在一台Linux服务器上安装多个MySQL实例(一)--使用mysqld_multi方式

2019/04/10 10:10
阅读数 47

image

 

(一)MySQL多实例概述

实例是进程与内存的一个概述,所谓MySQL多实例,就是在服务器上启动多个相同的MySQL进程,运行在不同的端口(如3306,3307,3308),通过不同的端口对外提供服务。

由于MySQL在一个实例下面可以创建多个数据库,所以通常在一台服务器上只要安装一个MySQL实例即可满足使用。但在实际使用中,因为服务器硬件资源充足,或者业务需要(比如在一台服务器上创建开发数据库和测试数据库),往往会在一台服务器上创建多个实例。

 

(二)MySQL部署多实例的方法

MySQL多实例部署主要有以下两种方式:

  • 使用官方自带的mysqld_multi来配置管理,特点是使用同一份MySQL配置文件,这种方式属于集中式管理,管理起来较为方便;
  • 使用单独的MySQL配置文件来单独配置实例,这种方式逻辑简单,数据库之间没有关联。

本文将对第一种方式进行环境搭建学习。

 

(三)实验环境

操作系统   :CentOS Linux release 7.4.1708 (Core)

数据库版本:5.7.24-log

预计划安装4个MySQL实例,规划信息为:

实例1 实例2 实例3 实例4

basedir=/usr/local/mysql

datadir=/mysql/3306/data

port=3306

socket=/tmp/mysql_3306.sock

basedir=/usr/local/mysql

datadir=/mysql/3307/data

port=3307

socket=/tmp/mysql_3307.sock

basedir=/usr/local/mysql

datadir=/mysql/3308/data

port=3308

socket=/tmp/mysql_3308.sock

basedir=/usr/local/mysql

datadir=/mysql/3309/data

port=3309

socket=/tmp/mysql_3309.sock

 

(四)实验过程

(4.1)在安装MySQL之前,需要卸载服务器自带的MySQL包和MySQL数据库分支mariadb的包

[root@masterdb ~]# rpm -qa|grep mysql
[root@masterdb ~]# rpm -qa |grep mariadb
mariadb-libs-5.5.56-2.el7.x86_64

[root@masterdb ~]# rpm -e mariadb-libs-5.5.56-2.el7.x86_64 --nodeps

 

(4.2)依赖包安装

MySQL对libaio 库有依赖性。如果未在本地安装该库,则数据目录初始化和随后的服务器启动步骤将失败 、

# install library

[root@mysql mysql]# yum install libaio

对于MySQL 5.7.19和更高版本:通用Linux版本中增加了对非统一内存访问(NUMA)的支持,该版本现在对libnuma库具有依赖性 。

# install library
 
[root@mysql mysql]# yum install libnuma

 

(4.3)创建用户和用户组

[root@masterdb ~]# groupadd mysql
[root@masterdb ~]# useradd -r -g mysql -s /bin/false mysql

 

(4.4)解压安装包

[root@masterdb ~]# cd /usr/local/
[root@masterdb local]# tar xzvf /root/mysql-5.7.24-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar.gz

# 修改解压文件名,与前面定义的basedir相同
[root@masterdb local]# mv mysql-5.7.24-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/ mysql

最终解压结果如下:

[root@masterdb mysql]# ls -l
 total 36
 drwxr-xr-x  2 root root   4096 Mar 28 13:48 bin
 -rw-r--r--  1 7161 31415 17987 Oct  4  2018 COPYING
 drwxr-xr-x  2 root root     55 Mar 28 13:48 docs
 drwxr-xr-x  3 root root   4096 Mar 28 13:48 include
 drwxr-xr-x  5 root root    230 Mar 28 13:48 lib
 drwxr-xr-x  4 root root     30 Mar 28 13:48 man
 -rw-r--r--  1 7161 31415  2478 Oct  4  2018 README
 drwxr-xr-x 28 root root   4096 Mar 28 13:48 share
 drwxr-xr-x  2 root root     90 Mar 28 13:48 support-files

 

(4.5)创建数据文件存放路径

[root@masterdb mysql]# mkdir -p /mysql/{3306,3307,3308,3309}/data
[root@masterdb mysql]# chown -R mysql:mysql /mysql 
[root@masterdb mysql]# cd /mysql
[root@masterdb mysql]# tree
.
├── 3306
│   └── data
├── 3307
│   └── data
├── 3308
│   └── data
└── 3309
    └── data

