文档章节

实战三种方式部署 MySQL5.7

o
 osc_a22drz29
发布于 2019/03/21 09:12
字数 2111
阅读 15
收藏 0

钉钉、微博极速扩容黑科技,点击观看阿里云弹性计算年度发布会!>>>

作者:北京运维 常见的 MySQL 安装方式有如下三种:

  1. RPM 包方式:这种方式安装适合对数据库要求不太高的场合,安装速度快;
  2. 通用二进制包方式:安装速度相较于源码方式快,可以自定义安装目录。
  3. 源码编译安装:安装过程比较慢,机器性能不好的情况下,大约需要30分钟左右,通常适用于mysql定制化的安装,比如需要加入一些第三方的插件及依赖库等

环境说明

OS 版本 MySQL 版本
CentOS 7.5.1804 5.7.25

一、RPM 包方式安装

1.1 获取 RPM 包

访问 MySQL 官网,下载最新版 mysql5.7 的 rpm 包。

  • 点击 DOWNLOADS --> 点击 Community 社区版 --> 选择 MySQL Community Server

-w1030

  • 选择 MySQL Community Server 5.7 -> 而后选择对应的软件平台版本

-w990

  • 选择下载 RPM Bundle 这里包含了所有 MySQL 的 RPM 包。

-w1041

-w902

1.2 安装 MySQL

下载 Bundle 包解压以后,可以看到包含了所有 MySQL 相关的 RPM 包:

-w1178

其中 client、common、libs、server 四个程序包是必须安装的:

mysql-community-client-5.7.25-1.el7.x86_64.rpm
mysql-community-common-5.7.25-1.el7.x86_64.rpm
mysql-community-libs-5.7.25-1.el7.x86_64.rpm
mysql-community-server-5.7.25-1.el7.x86_64.rpm

在执行安装之前,先检查是否已经安装过(CentOS7 以后默认安装的 mariadb)

$ rpm -qa|egrep "mariadb|mysql"
mariadb-libs-5.5.60-1.el7_5.x86_64
# 我这里存在 mariadb-libs 会造成冲突,所以卸载掉
rpm -e --nodeps mariadb-libs-5.5.60-1.el7_5.x86_64
# 卸载之后就可以进行安装使用 yum 或者 rpm -ivh
$ yum -y install mysql-community-client-5.7.25-1.el7.x86_64.rpm mysql-community-common-5.7.25-1.el7.x86_64.rpm mysql-community-libs-5.7.25-1.el7.x86_64.rpm mysql-community-server-5.7.25-1.el7.x86_64.rpm

安装完成后 MySQL 的默认配置文件为 /etc/my.cnf 接下来我们就可以启动 MySQL 啦

$ systemctl start mysqld.service
$ systemctl enable mysqld.service
$ systemctl status mysqld.service

1.3 修改 MySQL 默认密码

MySQL 5.7 以后,不在允许使用空密码进行登录,默认会初始化一个密码到 MySQL Error 日志中,配置参数 log-error= 指定的文件。

$ cat /var/log/mysqld.log | grep password
2019-03-20T02:44:49.359004Z 1 [Note] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost: /qrsXHttL6Mr

连接实例并修改默认密码

$ mysql -uroot -p
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 2
Server version: 5.7.25

Copyright (c) 2000, 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> set password for 'root'@'localhost'=password('MyNewPass4!');
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

以后通过 update set 语句修改密码:

mysql> use mysql;
mysql> update user set authentication_string=PASSWORD('NewPass@2019') where user='root';
mysql> flush privileges;

注意:mysql 5.7 默认密码检查策略要求密码必须包含:大小写字母、数字和特殊符号,并且长度不能少于8位。否则会提示 ERROR 1819 (HY000): Your password does not satisfy the current policy requirements 错误。查看 MySQL 密码策略

二、通用二进制包方式安装

官方文档:https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/binary-installation.html

2.1 获取安装包

选择 Linux - generic 64 位安装包

-w1049

2.2 安装 MySQL

MySQL 依赖于 libaio 库。 如果未在本地安装此库,则数据目录初始化和后续服务器启动步骤将失败。 如有必要,请使用适当的包管理器进行安装。 例如,在基于Yum 的系统上:

