const void *key2);
    void (*keyDestructor)(void *privdata, void *key);
    void (*valDestructor)(void *privdata, void *obj);
} dictType;

  对于set相关的命令的接口定义:

{"sadd",saddCommand,-3,"wmF",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"srem",sremCommand,-3,"wF",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"smove",smoveCommand,4,"wF",0,NULL,1,2,1,0,0},
    {"sismember",sismemberCommand,3,"rF",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"scard",scardCommand,2,"rF",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"spop",spopCommand,-2,"wRsF",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"srandmember",srandmemberCommand,-2,"rR",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"sinter",sinterCommand,-2,"rS",0,NULL,1,-1,1,0,0},
    {"sinterstore",sinterstoreCommand,-3,"wm",0,NULL,1,-1,1,0,0},
    {"sunion",sunionCommand,-2,"rS",0,NULL,1,-1,1,0,0},
    {"sunionstore",sunionstoreCommand,-3,"wm",0,NULL,1,-1,1,0,0},
    {"sdiff",sdiffCommand,-2,"rS",0,NULL,1,-1,1,0,0},
    {"sdiffstore",sdiffstoreCommand,-3,"wm",0,NULL,1,-1,1,0,0},
    {"smembers",sinterCommand,2,"rS",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"sscan",sscanCommand,-3,"rR",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},

 

二、sadd 添加成员操作


  一般我们都会以添加数据开始。从而理解数据结构的应用。

// 用法: SADD key member1 [member2]
// t_set.c, 添加member
void saddCommand(client *c) {
    robj *set;
    int j, added = 0;
    // 先从当前db中查找set实例
    set = lookupKeyWrite(c->db,c->argv[1]);
    if (set == NULL) {
        // 1. 新建set实例并添加到当前db中
        set = setTypeCreate(c->argv[2]->ptr);
        dbAdd(c->db,c->argv[1],set);
    } else {
        if (set->type != OBJ_SET) {
            addReply(c,shared.wrongtypeerr);
            return;
        }
    }
    // 对于n个member,一个个地添加即可
    for (j = 2; j < c->argc; j++) {
        // 2. 只有添加成功, added 才会加1
        if (setTypeAdd(set,c->argv[j]->ptr)) added++;
    }
    // 命令传播
    if (added) {
        signalModifiedKey(c->db,c->argv[1]);
        notifyKeyspaceEvent(NOTIFY_SET,"sadd",c->argv[1],c->db->id);
    }
    server.dirty += added;
    // 响应添加成功的数量
    addReplyLongLong(c,added);
}

// 1. 创建新的set集合实例(需根据首次的参数类型判定)
// t_set.c, 创建set实例
/* Factory method to return a set that *can* hold "value". When the object has
 * an integer-encodable value, an intset will be returned. Otherwise a regular
 * hash table. */
robj *setTypeCreate(sds value) {
    // 如果传入的value是整型,则创建 intset 类型的set
    // 否则使用dict类型的set
    // 一般地,第一个数据为整型,后续数据也应该为整型,所以这个数据结构相对稳定
    // 而hash的容器创建时,只使用了一 ziplist 创建,这是不一样的实现
    if (isSdsRepresentableAsLongLong(value,NULL) == C_OK)
        return createIntsetObject();
    return createSetObject();
}

// 1.1. 创建 intset 型的set
// object.c 
robj *createIntsetObject(void) {
    intset *is = intsetNew();
    robj *o = createObject(OBJ_SET,is);
    o->encoding = OBJ_ENCODING_INTSET;
    return o;
}
// intset.c, new一个空的intset对象
/* Create an empty intset. */
intset *intsetNew(void) {
    intset *is = zmalloc(sizeof(intset));
    is->encoding = intrev32ifbe(INTSET_ENC_INT16);
    is->length = 0;
    return is;
}

// 1.2. 创建dict 型的set
robj *createSetObject(void) {
    dict *d = dictCreate(&setDictType,NULL);
    robj *o = createObject(OBJ_SET,d);
    o->encoding = OBJ_ENCODING_HT;
    return o;
}
// dict.c
/* Create a new hash table */
dict *dictCreate(dictType *type,
        void *privDataPtr)
{
    dict *d = zmalloc(sizeof(*d));

    _dictInit(d,type,privDataPtr);
    return d;
}
/* Initialize the hash table */
int _dictInit(dict *d, dictType *type,
        void *privDataPtr)
{
    _dictReset(&d->ht[0]);
    _dictReset(&d->ht[1]);
    d->type = type;
    d->privdata = privDataPtr;
    d->rehashidx = -1;
    d->iterators = 0;
    return DICT_OK;
}

// 2. 添加member到set集合中
// t_set.c, 添加元素
/* Add the specified value into a set.
 *
 * If the value was already member of the set, nothing is done and 0 is
 * returned, otherwise the new element is added and 1 is returned. */
int setTypeAdd(robj *subject, sds value) {
    long long llval;
    // 2.1. HT编码和INTSET编码分别处理就好
    if (subject->encoding == OBJ_ENCODING_HT) {
        dict *ht = subject->ptr;
        // 以 value 为 key, 添加实例到ht中
        // 实现过程也很简单,大概就是如果存在则返回NULL(即无需添加),辅助rehash,分配内存创建dictEntry实例,稍后简单看看
        dictEntry *de = dictAddRaw(ht,value);
        if (de) {
            // 重新设置key为 sdsdup(value), value为NULL
            dictSetKey(ht,de,sdsdup(value));
            dictSetVal(ht,de,NULL);
            return 1;
        }
    } 
    // 2.2. intset 编码的member添加
    else if (subject->encoding == OBJ_ENCODING_INTSET) {
        // 尝试解析value为 long 型,值写入 llval 中
        if (isSdsRepresentableAsLongLong(value,&llval) == C_OK) {
            uint8_t success = 0;
            // 情况1. 可添加到intset中
            subject->ptr = intsetAdd(subject->ptr,llval,&success);
            if (success) {
                /* Convert to regular set when the intset contains
                 * too many entries. */
                // 默认: 512, intset大于之后,则转换为ht hash表模式存储 
                if (intsetLen(subject->ptr) > server.set_max_intset_entries)
                    // 2.3. 转换intset编码为 ht 编码
                    setTypeConvert(subject,OBJ_ENCODING_HT);
                return 1;
            }
        } else {
            // 情况2. member 是字符串型,先将set容器转换为 ht 编码,再重新执行dict的添加模式
            /* Failed to get integer from object, convert to regular set. */
            setTypeConvert(subject,OBJ_ENCODING_HT);

