springboot情操陶冶-SpringApplication(一)

2018/07/26 14:51
阅读数 8

SpringApplication是所有springboot的入口类,分析此类有助于我们了解springboot的工作机制。本文以2.0.3.REALEASE版本作分析

SpringApplication

调用实例如下

package com.example.demospringbootweb;

import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;

@SpringBootApplication
public class DemoSpringbootWebApplication {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(DemoSpringbootWebApplication.class, args);
    }
}

调用的是**SpringApplication.run()**方法进行应用程序的启动。代码很简单也容易让用户上手,笔者这就进入其具体的类以探瑰宝。

注释描述

先看下其官方注释,有助于我们入门。由于注释过长,笔者此处只对其主要内容作下翻译总结

  1. 可以简单的通过*main()*函数来辅助启动一个spring应用程序。默认情况下其会按照以下步骤来辅助我们创建的应用

    • 创建一个关联的ApplicationContext实例
    • 注册CommandLinePropertySource实例暴露命令行的参数作为spring的属性
    • 刷新ApplicationContext,并加载所有的单例beans
    • 触发实现了CommandLineRunner的实例beans
  2. SpringApplications可以读取来自不同源的beans。官方建议用户使用**@Configuration**注解相应的启动类,当然也支持从以下方式加载相应的beans

    • AnnotatedBeanDefinitionReader加载指定的类
    • XmlBeanDefinitionReader加载XML的配置信息或者GroovyBeanDefinitionReader加载groovy脚本资源
    • ClassPathBeanDefinitionScanner扫描指定的包加载相应bean

过于抽象,笔者继续通过源码来对上述的内容进行回顾

构造函数

	/**
	 * Create a new {@link SpringApplication} instance. The application context will load
	 * beans from the specified primary sources (see {@link SpringApplication class-level}
	 * documentation for details. The instance can be customized before calling
	 * {@link #run(String...)}.
	 * @param resourceLoader the resource loader to use
	 * @param primarySources the primary bean sources
	 * @see #run(Class, String[])
	 * @see #setSources(Set)
	 */
	@SuppressWarnings({ "unchecked", "rawtypes" })
	public SpringApplication(ResourceLoader resourceLoader, Class<?>... primarySources) {
		this.resourceLoader = resourceLoader;
		// 加载的主类,可指定多个
		Assert.notNull(primarySources, "PrimarySources must not be null");
		this.primarySources = new LinkedHashSet<>(Arrays.asList(primarySources));
		// 推断是否为web环境
		this.webApplicationType = deduceWebApplicationType();
		// 加载ApplicationContextInitializer接口类
		setInitializers((Collection) getSpringFactoriesInstances(
				ApplicationContextInitializer.class));
		// 加载ApplicationListener接口类
		setListeners((Collection) getSpringFactoriesInstances(ApplicationListener.class));
		// 推断主函数类
		this.mainApplicationClass = deduceMainApplicationClass();
	}

对上述的注释作下简单的解释

SpringApplication#deduceWebApplicationType()

推断是否为web环境,源码如下

	private WebApplicationType deduceWebApplicationType() {
		if (ClassUtils.isPresent(REACTIVE_WEB_ENVIRONMENT_CLASS, null)
				&& !ClassUtils.isPresent(MVC_WEB_ENVIRONMENT_CLASS, null)) {
			return WebApplicationType.REACTIVE;
		}
		for (String className : WEB_ENVIRONMENT_CLASSES) {
			if (!ClassUtils.isPresent(className, null)) {
				return WebApplicationType.NONE;
			}
		}
		return WebApplicationType.SERVLET;
	}

从代码层看总共有三种应用类型,也代表了三个环境类型

  • WebApplicationType.REACTIVE reactive web应用(classpath环境下须有org.springframework.web.reactive.DispatcherHandler)
  • WebApplicationType.SERVLET servlet web应用(classpath环境下存在javax.servlet.Servlet或者org.springframework.web.context.ConfigurableWebApplicationContext)
  • WebApplicationType.NONE 简单的JAVA应用(classpath环境不存在上述的类)

SpringApplication#deduceMainApplicationClass()

推断主函数类,源码如下

	private Class<?> deduceMainApplicationClass() {
		try {
			StackTraceElement[] stackTrace = new RuntimeException().getStackTrace();
			for (StackTraceElement stackTraceElement : stackTrace) {
				if ("main".equals(stackTraceElement.getMethodName())) {
					return Class.forName(stackTraceElement.getClassName());
				}
			}
		}
		catch (ClassNotFoundException ex) {
			// Swallow and continue
		}
		return null;
	}

很简单,就是寻找哪个类下含有main方法,此处和我们常用的启动类不谋而合

SpringApplication#getSpringFactoriesInstances()