$ yum -y install libaio

创建 MySQL 用户和组

$ groupadd mysql
$ useradd -r -g mysql -s /bin/false mysql

解压到指定目录

$ tar xf mysql-5.7.25-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar.gz -C /usr/local/
$ cd /usr/local/
$ ln -sv mysql-5.7.25-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/ mysql

修改解压目录下所有文件属主及属组

$ cd /usr/local/mysql
$ chown -R root.mysql ./*

创建数据目录,以 /data/mysql/data 为例

$ mkdir -pv /data/mysql/{data,log}
$ chown -R mysql.mysql /data/mysql

准备 MySQL 配置文件,我这里用的是在线工具生成的 my.cnf 文件,工具链接

$ cat /etc/my.cnf

[client]
port = 3306
socket = /data/mysql/mysql.sock

[mysqld]
port = 3306
socket = /data/mysql/mysql.sock
pid_file = /var/run/mysql.pid
datadir = /data/mysql/data
basedir = /usr/local/mysql
default_storage_engine = InnoDB
max_allowed_packet = 128M
max_connections = 2048
open_files_limit = 65535
skip-name-resolve
lower_case_table_names=1
character-set-server = utf8mb4
collation-server = utf8mb4_unicode_ci
init_connect='SET NAMES utf8mb4'
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 128M
innodb_log_file_size = 128M
innodb_file_per_table = 1
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 0
key_buffer_size = 16M
log-error = /data/mysql/log/mysql_error.log
log-bin = /data/mysql/log/mysql_bin.log
slow_query_log = 1
slow_query_log_file = /data/mysql/log/mysql_slow_query.log
long_query_time = 5
tmp_table_size = 16M
max_heap_table_size = 16M
query_cache_type = 0
query_cache_size = 0
server-id=1

复制启动脚本

$ cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysqld
$ chmod +x /etc/init.d/mysqld
$ chkconfig --add mysqld

初始化数据库

$ ./bin/mysqld --initialize --user=mysql --basedir=/usr/local/mysql --datadir=/data/mysql/data

此时会生成一个临时密码,可以在 mysql_error.log 文件找到

$ grep password /data/mysql/log/mysql_error.log
2019-03-20T05:37:28.267207Z 1 [Note] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost: H_wgkXR&f1=t

生成 SSL

$ ./bin/mysql_ssl_rsa_setup --basedir=/usr/local/mysql --datadir=/data/mysql/data/

启动 MySQL 服务

$ service mysqld start
$ ss -tnlp | grep 3306

配置 MySQL 环境变量

$ vim /etc/profile.d/mysql.sh
export PATH=/usr/local/mysql/bin:$PATH
$ source /etc/profile.d/mysql.sh

2.3 MySQL 用户初始化

$ mysql_secure_installation

Securing the MySQL server deployment.

Enter password for user root: # 输入初始密码,在错误日志中

The existing password for the user account root has expired. Please set a new password.

New password: # 输入新密码

Re-enter new password: # 输入新密码

VALIDATE PASSWORD PLUGIN can be used to test passwords
and improve security. It checks the strength of password
and allows the users to set only those passwords which are
secure enough. Would you like to setup VALIDATE PASSWORD plugin?

Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No: Y # 是否启用密码安全策略

There are three levels of password validation policy:

LOW    Length >= 8
MEDIUM Length >= 8, numeric, mixed case, and special characters
STRONG Length >= 8, numeric, mixed case, special characters and dictionary                  file

Please enter 0 = LOW, 1 = MEDIUM and 2 = STRONG: 2 # 设置密码复杂度
Using existing password for root.

Estimated strength of the password: 100 
Change the password for root ? ((Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : N # 是否修改 root 密码,刚才已经新设置了,输入 N

 ... skipping.
By default, a MySQL installation has an anonymous user,
allowing anyone to log into MySQL without having to have
a user account created for them. This is intended only for
testing, and to make the installation go a bit smoother.
You should remove them before moving into a production
environment.