            /* The set *was* an intset and this value is not integer
             * encodable, so dictAdd should always work. */
            serverAssert(dictAdd(subject->ptr,sdsdup(value),NULL) == DICT_OK);
            return 1;
        }
    } else {
        serverPanic("Unknown set encoding");
    }
    return 0;
}
// 2.1. 添加member到dict中(略解, 在hash数据结构解析中已介绍)
// dict.c, 添加某key到 d 字典中
/* Low level add. This function adds the entry but instead of setting
 * a value returns the dictEntry structure to the user, that will make
 * sure to fill the value field as he wishes.
 *
 * This function is also directly exposed to the user API to be called
 * mainly in order to store non-pointers inside the hash value, example:
 *
 * entry = dictAddRaw(dict,mykey);
 * if (entry != NULL) dictSetSignedIntegerVal(entry,1000);
 *
 * Return values:
 *
 * If key already exists NULL is returned.
 * If key was added, the hash entry is returned to be manipulated by the caller.
 */
dictEntry *dictAddRaw(dict *d, void *key)
{
    int index;
    dictEntry *entry;
    dictht *ht;

    if (dictIsRehashing(d)) _dictRehashStep(d);

    /* Get the index of the new element, or -1 if
     * the element already exists. */
    // 获取需要添加的key的存放位置下标(slot), 如果该key已存在, 则返回-1(无可用slot)
    if ((index = _dictKeyIndex(d, key)) == -1)
        return NULL;

    /* Allocate the memory and store the new entry.
     * Insert the element in top, with the assumption that in a database
     * system it is more likely that recently added entries are accessed
     * more frequently. */
    ht = dictIsRehashing(d) ? &d->ht[1] : &d->ht[0];
    entry = zmalloc(sizeof(*entry));
    entry->next = ht->table[index];
    ht->table[index] = entry;
    ht->used++;

    /* Set the hash entry fields. */
    dictSetKey(d, entry, key);
    return entry;
}

// 2.2. 添加整型数据到 intset中
// intset.c, 添加value
/* Insert an integer in the intset */
intset *intsetAdd(intset *is, int64_t value, uint8_t *success) {
    // 获取value的所属范围
    uint8_t valenc = _intsetValueEncoding(value);
    uint32_t pos;
    if (success) *success = 1;

    /* Upgrade encoding if necessary. If we need to upgrade, we know that
     * this value should be either appended (if > 0) or prepended (if < 0),
     * because it lies outside the range of existing values. */
    // 默认 is->encoding 为 INTSET_ENC_INT16 (16位长)
    // 2.2.1. 即超过当前预设的位长,则需要增大预设,然后添加
    // 此时的value可以确定: 要么是最大,要么是最小 (所以我们可以推断,此intset应该是有序的)
    if (valenc > intrev32ifbe(is->encoding)) {
        /* This always succeeds, so we don't need to curry *success. */
        return intsetUpgradeAndAdd(is,value);
    } else {
        /* Abort if the value is already present in the set.
         * This call will populate "pos" with the right position to insert
         * the value when it cannot be found. */
        // 2.2.2. 在当前环境下添加value
        // 找到value则说明元素已存在,不可再添加
        // pos 保存比value小的第1个元素的位置
        if (intsetSearch(is,value,&pos)) {
            if (success) *success = 0;
            return is;
        }

        is = intsetResize(is,intrev32ifbe(is->length)+1);
        // 在pos不是末尾位置时,需要留出空位,依次移动后面的元素
        if (pos < intrev32ifbe(is->length)) intsetMoveTail(is,pos,pos+1);
    }
    // 针对编码位不变更的情况下设置pos位置的值
    _intsetSet(is,pos,value);
    is->length = intrev32ifbe(intrev32ifbe(is->length)+1);
    return is;
}
// 判断 value 的位长
// INTSET_ENC_INT16 < INTSET_ENC_INT32 < INTSET_ENC_INT64
// 2 < 4 < 8
/* Return the required encoding for the provided value. */
static uint8_t _intsetValueEncoding(int64_t v) {
    if (v < INT32_MIN || v > INT32_MAX)
        return INTSET_ENC_INT64;
    else if (v < INT16_MIN || v > INT16_MAX)
        return INTSET_ENC_INT32;
    else
        return INTSET_ENC_INT16;
}

// 2.2.1. 升级预设位长,并添加value
// intset.c
/* Upgrades the intset to a larger encoding and inserts the given integer. */
static intset *intsetUpgradeAndAdd(intset *is, int64_t value) {
    uint8_t curenc = intrev32ifbe(is->encoding);
    uint8_t newenc = _intsetValueEncoding(value);
    int length = intrev32ifbe(is->length);
    int prepend = value < 0 ? 1 : 0;

    /* First set new encoding and resize */
    is->encoding = intrev32ifbe(newenc);
    // 每次必进行扩容
    is = intsetResize(is,intrev32ifbe(is->length)+1);

