150+行Python代码实现带界面的数独游戏

2019/04/10 10:10
阅读数 30

150行代码实现图形化数独游戏

Github地址,欢迎各位大佬们fork、star啥的,感谢;

今天闲着没事干,以前做过html+js版的数独,这次做个python版本的,界面由pygame完成,数独生成由递归算法实现,由shuffle保证每次游戏都是不一样的情况,have fun;

功能列表:

  • 图形化的数独游戏;
  • python实现,依赖pygame库;
  • 随机生成游戏,每次运行都不一样;
  • 数字填入后的正确性判断以及颜色提示;
  • 显示剩余需填入的空格,已经操作的次数;
  • 难度可选,通过修改需要填入的空的数量;

游戏界面

初始界面

过程中界面

运行方式

python main.py 15

这里的15表示需要填入的空格数量为15,理论上这个值越大,难度就越高,大家可以随机调整,或者设置容易、简单、困难、地狱等对应不同的值即可,很方便修改;

程序分析

界面部分

这部分很简单的通过pygame来实现,主要使用了其中的主循环、鼠标键盘监听、画矩形线条、字体、颜色控制等,理解起来很容易,对于这部分不太熟悉的同学,这样理解就好:pygame的主循环中一方面负责接收用户输入,一般就是鼠标和键盘,另一方面负责实时更新界面显示内容

对于界面上各部分内容的绘制的函数封装

# 绘制背景部分,这里就是9*9的九宫格
def draw_background():
    # white background
    screen.fill(COLORS['white'])

    # draw game board
    pygame.draw.rect(screen,COLORS['black'],(0,0,300,900),5)
    pygame.draw.rect(screen,COLORS['black'],(300,0,300,900),5)
    pygame.draw.rect(screen,COLORS['black'],(600,0,300,900),5)

    pygame.draw.rect(screen,COLORS['black'],(0,0,900,300),5)
    pygame.draw.rect(screen,COLORS['black'],(0,300,900,300),5)
    pygame.draw.rect(screen,COLORS['black'],(0,600,900,300),5)

# 将用户选中的各自背景改为蓝色块表示选中
def draw_choose():
    pygame.draw.rect(screen,COLORS['blue'],(cur_j*100+5,cur_i*100+5,100-10,100-10),0)

# 绘制九宫格中的数字,包括本来就有的,以及用户填入的,本来就在的用灰色,用户填入的如何合法则为绿色,否则为红色,是一种提示
def draw_number():
    for i in range(len(MATRIX)):
        for j in range(len(MATRIX[0])):
            _color = check_color(MATRIX,i,j) if (i,j) in BLANK_IJ else COLORS['gray']
            txt = font80.render(str(MATRIX[i][j] if MATRIX[i][j] not in [0,'0'] else ''),True,_color)
            x,y = j*100+30,i*100+10
            screen.blit(txt,(x,y))

# 绘制最下方的当前空格子数量以及用户的操作数量
def draw_context():
    txt = font100.render('Blank:'+str(cur_blank_size)+'   Change:'+str(cur_change_size),True,COLORS['black'])
    x,y = 10,900
    screen.blit(txt,(x,y))

主循环中对上述函数的调用以及鼠标键盘事件处理

# 主循环,负责监听鼠标键盘时间,以及刷新界面内容,以及检查是否赢得了游戏
running = True
while running:
    for event in pygame.event.get():
        if event.type == pygame.QUIT:
            running = False
            break
        elif event.type == pygame.MOUSEBUTTONDOWN:
            cur_j,cur_i = int(event.pos[0]/100),int(event.pos[1]/100)
        elif event.type == event.type == pygame.KEYUP:
            if chr(event.key) in ['1','2','3','4','5','6','7','8','9'] and (cur_i,cur_j) in BLANK_IJ:
                MATRIX[cur_i][cur_j] = int(chr(event.key))
                cur_blank_size = sum([1 if col==0 or col=='0' else 0 for row in MATRIX for col in row])
                cur_change_size +=1
    # background
    draw_background()
    # choose item
    draw_choose()
    # numbers
    draw_number()
    # point
    draw_context()
    # flip
    pygame.display.flip()

    # check win or not
    if check_win(MATRIX_ANSWER,MATRIX):
        print('You win, smarty ass!!!')
        break

pygame.quit()

生成表示数独的二维数组

相对于界面部分,这部分在逻辑上要难一些,思路以递归为核心,辅以随机性,得到一个每次生成都不一致的数独游戏,生成思路简单描述如下:

  1. 遍历每个空格,填入目前为止合法的数字;
  2. 如果有数字可以填入,则继续向下一个空格;
  3. 如果没有数字可以填入,表示之前的数字有问题,则结束递归;
  4. 当递归到最后一个格子的下一个时,表示已经生成完毕,返回即可;
  5. 这个过程中对1~9这九个数字的遍历数字会经过shuffle处理,保证随机性而不是每次都得到同一个合法的数独数组;

生成过程代码

递归的一个优势是通常代码都很短,当然阅读性不强,欢迎大佬们改为循环;

def shuffle_number(_list):
    random.shuffle(_list)
    return _list

def check(matrix,i,j,number):
    if number in matrix[i]:
        return False
    if number in [row[j] for row in matrix]:
        return False
    group_i,group_j = int(i/3),int(j/3)
    if number in [matrix[i][j] for i in range(group_i*3,(group_i+1)*3) for j in range(group_j*3,(group_j+1)*3)]:
        return False
    return True

def build_game(matrix,i,j,number):
    if i>8 or j>8:
        return matrix
    if check(matrix,i,j,number):
        _matrix = [[col for col in row] for row in matrix]
        _matrix[i][j] = number
        next_i,next_j = (i+1,0) if j==8 else (i,j+1)
        for _number in shuffle_number(number_list):
            __matrix = build_game(_matrix,next_i,next_j,_number)
            if __matrix and sum([sum(row) for row in __matrix])==(sum(range(1,10))*9):
                return __matrix
    return None

随机覆盖数独数组中的N个位置

  • matrix_all表示整个数独数组
  • matrix_blank表示部分被替换为0的用于显示的数组
  • blank_ij表示被覆盖位置的i和j
def give_me_a_game(blank_size=9):
    matrix_all = build_game(matrix,0,0,random.choice(number_list))
    set_ij = set()
    while len(list(set_ij))<blank_size:
        set_ij.add(str(random.choice([0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8]))+','+str(random.choice([0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8])))
    matrix_blank = [[col for col in row] for row in matrix_all]
    blank_ij = []
    for ij in list(set_ij):
        i,j = int(ij.split(',')[0]),int(ij.split(',')[1])
        blank_ij.append((i,j))
        matrix_blank[i][j] = 0
    return matrix_all,matrix_blank,blank_ij

最后附上全部代码

大家也可以直接从我的Github仓库fork下来直接运行;

main.py:主流程+界面+执行

import sys

import pygame
from pygame.color import THECOLORS as COLORS

from build import print_matrix,give_me_a_game,check

def draw_background():
    # white background
    screen.fill(COLORS['white'])

    # draw game board
    pygame.draw.rect(screen,COLORS['black'],(0,0,300,900),5)
    pygame.draw.rect(screen,COLORS['black'],(300,0,300,900),5)
    pygame.draw.rect(screen,COLORS['black'],(600,0,300,900),5)

    pygame.draw.rect(screen,COLORS['black'],(0,0,900,300),5)
    pygame.draw.rect(screen,COLORS['black'],(0,300,900,300),5)
    pygame.draw.rect(screen,COLORS['black'],(0,600,900,300),5)

def draw_choose():
    pygame.draw.rect(screen,COLORS['blue'],(cur_j*100+5,cur_i*100+5,100-10,100-10),0)

def check_win(matrix_all,matrix):
    if matrix_all == matrix:
        return True
    return False

def check_color(matrix,i,j):
    _matrix = [[col for col in row]for row in matrix]
    _matrix[i][j] = 0
    if check(_matrix,i,j,matrix[i][j]):
        return COLORS['green']
    return COLORS['red']

def draw_number():
    for i in range(len(MATRIX)):
        for j in range(len(MATRIX[0])):
            _color = check_color(MATRIX,i,j) if (i,j) in BLANK_IJ else COLORS['gray']
            txt = font80.render(str(MATRIX[i][j] if MATRIX[i][j] not in [0,'0'] else ''),True,_color)
            x,y = j*100+30,i*100+10
            screen.blit(txt,(x,y))

def draw_context():
    txt = font100.render('Blank:'+str(cur_blank_size)+'   Change:'+str(cur_change_size),True,COLORS['black'])
    x,y = 10,900
    screen.blit(txt,(x,y))

if __name__ == "__main__":
    # init pygame
    pygame.init()
    