Remove anonymous users? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : Y # 是否移除匿名用户
Success.


Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from
'localhost'. This ensures that someone cannot guess at
the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : Y # 是否禁止 root 用户远程登录
Success.

By default, MySQL comes with a database named 'test' that
anyone can access. This is also intended only for testing,
and should be removed before moving into a production
environment.


Remove test database and access to it? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : Y # 是否删除 test 测试数据库
 - Dropping test database...
Success.

 - Removing privileges on test database...
Success.

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes
made so far will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : Y # 是否刷新权限表
Success.

All done!

验证 MySQL 安装

mysqladmin version -u root -p

三、源码编译方式安装

3.1 安装依赖包

$ yum -y install gcc gcc-c++ ncurses ncurses-devel cmake bison

安装 Boost 库,获取程序包请访问 Boost 官网

$ cd /usr/local/src/
$ wget https://sourceforge.net/projects/boost/files/boost/1.59.0/boost_1_59_0.tar.gz
$ tar xf boost_1_59_0.tar.gz -C /usr/local/

3.2 获取 MySQL 源代码包

-w1043

$ cd /usr/local/src/
$ wget https://dev.mysql.com/get/Downloads/MySQL-5.7/mysql-5.7.25.tar.gz

3.3 创建 MySQL 用户组

$ groupadd mysql
$ useradd -r -g mysql -s /bin/false mysql

3.4 预编译

$ tar xf mysql-5.7.25.tar.gz
$ cd mysql-5.7.25
$ cmake . -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local/mysql \
-DMYSQL_DATADIR=/data/mysql/data \
-DENABLED_LOCAL_INFILE=1 \
-DWITH_BOOST=/usr/local/boost_1_59_0 \
-DDEFAULT_CHARSET=utf8 \
-DDEFAULT_COLLATION=utf8_general_ci \
-DEXTRA_CHARSETS=all \
-DWITH_MYISAM_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_INNOBASE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_ARCHIVE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_BLACKHOLE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_FEDERATED_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_PARTITION_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_PERFSCHEMA_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_CSV_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_HEAP_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_MYISAMMRG_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_ZLIB=system \
-DWITH_EMBEDDED_SERVER=1

更多 cmake 指令参考官方文档

3.5 编译安装

$ make -j `grep processor /proc/cpuinfo | wc -l`
$ make install

3.6 配置文件

准备 MySQL 配置文件,我这里用的是在线工具生成的 my.cnf 文件,工具链接

$ cat /etc/my.cnf

[client]
port = 3306
socket = /data/mysql/mysql.sock

[mysqld]
port = 3306
socket = /data/mysql/mysql.sock
pid_file = /var/run/mysql.pid
datadir = /data/mysql/data
basedir = /usr/local/mysql
default_storage_engine = InnoDB
max_allowed_packet = 128M
max_connections = 2048
open_files_limit = 65535
skip-name-resolve
lower_case_table_names=1
character-set-server = utf8mb4
collation-server = utf8mb4_unicode_ci
init_connect='SET NAMES utf8mb4'
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 128M
innodb_log_file_size = 128M
innodb_file_per_table = 1
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 0
key_buffer_size = 16M
log-error = /data/mysql/log/mysql_error.log
log-bin = /data/mysql/log/mysql_bin.log
slow_query_log = 1
slow_query_log_file = /data/mysql/log/mysql_slow_query.log
long_query_time = 5
tmp_table_size = 16M
max_heap_table_size = 16M
query_cache_type = 0
query_cache_size = 0
server-id=1

创建数据目录

$ mkdir -pv /data/mysql/{log,data}
$ chown -R mysql.mysql /data/mysql/

3.7 初始化

$ cd /usr/local/mysql/
$ ./bin/mysqld --initialize --user=mysql --basedir=/usr/local/mysql --datadir=/data/mysql/data/

3.8 设置启动脚本配置环境变量

$ cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysqld
$ chmod +x /etc/init.d/mysqld
$ echo 'export PATH=/usr/local/mysql/bin:$PATH' > /etc/profile.d/mysql.sh
source /etc/profile.d/mysql.sh