    /* Upgrade back-to-front so we don't overwrite values.
     * Note that the "prepend" variable is used to make sure we have an empty
     * space at either the beginning or the end of the intset. */
    // 因编码发生变化,元素的位置已经不能一一对应,需要按照原来的编码依次转移过来
    // 从后往前依次赋值,所以,内存位置上不存在覆盖问题(后面内存位置一定是空的),直接依次赋值即可(高效复制)
    while(length--)
        _intsetSet(is,length+prepend,_intsetGetEncoded(is,length,curenc));

    /* Set the value at the beginning or the end. */
    // 对新增加的元素,负数添加到第0位,否则添加到最后一个元素后一位
    if (prepend)
        _intsetSet(is,0,value);
    else
        _intsetSet(is,intrev32ifbe(is->length),value);
    is->length = intrev32ifbe(intrev32ifbe(is->length)+1);
    return is;
}
/* Resize the intset */
static intset *intsetResize(intset *is, uint32_t len) {
    uint32_t size = len*intrev32ifbe(is->encoding);
    // malloc
    is = zrealloc(is,sizeof(intset)+size);
    return is;
}
// intset.c, 获取pos位置的值
/* Return the value at pos, given an encoding. */
static int64_t _intsetGetEncoded(intset *is, int pos, uint8_t enc) {
    int64_t v64;
    int32_t v32;
    int16_t v16;

    if (enc == INTSET_ENC_INT64) {
        memcpy(&v64,((int64_t*)is->contents)+pos,sizeof(v64));
        memrev64ifbe(&v64);
        return v64;
    } else if (enc == INTSET_ENC_INT32) {
        memcpy(&v32,((int32_t*)is->contents)+pos,sizeof(v32));
        memrev32ifbe(&v32);
        return v32;
    } else {
        memcpy(&v16,((int16_t*)is->contents)+pos,sizeof(v16));
        memrev16ifbe(&v16);
        return v16;
    }
}
// intset.c, 设置pos位置的值,和数组赋值的实际意义差不多
// 只是这里数据类型是不确定的,所以使用指针进行赋值
/* Set the value at pos, using the configured encoding. */
static void _intsetSet(intset *is, int pos, int64_t value) {
    uint32_t encoding = intrev32ifbe(is->encoding);
    if (encoding == INTSET_ENC_INT64) {
        ((int64_t*)is->contents)[pos] = value;
        memrev64ifbe(((int64_t*)is->contents)+pos);
    } else if (encoding == INTSET_ENC_INT32) {
        ((int32_t*)is->contents)[pos] = value;
        memrev32ifbe(((int32_t*)is->contents)+pos);
    } else {
        ((int16_t*)is->contents)[pos] = value;
        memrev16ifbe(((int16_t*)is->contents)+pos);
    }
}

// 2.2.2. 在编码类型未变更的情况,需要查找可以存放value的位置(为了确认该value是否已存在,以及小于value的第一个位置赋值)
/* Search for the position of "value". Return 1 when the value was found and
 * sets "pos" to the position of the value within the intset. Return 0 when
 * the value is not present in the intset and sets "pos" to the position
 * where "value" can be inserted. */
static uint8_t intsetSearch(intset *is, int64_t value, uint32_t *pos) {
    int min = 0, max = intrev32ifbe(is->length)-1, mid = -1;
    int64_t cur = -1;

    /* The value can never be found when the set is empty */
    if (intrev32ifbe(is->length) == 0) {
        if (pos) *pos = 0;
        return 0;
    } else {
        /* Check for the case where we know we cannot find the value,
         * but do know the insert position. */
        // 因 intset 是有序数组,即可以判定是否超出范围,如果超出则元素必定不存在
        if (value > _intsetGet(is,intrev32ifbe(is->length)-1)) {
            if (pos) *pos = intrev32ifbe(is->length);
            return 0;
        } else if (value < _intsetGet(is,0)) {
            if (pos) *pos = 0;
            return 0;
        }
    }
    // 使用二分查找
    while(max >= min) {
        mid = ((unsigned int)min + (unsigned int)max) >> 1;
        cur = _intsetGet(is,mid);
        if (value > cur) {
            min = mid+1;
        } else if (value < cur) {
            max = mid-1;
        } else {
            // 找到了
            break;
        }
    }

    if (value == cur) {
        if (pos) *pos = mid;
        return 1;
    } else {
        // 在没有找到的情况下,min就是第一个比 value 小的元素
        if (pos) *pos = min;
        return 0;
    }
}
// intset移动(内存移动)
static void intsetMoveTail(intset *is, uint32_t from, uint32_t to) {
    void *src, *dst;
    uint32_t bytes = intrev32ifbe(is->length)-from;
    uint32_t encoding = intrev32ifbe(is->encoding);

    if (encoding == INTSET_ENC_INT64) {
        src = (int64_t*)is->contents+from;
        dst = (int64_t*)is->contents+to;
        bytes *= sizeof(int64_t);
    } else if (encoding == INTSET_ENC_INT32) {
        src = (int32_t*)is->contents+from;
        dst = (int32_t*)is->contents+to;
        bytes *= sizeof(int32_t);
    } else {
        src = (int16_t*)is->contents+from;
        dst = (int16_t*)is->contents+to;
        bytes *= sizeof(int16_t);
    }
    memmove(dst,src,bytes);
}

// 2.3. 转换intset编码为 ht 编码 (如果遇到string型的value或者intset数量大于阀值(默认:512)时)
// t_set.c, 类型转换
/* Convert the set to specified encoding. The resulting dict (when converting
 * to a hash table) is presized to hold the number of elements in the original
 * set. */
void setTypeConvert(robj *setobj, int enc) {
    setTypeIterator *si;
    // 要求外部必须保证 set类型且 intset 编码
    serverAssertWithInfo(NULL,setobj,setobj->type == OBJ_SET &&
                             setobj->encoding == OBJ_ENCODING_INTSET);

    if (enc == OBJ_ENCODING_HT) {
        int64_t intele;
        // 直接创建一个 dict 来容纳数据
        dict *d = dictCreate(&setDictType,NULL);
        sds element;