    # contant
    SIZE = [900,1000]
    font80 = pygame.font.SysFont('Times', 80)
    font100 = pygame.font.SysFont('Times', 90)
    
    # create screen 500*500
    screen = pygame.display.set_mode(SIZE)
    
    # variable parameter
    cur_i, cur_j = 0,0
    cur_blank_size = int(sys.argv[1])
    cur_change_size = 0
    
    # matrix abount
    MATRIX_ANSWER,MATRIX,BLANK_IJ = give_me_a_game(blank_size=cur_blank_size)
    print(BLANK_IJ)
    print_matrix(MATRIX)
    
    # main loop
    running = True
    while running:
        for event in pygame.event.get():
            if event.type == pygame.QUIT:
                running = False
                break
            elif event.type == pygame.MOUSEBUTTONDOWN:
                cur_j,cur_i = int(event.pos[0]/100),int(event.pos[1]/100)
            elif event.type == event.type == pygame.KEYUP:
                if chr(event.key) in ['1','2','3','4','5','6','7','8','9'] and (cur_i,cur_j) in BLANK_IJ:
                    MATRIX[cur_i][cur_j] = int(chr(event.key))
                    cur_blank_size = sum([1 if col==0 or col=='0' else 0 for row in MATRIX for col in row])
                    cur_change_size +=1
        # background
        draw_background()
        # choose item
        draw_choose()
        # numbers
        draw_number()
        # point
        draw_context()
        # flip
        pygame.display.flip()
    
        # check win or not
        if check_win(MATRIX_ANSWER,MATRIX):
            print('You win, smarty ass!!!')
            break
    
    pygame.quit()

build.py:生成数独数组部分

import random

def print_matrix(matrix):
    print('—'*19)
    for row in matrix:
        print('|'+' '.join([str(col) for col in row])+'|')
    print('—'*19)

def shuffle_number(_list):
    random.shuffle(_list)
    return _list

def check(matrix,i,j,number):
    if number in matrix[i]:
        return False
    if number in [row[j] for row in matrix]:
        return False
    group_i,group_j = int(i/3),int(j/3)
    if number in [matrix[i][j] for i in range(group_i*3,(group_i+1)*3) for j in range(group_j*3,(group_j+1)*3)]:
        return False
    return True

def build_game(matrix,i,j,number):
    if i>8 or j>8:
        return matrix
    if check(matrix,i,j,number):
        _matrix = [[col for col in row] for row in matrix]
        _matrix[i][j] = number
        next_i,next_j = (i+1,0) if j==8 else (i,j+1)
        for _number in shuffle_number(number_list):
            #_matrixs.append(build_game(_matrix,next_i,next_j,_number))
            __matrix = build_game(_matrix,next_i,next_j,_number)
            if __matrix and sum([sum(row) for row in __matrix])==(sum(range(1,10))*9):
                return __matrix
    #return _matrixs
    return None

def give_me_a_game(blank_size=9):
    matrix_all = build_game(matrix,0,0,random.choice(number_list))
    set_ij = set()
    while len(list(set_ij))<blank_size:
        set_ij.add(str(random.choice([0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8]))+','+str(random.choice([0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8])))
    matrix_blank = [[col for col in row] for row in matrix_all]
    blank_ij = []
    for ij in list(set_ij):
        i,j = int(ij.split(',')[0]),int(ij.split(',')[1])
        blank_ij.append((i,j))
        matrix_blank[i][j] = 0
    return matrix_all,matrix_blank,blank_ij

number_list = [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9]
matrix = [([0]*9) for i in range(9)]
if __name__ == "__main__":
    print_matrix(build_game(matrix,0,0,random.choice(number_list)))

总结

如果刻意减少代码的话,实际可以控制在100行以内,不过也没有这个必要,不过这也充分展示了python的强大,在很短的时间和空间上完成一些看似复杂的工作,这个例子供一些同学上手python个人觉得还是不错的,没有太复杂的用法,对界面开发有一点点了解,对递归有一些理解基本就能完全掌握这份代码,希望大家玩的开心,挑战一下50个空格呗,哈哈,反正我没通过,太难了。。。。

最后

大家可以到我的Github上看看有没有其他需要的东西,目前主要是自己做的机器学习项目、Python各种脚本工具、有意思的小项目以及Follow的大佬、Fork的项目等: https://github.com/NemoHoHaloAi

原文出处:https://www.cnblogs.com/helongBlog/p/12627863.html

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