 

(4.6)创建MySQL参数配置文件

[root@masterdb mysql]# vim /etc/my.cnf 

[mysqld]
user=mysql
basedir = /usr/local/mysql

[mysqld_multi]
mysqld=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe
mysqladmin=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin
log=/usr/local/mysql/mysqld_multi.log

[mysqld3306]
mysqld=mysqld
mysqladmin=mysqladmin
datadir=/mysql/3306/data
port=3306
server_id=3306
socket=/tmp/mysql_3306.sock
log-error = /mysql/3306/error_3306.log

[mysqld3307]
mysqld=mysqld
mysqladmin=mysqladmin
datadir=/mysql/3307/data
port=3307
server_id=3307
socket=/tmp/mysql_3307.sock
log-error=/mysql/3307/error_3307.log

[mysqld3308]
mysqld=mysqld
mysqladmin=mysqladmin
datadir=/mysql/3308/data
port=3308
server_id=3308
socket=/tmp/mysql_3308.sock
log-error=/mysql/3308/error_3308.log

[mysqld3309]
mysqld=mysqld
mysqladmin=mysqladmin
datadir=/mysql/3309/data
port=3309
server_id=3309
socket=/tmp/mysql_3309.sock
log-error = /mysql/3309/error_3309.log

 

(4.7)初始化数据库

注意,初始化实例的最后一行记录了root的初始密码

# 初始化3306实例
[root@masterdb mysql]# /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld --defaults-file=/etc/my.cnf --initialize --basedir=/usr/local/mysql/ --datadir=/mysql/3306/data
2020-03-28T06:10:28.484174Z 0 [Warning] TIMESTAMP with implicit DEFAULT value is deprecated. Please use --explicit_defaults_for_timestamp server option (see documentation for more details).
2020-03-28T06:10:28.689102Z 0 [Warning] InnoDB: New log files created, LSN=45790
2020-03-28T06:10:28.723881Z 0 [Warning] InnoDB: Creating foreign key constraint system tables.
2020-03-28T06:10:28.781205Z 0 [Warning] No existing UUID has been found, so we assume that this is the first time that this server has been started. Generating a new UUID: d29ad574-70ba-11ea-a38f-000c29fb6200.
2020-03-28T06:10:28.782195Z 0 [Warning] Gtid table is not ready to be used. Table 'mysql.gtid_executed' cannot be opened.
2020-03-28T06:10:28.783078Z 1 [Note] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost: YuJ6Bi=PtqCJ


# 初始化3307实例 
[root@masterdb mysql]# /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld --defaults-file=/etc/my.cnf --initialize --basedir=/usr/local/mysql/ --datadir=/mysql/3307/data
2020-03-28T06:10:45.598676Z 0 [Warning] TIMESTAMP with implicit DEFAULT value is deprecated. Please use --explicit_defaults_for_timestamp server option (see documentation for more details).
2020-03-28T06:10:45.793277Z 0 [Warning] InnoDB: New log files created, LSN=45790
2020-03-28T06:10:45.829673Z 0 [Warning] InnoDB: Creating foreign key constraint system tables.
2020-03-28T06:10:45.886255Z 0 [Warning] No existing UUID has been found, so we assume that this is the first time that this server has been started. Generating a new UUID: dcccdb2f-70ba-11ea-a565-000c29fb6200.
2020-03-28T06:10:45.887571Z 0 [Warning] Gtid table is not ready to be used. Table 'mysql.gtid_executed' cannot be opened.
2020-03-28T06:10:45.890477Z 1 [Note] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost: &s)nYg.e4qx#
[root@masterdb mysql]# 


# 初始化3308实例
[root@masterdb mysql]# /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld --defaults-file=/etc/my.cnf --initialize --basedir=/usr/local/mysql/ --datadir=/mysql/3308/data
2020-03-28T06:10:55.237714Z 0 [Warning] TIMESTAMP with implicit DEFAULT value is deprecated. Please use --explicit_defaults_for_timestamp server option (see documentation for more details).
2020-03-28T06:10:55.442794Z 0 [Warning] InnoDB: New log files created, LSN=45790
2020-03-28T06:10:55.479012Z 0 [Warning] InnoDB: Creating foreign key constraint system tables.
2020-03-28T06:10:55.534839Z 0 [Warning] No existing UUID has been found, so we assume that this is the first time that this server has been started. Generating a new UUID: e28d1d57-70ba-11ea-a5c4-000c29fb6200.
2020-03-28T06:10:55.535622Z 0 [Warning] Gtid table is not ready to be used. Table 'mysql.gtid_executed' cannot be opened.
2020-03-28T06:10:55.536387Z 1 [Note] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost: Mz<kr!vsh1yj
[root@masterdb mysql]# 