        /* Presize the dict to avoid rehashing */
        // 直接一次性扩容成需要的大小
        dictExpand(d,intsetLen(setobj->ptr));

        /* To add the elements we extract integers and create redis objects */
        // setTypeIterator 迭代器是转换的关键 
        si = setTypeInitIterator(setobj);
        while (setTypeNext(si,&element,&intele) != -1) {
            // element:ht编码时的key, intele: intset编码时的value
            element = sdsfromlonglong(intele);
            // 因set特性保证是无重复元素,所以添加dict时,必然应成功
            // 此处应无 rehash, 而是直接计算 hashCode, 放置元素, 时间复杂度 O(1)
            serverAssert(dictAdd(d,element,NULL) == DICT_OK);
        }
        // 释放迭代器
        setTypeReleaseIterator(si);

        setobj->encoding = OBJ_ENCODING_HT;
        zfree(setobj->ptr);
        setobj->ptr = d;
    } else {
        serverPanic("Unsupported set conversion");
    }
}
// t_set.c, 获取set集合的迭代器
setTypeIterator *setTypeInitIterator(robj *subject) {
    setTypeIterator *si = zmalloc(sizeof(setTypeIterator));
    // 设置迭代器公用信息
    si->subject = subject;
    si->encoding = subject->encoding;
    // hash表则需要再迭代 dict
    if (si->encoding == OBJ_ENCODING_HT) {
        si->di = dictGetIterator(subject->ptr);
    }
    // intset 比较简单,直接设置下标即可
    else if (si->encoding == OBJ_ENCODING_INTSET) {
        si->ii = 0;
    } else {
        serverPanic("Unknown set encoding");
    }
    return si;
}
// dict.c, dict迭代器初始化
dictIterator *dictGetIterator(dict *d)
{
    dictIterator *iter = zmalloc(sizeof(*iter));

    iter->d = d;
    iter->table = 0;
    iter->index = -1;
    iter->safe = 0;
    iter->entry = NULL;
    iter->nextEntry = NULL;
    return iter;
}
// t_set.c, 
/* Move to the next entry in the set. Returns the object at the current
 * position.
 *
 * Since set elements can be internally be stored as SDS strings or
 * simple arrays of integers, setTypeNext returns the encoding of the
 * set object you are iterating, and will populate the appropriate pointer
 * (sdsele) or (llele) accordingly.
 *
 * Note that both the sdsele and llele pointers should be passed and cannot
 * be NULL since the function will try to defensively populate the non
 * used field with values which are easy to trap if misused.
 *
 * When there are no longer elements -1 is returned. */
int setTypeNext(setTypeIterator *si, sds *sdsele, int64_t *llele) {
    // hash表返回key
    if (si->encoding == OBJ_ENCODING_HT) {
        dictEntry *de = dictNext(si->di);
        if (de == NULL) return -1;
        *sdsele = dictGetKey(de);
        *llele = -123456789; /* Not needed. Defensive. */
    }
    // intset 直接获取下标对应的元素即可
    else if (si->encoding == OBJ_ENCODING_INTSET) {
        if (!intsetGet(si->subject->ptr,si->ii++,llele))
            return -1;
        *sdsele = NULL; /* Not needed. Defensive. */
    } else {
        serverPanic("Wrong set encoding in setTypeNext");
    }
    return si->encoding;
}
// case1: intset直接叠加下标即可
// intset.c
/* Sets the value to the value at the given position. When this position is
 * out of range the function returns 0, when in range it returns 1. */
uint8_t intsetGet(intset *is, uint32_t pos, int64_t *value) {
    if (pos < intrev32ifbe(is->length)) {
        *value = _intsetGet(is,pos);
        return 1;
    }
    return 0;
}
/* Return the value at pos, using the configured encoding. */
static int64_t _intsetGet(intset *is, int pos) {
    return _intsetGetEncoded(is,pos,intrev32ifbe(is->encoding));
}
/* Return the value at pos, given an encoding. */
static int64_t _intsetGetEncoded(intset *is, int pos, uint8_t enc) {
    int64_t v64;
    int32_t v32;
    int16_t v16;

    if (enc == INTSET_ENC_INT64) {
        memcpy(&v64,((int64_t*)is->contents)+pos,sizeof(v64));
        memrev64ifbe(&v64);
        return v64;
    } else if (enc == INTSET_ENC_INT32) {
        memcpy(&v32,((int32_t*)is->contents)+pos,sizeof(v32));
        memrev32ifbe(&v32);
        return v32;
    } else {
        memcpy(&v16,((int16_t*)is->contents)+pos,sizeof(v16));
        memrev16ifbe(&v16);
        return v16;
    }
}
// (附带)case2: dict的迭代
// dict.c, dict的迭代,存疑问
dictEntry *dictNext(dictIterator *iter)
{
    // 一直迭代查找
    while (1) {
        // iter->entry 为NULL, 有两种可能: 1. 初始化时; 2. 上一元素为迭代完成(hash冲突)
        if (iter->entry == NULL) {
            dictht *ht = &iter->d->ht[iter->table];
            if (iter->index == -1 && iter->table == 0) {
                if (iter->safe)
                    iter->d->iterators++;
                else
                    iter->fingerprint = dictFingerprint(iter->d);
            }
            // 直接使用下标进行迭代,如果中间有空闲位置该如何处理??
            // 看起来redis是使用了全量迭代元素的处理办法,即有可能有许多空迭代过程
            // 一般地,也是进行两层迭代,jdk的hashmap迭代实现为直接找到下一次非空的元素为止
            iter->index++;
            // 直到迭代完成所有元素,否则会直到找到一个元素为止
            if (iter->index >= (long) ht->size) {
                if (dictIsRehashing(iter->d) && iter->table == 0) {
                    iter->table++;
                    iter->index = 0;
                    ht = &iter->d->ht[1];
                } else {
                    break;
                }
            }
            iter->entry = ht->table[iter->index];
        } else {
            // entry不为空,就一定有nextEntry??
            iter->entry = iter->nextEntry;
        }
        // 如果当前entry为空,则继续迭代下一个 index
        if (iter->entry) {
            /* We need to save the 'next' here, the iterator user
             * may delete the entry we are returning. */
            iter->nextEntry = iter->entry->next;
            return iter->entry;
        }
    }
    return NULL;
}