3.9 启动数据库

$ systemctl enable mysqld
$ systemctl start mysqld
$ systemctl status mysqld
$ ss -tnlp|grep 3306
$ ps aux|grep mysql

3.10 初始化用户

与二进制方式一样,初始密码在错误日志内。

$ mysql_secure_installation

3.11 验证 MySQL

$ mysqladmin version -uroot -p

以上就是 MySQL 5.7 版本的三种安装方式,欢迎大家多留言交流。

o
粉丝 0
博文 500
码字总数 0
作品 0
私信 提问
加载中
请先登录后再评论。
《MySQL性能优化和高可用架构实践》于2020-07-01上市

 互联网公司里面几乎很少有公司不用MySQL,国内互联网巨头都在大规模使用MySQL。如果把MySQL比喻成数据库界的一条巨龙,则性能优化和高可用架构设计实践就是点睛之笔。   《MySQL性能优化...

osc_qlj7m2h9
07/02
9
0
个人视频汇总

个人视频汇总 1、2020年深入浅出prometheus+grafana 企业监控应用 https://edu.51cto.com/sd/d075b 2、2020年深入浅出zabbix5.0 企业应用实战 https://edu.51cto.com/sd/8f88b 3、2020年Jum...

osc_mf7xwvy6
前天
5
0
springboot 全局异常处理打印请求参数

2020-5-8 使用SpringBoot通过自定义注解+AOP+全局异常处理实现参数统一非空.. https://www.jianshu.com/p/c13a530d97f7 -----------------------springboot 全局异常处理打印请求参数 spring...

yong230
前天
0
0
MySQL数据库升级

当前不少系统的数据库依旧是MySQL5.6,由于MySQL5.7及MySQL8.0在性能及安全方面有着很大的提升,因此需要升级数据库。本文通过逻辑方式、物理方式原地升级来介绍MySQL5.6 升级至MySQL5.7的方...

osc_vl3n35s2
03/28
0
0
《叶问》29期,MySQL 8.0周边生态

《叶问》第29期,8.0.20已经发布,8.0的周边呢?本期大家一起来讨论下MySQL 8.0周边生态(如备份、监控、高可用、DDL工具等) MySQL 8.0最新版本已经更新到8.0.20版本,那么周边生态如何呢?...

叶金荣
05/13
0
0

没有更多内容

加载失败,请刷新页面

加载更多

OSChina 周三乱弹 —— 公主是大王的,命是自己的。小怪也要养家糊口啊!

Osc乱弹歌单(2020)请戳(这里) 【今日歌曲】 @巴拉迪维 :郭燕的单曲《下半生》 最近听一些轻快的歌 #今日歌曲推荐# 《下半生》 - 郭燕 手机党少年们想听歌,请使劲儿戳(这里) @锦年 :...

小小编辑
41分钟前
29
0
Git不断提示我输入密码 - Git keeps prompting me for a password

问题: I've been using Git for a while now, but the constant requests for a password are starting to drive me up the wall. 我已经使用Git一段时间了,但是不断要求输入密码的人开始把......

fyin1314
50分钟前
20
0
未捕获ReferenceError:未定义$? - Uncaught ReferenceError: $ is not defined?

问题: How come this code throws an 此代码如何引发 Uncaught ReferenceError: $ is not defined 未捕获的ReferenceError:未定义$ when it was OK before? 以前什么时候可以? $(document......

javail
今天
12
0
263. Ugly Number

题目: 263. Ugly Number 题目地址:https://leetcode.com/problems/ugly-number/ Write a program to check whether a given number is an ugly number. Ugly numbers are positive numbers......

JiaMing
今天
68
0
HCIA_ARP01

ARP(地址解析协议) eNSP 常用路由器:AR2220 常用交换机:S5700、S3700 常用终端:PC、MCS(主播服务器) 设备连线:Copper(以太网用到的双绞线)、Serial(串口线,2SA接口)、Auto(自动连...

创业789
今天
27
0

没有更多内容

加载失败,请刷新页面

加载更多

返回顶部
顶部