# 初始化3309实例
[root@masterdb mysql]# /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld --defaults-file=/etc/my.cnf --initialize --basedir=/usr/local/mysql/ --datadir=/mysql/3309/data
2020-03-28T06:11:05.644331Z 0 [Warning] TIMESTAMP with implicit DEFAULT value is deprecated. Please use --explicit_defaults_for_timestamp server option (see documentation for more details).
2020-03-28T06:11:05.840498Z 0 [Warning] InnoDB: New log files created, LSN=45790
2020-03-28T06:11:05.879941Z 0 [Warning] InnoDB: Creating foreign key constraint system tables.
2020-03-28T06:11:05.936262Z 0 [Warning] No existing UUID has been found, so we assume that this is the first time that this server has been started. Generating a new UUID: e8c03ed2-70ba-11ea-a8fb-000c29fb6200.
2020-03-28T06:11:05.937179Z 0 [Warning] Gtid table is not ready to be used. Table 'mysql.gtid_executed' cannot be opened.
2020-03-28T06:11:05.937877Z 1 [Note] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost: K.KLa30i-sv3

 

(4.8)设置环境变量

添加了环境变量,操作系统才能够自己找到mysql、mysqld_multi等命令的位置

[root@masterdb mysql]# vim /etc/profile
# 在文件末尾添加下面信息
export PATH=/usr/local/mysql/bin:$PATH

#使环境变量生效
[root@masterdb mysql]# source /etc/profile

 

(4.9)使用mysqld_multi管理多实例

# 使用mysqld_multi启动3306端口的实例
[root@masterdb mysql]# mysqld_multi start 3306

# 使用mysqld_multi启动全部实例
[root@masterdb mysql]# mysqld_multi start

# 使用mysqld_multi查看实例状态
[root@masterdb mysql]# mysqld_multi report
Reporting MySQL servers
MySQL server from group: mysqld3306 is running
MySQL server from group: mysqld3307 is running
MySQL server from group: mysqld3308 is running
MySQL server from group: mysqld3309 is running

使用mysqld_multi关闭实例较为麻烦,需要配置密码,因此如何关闭各个实例,见后面章节:(六)关闭多实例数据库 。

 

(五)访问多实例数据库

(5.1)登录MySQL数据库

在安装完成并启动数据库后,需要去访问各个MySQL实例,这里非常有意思,经常会发现无法连接到数据库上,我们不妨看一下几种连接方式:

连接方式一:使用服务器IP地址,无法连接。这里还是比较好理解的,MySQL创建完成后,数据库账号root@localhost只允许本地连接,参数“-h”后面用服务器IP被认为了远程连接,因此无法登陆

[root@masterdb mysql]# mysql -uoot -p -h192.168.10.11 -P3306
Enter password: 
ERROR 1130 (HY000): Host 'masterdb' is not allowed to connect to this MySQL server

 

连接方式二:使用localhost访问数据库,无法连接。我觉得有些匪夷所思,可以看到,MySQL实例使用的socket文件不对

[root@masterdb mysql]# mysql -uroot -p -hlocalhost -P3306
Enter password: 
ERROR 2002 (HY000): Can't connect to local MySQL server through socket '/tmp/mysql.sock' (2)

 

连接方式三:使用127.0.0.1访问数据库,可以连接。有些难以理解,理论上127.0.0.1和localhost是对应的,127.0.0.1可以访问数据库,但是localhost却无法访问

[root@masterdb mysql]# mysql -uroot -p -h127.0.0.1 -P3306
Enter password: 
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 7
Server version: 5.7.24 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> exit
Bye

 

连接方式四:使用socket文件连接,可以正常访问

[root@masterdb mysql]# mysql -S /tmp/mysql_3306.sock -p 
Enter password: 
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 4
Server version: 5.7.24

Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql>

 

(5.2)修改数据库root@localhost密码

初次登陆MySQL数据库,需要修改root密码,否则无法正常使用

[root@masterdb mysql]# mysql -S /tmp/mysql_3306.sock -p 
Enter password: 
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 4
Server version: 5.7.24

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

-- 无法查询
mysql> show databases;
ERROR 1820 (HY000): You must reset your password using ALTER USER statement before executing this statement.