  其实sadd过程非常简单。与hash的实现方式只是在 dict 上的操作是一致的,但本质上是不一样的。我们通过一个时序图整体看一下:

 

 

 

三、sismember 元素查找操作


  由于set本身的特性决定,它不会有许多查询功能也没必要提供丰富的查询功用。所以只能先挑这个来看看了。要确定一个元素是不是其成员,无非就是一个比较的过程。

// 用法: SISMEMBER key member 
// t_set.c,     
void sismemberCommand(client *c) {
    robj *set;

    if ((set = lookupKeyReadOrReply(c,c->argv[1],shared.czero)) == NULL ||
        checkType(c,set,OBJ_SET)) return;
    // 主要方法 setTypeIsMember
    if (setTypeIsMember(set,c->argv[2]->ptr))
        // 回复1
        addReply(c,shared.cone);
    else
        // 回复0
        addReply(c,shared.czero);
}
// t_set.c
int setTypeIsMember(robj *subject, sds value) {
    long long llval;
    if (subject->encoding == OBJ_ENCODING_HT) {
        // hash 表的查找方式,hashCode 计算,链表查找,就这么简单
        return dictFind((dict*)subject->ptr,value) != NULL;
    } else if (subject->encoding == OBJ_ENCODING_INTSET) {
        // 如果当前的set集合是 intset 编码的,则只有查找值也是整型的情况下才可能查找到元素
        if (isSdsRepresentableAsLongLong(value,&llval) == C_OK) {
            // intset 查找,而且 intset 是有序的,所以直接使用二分查找即可 
            return intsetFind((intset*)subject->ptr,llval);
        }
    } else {
        serverPanic("Unknown set encoding");
    }
    return 0;
}

/* Determine whether a value belongs to this set */
uint8_t intsetFind(intset *is, int64_t value) {
    uint8_t valenc = _intsetValueEncoding(value);
    // 最大范围检查,加二分查找  
    // intsetSearch 前面已介绍
    return valenc <= intrev32ifbe(is->encoding) && intsetSearch(is,value,NULL);
}

  查找算法!

 

四、sinter 集合交集获取


  两个set的数据集取交集,也是要看使用场景吧。(比如获取共同的好友)

  在看redis的实现之前,我们可以自己先想想,如何实现两个集合次问题?(算法题)我只能想到无脑地两重迭代加hash的方式。你呢?

// 用法: SINTER key1 [key2]
// t_set.c, sinter 实现
void sinterCommand(client *c) {
    // 第三个参数是用来存储 交集结果的,两段代码已做复用,说明存储过程还是比较简单的
    sinterGenericCommand(c,c->argv+1,c->argc-1,NULL);
}
// t_set.c, 求n个key的集合交集
void sinterGenericCommand(client *c, robj **setkeys,
                          unsigned long setnum, robj *dstkey) {
    robj **sets = zmalloc(sizeof(robj*)*setnum);
    setTypeIterator *si;
    robj *dstset = NULL;
    sds elesds;
    int64_t intobj;
    void *replylen = NULL;
    unsigned long j, cardinality = 0;
    int encoding;

    for (j = 0; j < setnum; j++) {
        // 依次查找每个key的set实例
        robj *setobj = dstkey ?
            lookupKeyWrite(c->db,setkeys[j]) :
            lookupKeyRead(c->db,setkeys[j]);
        // 只要有一个set为空,则交集必定为为,无需再找
        if (!setobj) {
            zfree(sets);
            if (dstkey) {
                // 没有交集,直接将dstKey 删除,注意此逻辑??
                if (dbDelete(c->db,dstkey)) {
                    signalModifiedKey(c->db,dstkey);
                    server.dirty++;
                }
                addReply(c,shared.czero);
            } else {
                addReply(c,shared.emptymultibulk);
            }
            return;
        }
        if (checkType(c,setobj,OBJ_SET)) {
            zfree(sets);
            return;
        }
        sets[j] = setobj;
    }
    /* Sort sets from the smallest to largest, this will improve our
     * algorithm's performance */
    // 快速排序算法,将 sets 按照元素长度做排序,使最少元素的set排在最前面
    qsort(sets,setnum,sizeof(robj*),qsortCompareSetsByCardinality);

    /* The first thing we should output is the total number of elements...
     * since this is a multi-bulk write, but at this stage we don't know
     * the intersection set size, so we use a trick, append an empty object
     * to the output list and save the pointer to later modify it with the
     * right length */
    if (!dstkey) {
        replylen = addDeferredMultiBulkLength(c);
    } else {
        /* If we have a target key where to store the resulting set
         * create this key with an empty set inside */
        dstset = createIntsetObject();
    }

    /* Iterate all the elements of the first (smallest) set, and test
     * the element against all the other sets, if at least one set does
     * not include the element it is discarded */
    // 看来redis也是直接通过迭代的方式来完成交集功能
    // 迭代最少的set集合,依次查找后续的set集合,当遇到一个不存在的set时,上值被排除,否则是交集
    si = setTypeInitIterator(sets[0]);
    while((encoding = setTypeNext(si,&elesds,&intobj)) != -1) {
        for (j = 1; j < setnum; j++) {
            if (sets[j] == sets[0]) continue;
            // 以下是查找过程
            // 分 hash表查找 和 intset 编码查找
            if (encoding == OBJ_ENCODING_INTSET) {
                /* intset with intset is simple... and fast */
                // 两个集合都是 intset 编码,直接二分查找即可
                if (sets[j]->encoding == OBJ_ENCODING_INTSET &&
                    !intsetFind((intset*)sets[j]->ptr,intobj))
                {
                    break;
                /* in order to compare an integer with an object we
                 * have to use the generic function, creating an object
                 * for this */
                } else if (sets[j]->encoding == OBJ_ENCODING_HT) {
                    // 编码不一致,但元素可能相同
                    // setTypeIsMember 复用前面的代码,直接查找即可
                    elesds = sdsfromlonglong(intobj);
                    if (!setTypeIsMember(sets[j],elesds)) {
                        sdsfree(elesds);
                        break;
                    }
                    sdsfree(elesds);
                }
            } else if (encoding == OBJ_ENCODING_HT) {
                if (!setTypeIsMember(sets[j],elesds)) {
                    break;
                }
            }
        }

        /* Only take action when all sets contain the member */
        // 当迭代完所有集合,说明每个set中都存在该值,是交集(注意分析最后一个迭代)
        if (j == setnum) {
            // 不存储交集的情况下,直接响应元素值即可
            if (!dstkey) {
                if (encoding == OBJ_ENCODING_HT)
                    addReplyBulkCBuffer(c,elesds,sdslen(elesds));
                else
                    addReplyBulkLongLong(c,intobj);
                cardinality++;
            } 
            // 要存储交集数据,将值存储到 dstset 中
            else {
                if (encoding == OBJ_ENCODING_INTSET) {
                    elesds = sdsfromlonglong(intobj);
                    setTypeAdd(dstset,elesds);
                    sdsfree(elesds);
                } else {
                    setTypeAdd(dstset,elesds);
                }
            }
        }
    }
    setTypeReleaseIterator(si);

    if (dstkey) {
        /* Store the resulting set into the target, if the intersection
         * is not an empty set. */
        // 存储集合之前会先把原来的数据删除,如果进行多次交集运算,dstKey 就相当于临时表咯
        int deleted = dbDelete(c->db,dstkey);
        if (setTypeSize(dstset) > 0) {
            dbAdd(c->db,dstkey,dstset);
            addReplyLongLong(c,setTypeSize(dstset));
            notifyKeyspaceEvent(NOTIFY_SET,"sinterstore",
                dstkey,c->db->id);
        } else {
            decrRefCount(dstset);
            addReply(c,shared.czero);
            if (deleted)
                notifyKeyspaceEvent(NOTIFY_GENERIC,"del",
                    dstkey,c->db->id);
        }
        signalModifiedKey(c->db,dstkey);
        server.dirty++;
    } else {
        setDeferredMultiBulkLength(c,replylen,cardinality);
    }
    zfree(sets);
}
// compare 方法
int qsortCompareSetsByCardinality(const void *s1, const void *s2) {
    return setTypeSize(*(robj**)s1)-setTypeSize(*(robj**)s2);
}
// 快排样例 sort.lua
-- extracted from Programming Pearls, page 110
function qsort(x,l,u,f)
 if l<u then
  local m=math.random(u-(l-1))+l-1    -- choose a random pivot in range l..u
  x[l],x[m]=x[m],x[l]            -- swap pivot to first position
  local t=x[l]                -- pivot value
  m=l
  local i=l+1
  while i<=u do
    -- invariant: x[l+1..m] < t <= x[m+1..i-1]
    if f(x[i],t) then
      m=m+1
      x[m],x[i]=x[i],x[m]        -- swap x[i] and x[m]
    end
    i=i+1
  end
  x[l],x[m]=x[m],x[l]            -- swap pivot to a valid place
  -- x[l+1..m-1] < x[m] <= x[m+1..u]
  qsort(x,l,m-1,f)
  qsort(x,m+1,u,f)
 end
end

  sinter 看起来就是一个算法题嘛。

 

五、sdiffstore 差集处理


  sinter交集是一算法题,那么sdiff差集应该也就是一道算法题而已。确认下:

// 用法: SDIFFSTORE destination key1 [key2]
// t_set.c
void sdiffstoreCommand(client *c) {
    // 看起来sdiff 与 sunion 共用了一段代码,为啥呢?
    // 想想 sql 中的 full join 
    // c->argv[1] 是 dstKey
    sunionDiffGenericCommand(c,c->argv+2,c->argc-2,c->argv[1],SET_OP_DIFF);
}
// t_set.c, 差集并集运算
void sunionDiffGenericCommand(client *c, robj **setkeys, int setnum,
                              robj *dstkey, int op) {
    robj **sets = zmalloc(sizeof(robj*)*setnum);
    setTypeIterator *si;
    robj *dstset = NULL;
    sds ele;
    int j, cardinality = 0;
    int diff_algo = 1;
    // 同样的套路,先查找各key的实例
    // 不同的是,这里的key允许不存在,但不允许类型不一致
    for (j = 0; j < setnum; j++) {
        robj *setobj = dstkey ?
            lookupKeyWrite(c->db,setkeys[j]) :
            lookupKeyRead(c->db,setkeys[j]);
        if (!setobj) {
            sets[j] = NULL;
            continue;
        }
        if (checkType(c,setobj,OBJ_SET)) {
            zfree(sets);
            return;
        }
        sets[j] = setobj;
    }