-- 修改root@localhost用户的密码
mysql> alter user  root@localhost identified by '123456';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> flush privileges;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> exit
Bye

 

(六)关闭多实例数据库

(6.1)直接使用mysqld_multi来关闭实例

使用mysqld_multi关闭多实例数据库目前来看比较麻烦,需要在my.cnf文件的[mysqld_multi]模块里面配置用户密码,并且各个数据库的用户密码都需要相同,否则无法关闭。

image

我们可以看一下使用mysqld_multi来关闭数据库实例的日志:

[root@masterdb mysql]# cat /usr/local/mysql/mysqld_multi.log 

# 当执行:mysqld_multi report时,显示所有数据库均在运行
Reporting MySQL servers
MySQL server from group: mysqld3306 is running
MySQL server from group: mysqld3307 is running
MySQL server from group: mysqld3308 is running
MySQL server from group: mysqld3309 is running
mysqld_multi log file version 2.16; run: Sat Mar 28 14:55:16 2020
# 当执行:mysqld_multi stopt时,mysqld_multi会调用mysqladmin去关闭数据库,使用的是[mysqld_multi]里面配置的账号密码,此时3306的密码是正确的,
# 其它都是错误的,因此3306关闭成功,而其它端口的实例因为密码错误而连接数据库失败,自然没有关闭数据库
Stopping MySQL servers

mysqladmin: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
mysqladmin: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
mysqladmin: connect to server at 'localhost' failed
error: 'Access denied for user 'root'@'localhost' (using password: YES)'
mysqladmin: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
mysqladmin: connect to server at 'localhost' failed
error: 'Access denied for user 'root'@'localhost' (using password: YES)'
mysqladmin: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
mysqladmin: connect to server at 'localhost' failed
error: 'Access denied for user 'root'@'localhost' (using password: YES)'
mysqld_multi log file version 2.16; run: Sat Mar 28 14:55:21 2020

# 结果:仅仅关闭了密码正确的3306端口数据库
Reporting MySQL servers
MySQL server from group: mysqld3306 is not running
MySQL server from group: mysqld3307 is running
MySQL server from group: mysqld3308 is running
MySQL server from group: mysqld3309 is running
mysqld_multi log file version 2.16; run: Sat Mar 28 14:58:07 2020

既然知道了mysqld_multi是调用mysqladmin来关闭数据库的,那最好的办法还是直接使用mysqladmin来关闭各个数据库了,下面演示使用mysqladmin来关闭数据库实例。

 

(6.2)使用mysqladmin来关闭实例

[root@masterdb mysql]# mysqld_multi report
Reporting MySQL servers
MySQL server from group: mysqld3306 is running
MySQL server from group: mysqld3307 is running
MySQL server from group: mysqld3308 is running
MySQL server from group: mysqld3309 is running
[root@masterdb mysql]# 
[root@masterdb mysql]# 
[root@masterdb mysql]# cd
[root@masterdb ~]# mysqladmin -h127.0.0.1 -uroot -p -P3306 shutdown 
Enter password: 
[root@masterdb ~]# 
[root@masterdb ~]# mysqladmin -h127.0.0.1 -uroot -p -P3307 shutdown 
Enter password: 
[root@masterdb ~]# mysqld_multi report
Reporting MySQL servers
MySQL server from group: mysqld3306 is not running
MySQL server from group: mysqld3307 is not running
MySQL server from group: mysqld3308 is running
MySQL server from group: mysqld3309 is running

最终关闭了3306和3307数据库。

 

【结束】

 

相关文档集合:

1.在一台Linux服务器上安装多个MySQL实例(一)--使用mysqld_multi方式

2.在一台Linux服务器上安装多个MySQL实例(二)--使用单独的MySQL配置文件

原文出处:https://www.cnblogs.com/lijiaman/p/12587630.html

展开阅读全文
打赏
0
0 收藏
分享
加载中
更多评论
打赏
0 评论
0 收藏
0
分享
返回顶部
顶部