    /* Select what DIFF algorithm to use.
     *
     * Algorithm 1 is O(N*M) where N is the size of the element first set
     * and M the total number of sets.
     *
     * Algorithm 2 is O(N) where N is the total number of elements in all
     * the sets.
     *
     * We compute what is the best bet with the current input here. */
    // 针对差集运算,做算法优化
    if (op == SET_OP_DIFF && sets[0]) {
        long long algo_one_work = 0, algo_two_work = 0;

        for (j = 0; j < setnum; j++) {
            if (sets[j] == NULL) continue;

            algo_one_work += setTypeSize(sets[0]);
            algo_two_work += setTypeSize(sets[j]);
        }

        /* Algorithm 1 has better constant times and performs less operations
         * if there are elements in common. Give it some advantage. */
        algo_one_work /= 2;
        diff_algo = (algo_one_work <= algo_two_work) ? 1 : 2;
        if (diff_algo == 1 && setnum > 1) {
            /* With algorithm 1 it is better to order the sets to subtract
             * by decreasing size, so that we are more likely to find
             * duplicated elements ASAP. */
            qsort(sets+1,setnum-1,sizeof(robj*),
                qsortCompareSetsByRevCardinality);
        }
    }

    /* We need a temp set object to store our union. If the dstkey
     * is not NULL (that is, we are inside an SUNIONSTORE operation) then
     * this set object will be the resulting object to set into the target key*/
    dstset = createIntsetObject();

    if (op == SET_OP_UNION) {
        /* Union is trivial, just add every element of every set to the
         * temporary set. */
        for (j = 0; j < setnum; j++) {
            if (!sets[j]) continue; /* non existing keys are like empty sets */
            // 依次添加即可,对于 sunion 来说,有序是无意义的
            si = setTypeInitIterator(sets[j]);
            while((ele = setTypeNextObject(si)) != NULL) {
                if (setTypeAdd(dstset,ele)) cardinality++;
                sdsfree(ele);
            }
            setTypeReleaseIterator(si);
        }
    } 
    // 使用算法1, 依次迭代最大元素
    else if (op == SET_OP_DIFF && sets[0] && diff_algo == 1) {
        /* DIFF Algorithm 1:
         *
         * We perform the diff by iterating all the elements of the first set,
         * and only adding it to the target set if the element does not exist
         * into all the other sets.
         *
         * This way we perform at max N*M operations, where N is the size of
         * the first set, and M the number of sets. */
        si = setTypeInitIterator(sets[0]);
        while((ele = setTypeNextObject(si)) != NULL) {
            for (j = 1; j < setnum; j++) {
                if (!sets[j]) continue; /* no key is an empty set. */
                if (sets[j] == sets[0]) break; /* same set! */
                // 只要有一个相同,就不算是差集??
                if (setTypeIsMember(sets[j],ele)) break;
            }
            // 这里的差集是所有set的值都不相同或者为空??? 尴尬了
            if (j == setnum) {
                /* There is no other set with this element. Add it. */
                setTypeAdd(dstset,ele);
                cardinality++;
            }
            sdsfree(ele);
        }
        setTypeReleaseIterator(si);
    } 
    // 使用算法2,直接以第一个元素为基础,后续set做remove,最后剩下的就是差集
    else if (op == SET_OP_DIFF && sets[0] && diff_algo == 2) {
        /* DIFF Algorithm 2:
         *
         * Add all the elements of the first set to the auxiliary set.
         * Then remove all the elements of all the next sets from it.
         *
         * This is O(N) where N is the sum of all the elements in every
         * set. */
        for (j = 0; j < setnum; j++) {
            if (!sets[j]) continue; /* non existing keys are like empty sets */

            si = setTypeInitIterator(sets[j]);
            while((ele = setTypeNextObject(si)) != NULL) {
                if (j == 0) {
                    if (setTypeAdd(dstset,ele)) cardinality++;
                } else {
                    if (setTypeRemove(dstset,ele)) cardinality--;
                }
                sdsfree(ele);
            }
            setTypeReleaseIterator(si);

            /* Exit if result set is empty as any additional removal
             * of elements will have no effect. */
            if (cardinality == 0) break;
        }
    }

    /* Output the content of the resulting set, if not in STORE mode */
    if (!dstkey) {
        addReplyMultiBulkLen(c,cardinality);
        si = setTypeInitIterator(dstset);
        // 响应差集列表
        while((ele = setTypeNextObject(si)) != NULL) {
            addReplyBulkCBuffer(c,ele,sdslen(ele));
            sdsfree(ele);
        }
        setTypeReleaseIterator(si);
        decrRefCount(dstset);
    } else {
        /* If we have a target key where to store the resulting set
         * create this key with the result set inside */
        int deleted = dbDelete(c->db,dstkey);
        if (setTypeSize(dstset) > 0) {
            // 存储差集列表,响应差集个数
            dbAdd(c->db,dstkey,dstset);
            addReplyLongLong(c,setTypeSize(dstset));
            notifyKeyspaceEvent(NOTIFY_SET,
                op == SET_OP_UNION ? "sunionstore" : "sdiffstore",
                dstkey,c->db->id);
        } else {
            decrRefCount(dstset);
            addReply(c,shared.czero);
            if (deleted)
                notifyKeyspaceEvent(NOTIFY_GENERIC,"del",
                    dstkey,c->db->id);
        }
        signalModifiedKey(c->db,dstkey);
        server.dirty++;
    }
    zfree(sets);
}
/* This is used by SDIFF and in this case we can receive NULL that should
 * be handled as empty sets. */
int qsortCompareSetsByRevCardinality(const void *s1, const void *s2) {
    robj *o1 = *(robj**)s1, *o2 = *(robj**)s2;

    return  (o2 ? setTypeSize(o2) : 0) - (o1 ? setTypeSize(o1) : 0);
}

  额,这个差集的定义好像过于简单了,以至于实现都不复杂。

 

六、spop 获取一个元素


  前面讲的基本都是增、查,虽然不存在改,但是还是可以简单看一下删掉操作。spop有两个作用,一、获取1或n个元素,二、删除1或n个元素。

// 用法: SPOP key [count]
// t_set.c
void spopCommand(client *c) {
    robj *set, *ele, *aux;
    sds sdsele;
    int64_t llele;
    int encoding;

    if (c->argc == 3) {
        // 弹出指定数量的元素,略
        spopWithCountCommand(c);
        return;
    } else if (c->argc > 3) {
        addReply(c,shared.syntaxerr);
        return;
    }

    /* Make sure a key with the name inputted exists, and that it's type is
     * indeed a set */
    if ((set = lookupKeyWriteOrReply(c,c->argv[1],shared.nullbulk)) == NULL ||
        checkType(c,set,OBJ_SET)) return;

    /* Get a random element from the set */
    // 1. 随机获取一个元素,这是 spop 的定义
    encoding = setTypeRandomElement(set,&sdsele,&llele);

    /* Remove the element from the set */
    // 2. 删除元素
    if (encoding == OBJ_ENCODING_INTSET) {
        ele = createStringObjectFromLongLong(llele);
        set->ptr = intsetRemove(set->ptr,llele,NULL);
    } else {
        ele = createStringObject(sdsele,sdslen(sdsele));
        setTypeRemove(set,ele->ptr);
    }

    notifyKeyspaceEvent(NOTIFY_SET,"spop",c->argv[1],c->db->id);

    /* Replicate/AOF this command as an SREM operation */
    aux = createStringObject("SREM",4);
    rewriteClientCommandVector(c,3,aux,c->argv[1],ele);
    decrRefCount(aux);

    /* Add the element to the reply */
    addReplyBulk(c,ele);
    decrRefCount(ele);

    /* Delete the set if it's empty */
    if (setTypeSize(set) == 0) {
        dbDelete(c->db,c->argv[1]);
        notifyKeyspaceEvent(NOTIFY_GENERIC,"del",c->argv[1],c->db->id);
    }

    /* Set has been modified */
    signalModifiedKey(c->db,c->argv[1]);
    server.dirty++;
}
// 没啥好说的,就看下是如何随机的就好了
// t_set.c, 随机获取一个元素,赋值给 sdsele|llele
/* Return random element from a non empty set.
 * The returned element can be a int64_t value if the set is encoded
 * as an "intset" blob of integers, or an SDS string if the set
 * is a regular set.
 *
 * The caller provides both pointers to be populated with the right
 * object. The return value of the function is the object->encoding
 * field of the object and is used by the caller to check if the
 * int64_t pointer or the redis object pointer was populated.
 *
 * Note that both the sdsele and llele pointers should be passed and cannot
 * be NULL since the function will try to defensively populate the non
 * used field with values which are easy to trap if misused. */
int setTypeRandomElement(robj *setobj, sds *sdsele, int64_t *llele) {
    if (setobj->encoding == OBJ_ENCODING_HT) {
        // 1.1. dict 型的随机
        dictEntry *de = dictGetRandomKey(setobj->ptr);
        *sdsele = dictGetKey(de);
        *llele = -123456789; /* Not needed. Defensive. */
    } else if (setobj->encoding == OBJ_ENCODING_INTSET) {
        // 1.2. intset 型的随机
        *llele = intsetRandom(setobj->ptr);
        *sdsele = NULL; /* Not needed. Defensive. */
    } else {
        serverPanic("Unknown set encoding");
    }
    return setobj->encoding;
}
// 1.1. dict 型的随机
/* Return a random entry from the hash table. Useful to
 * implement randomized algorithms */
dictEntry *dictGetRandomKey(dict *d)
{
    dictEntry *he, *orighe;
    unsigned int h;
    int listlen, listele;

    if (dictSize(d) == 0) return NULL;
    if (dictIsRehashing(d)) _dictRehashStep(d);
    // 基本原理就是一直接随机获取下标,直到有值
    if (dictIsRehashing(d)) {
        do {
            /* We are sure there are no elements in indexes from 0
             * to rehashidx-1 */
            // 获取随机下标,须保证在 两个hash表的范围内
            h = d->rehashidx + (random() % (d->ht[0].size +
                                            d->ht[1].size -
                                            d->rehashidx));
            he = (h >= d->ht[0].size) ? d->ht[1].table[h - d->ht[0].size] :
                                      d->ht[0].table[h];
        } while(he == NULL);
    } else {
        do {
            h = random() & d->ht[0].sizemask;
            he = d->ht[0].table[h];
        } while(he == NULL);
    }

    /* Now we found a non empty bucket, but it is a linked
     * list and we need to get a random element from the list.
     * The only sane way to do so is counting the elements and
     * select a random index. */
    listlen = 0;
    orighe = he;
    // 对于hash冲突情况,再随机一次
    while(he) {
        he = he->next;
        listlen++;
    }
    listele = random() % listlen;
    he = orighe;
    while(listele--) he = he->next;
    return he;
}

// 1.2. intset 型的随机
// intset.c
/* Return random member */
int64_t intsetRandom(intset *is) {
    // 这个随机就简单了,直接获取随机下标,因为intset可以保证自身元素的完整性
    return _intsetGet(is,rand()%intrev32ifbe(is->length));
}

  

  OK, 至此,整个set数据结构的解析算是完整了。

  总体来说,set和hash类型的实现方式还是有很多不同的。不过没啥大难度,就是几个算法题解罢了。

 

原文出处:https://www.cnblogs.com/yougewe/p/12247580.html

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