找寻相应的接口实现类,源码如下

	private <T> Collection<T> getSpringFactoriesInstances(Class<T> type,
			Class<?>[] parameterTypes, Object... args) {
		// 上下文classLoader
		ClassLoader classLoader = Thread.currentThread().getContextClassLoader();
		// 通过SpringFactoriesLoader来加载相应的类
		Set<String> names = new LinkedHashSet<>(
				SpringFactoriesLoader.loadFactoryNames(type, classLoader));
		List<T> instances = createSpringFactoriesInstances(type, parameterTypes,
				classLoader, args, names);
		AnnotationAwareOrderComparator.sort(instances);
		return instances;
	}

进而查看相应的静态方法SpringFactoriesLoader.loadFactoryNames(),源码如下

	public static List<String> loadFactoryNames(Class<?> factoryClass, @Nullable ClassLoader classLoader) {
		String factoryClassName = factoryClass.getName();
		// 关键处理类
		return loadSpringFactories(classLoader).getOrDefault(factoryClassName, Collections.emptyList());
	}

关键处理类出来了,源码跟上

	private static Map<String, List<String>> loadSpringFactories(@Nullable ClassLoader classLoader) {
		// 缓存处理
		MultiValueMap<String, String> result = cache.get(classLoader);
		if (result != null) {
			return result;
		}

		try {
			// 找寻所有classpath下的"META-INF/spring.factories"文件
			Enumeration<URL> urls = (classLoader != null ?
					classLoader.getResources(FACTORIES_RESOURCE_LOCATION) :
					ClassLoader.getSystemResources(FACTORIES_RESOURCE_LOCATION));
			result = new LinkedMultiValueMap<>();
			while (urls.hasMoreElements()) {
				URL url = urls.nextElement();
				UrlResource resource = new UrlResource(url);
				Properties properties = PropertiesLoaderUtils.loadProperties(resource);
				for (Map.Entry<?, ?> entry : properties.entrySet()) {
					// 对含有,的进行分隔并转为list集合
					List<String> factoryClassNames = Arrays.asList(
							StringUtils.commaDelimitedListToStringArray((String) entry.getValue()));
					result.addAll((String) entry.getKey(), factoryClassNames);
				}
			}
			cache.put(classLoader, result);
			return result;
		}
		catch (IOException ex) {
			throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unable to load factories from location [" +
					FACTORIES_RESOURCE_LOCATION + "]", ex);
		}
	}

由此我们得出结论,classpath环境下所有含META-INF/spring.factories的文件,里面约定了默认的实现。笔者以spring-boot-2.0.3.REALEASE.jar为例

# PropertySource Loaders
org.springframework.boot.env.PropertySourceLoader=\
org.springframework.boot.env.PropertiesPropertySourceLoader,\
org.springframework.boot.env.YamlPropertySourceLoader

# Run Listeners
org.springframework.boot.SpringApplicationRunListener=\
org.springframework.boot.context.event.EventPublishingRunListener

# Error Reporters
org.springframework.boot.SpringBootExceptionReporter=\
org.springframework.boot.diagnostics.FailureAnalyzers

# Application Context Initializers
org.springframework.context.ApplicationContextInitializer=\
org.springframework.boot.context.ConfigurationWarningsApplicationContextInitializer,\
org.springframework.boot.context.ContextIdApplicationContextInitializer,\
org.springframework.boot.context.config.DelegatingApplicationContextInitializer,\
org.springframework.boot.web.context.ServerPortInfoApplicationContextInitializer

# Application Listeners
org.springframework.context.ApplicationListener=\
org.springframework.boot.ClearCachesApplicationListener,\
org.springframework.boot.builder.ParentContextCloserApplicationListener,\
org.springframework.boot.context.FileEncodingApplicationListener,\
org.springframework.boot.context.config.AnsiOutputApplicationListener,\
org.springframework.boot.context.config.ConfigFileApplicationListener,\
org.springframework.boot.context.config.DelegatingApplicationListener,\
org.springframework.boot.context.logging.ClasspathLoggingApplicationListener,\
org.springframework.boot.context.logging.LoggingApplicationListener,\
org.springframework.boot.liquibase.LiquibaseServiceLocatorApplicationListener

# Environment Post Processors
org.springframework.boot.env.EnvironmentPostProcessor=\
org.springframework.boot.cloud.CloudFoundryVcapEnvironmentPostProcessor,\
org.springframework.boot.env.SpringApplicationJsonEnvironmentPostProcessor,\
org.springframework.boot.env.SystemEnvironmentPropertySourceEnvironmentPostProcessor

# Failure Analyzers
org.springframework.boot.diagnostics.FailureAnalyzer=\
org.springframework.boot.diagnostics.analyzer.BeanCurrentlyInCreationFailureAnalyzer,\
org.springframework.boot.diagnostics.analyzer.BeanNotOfRequiredTypeFailureAnalyzer,\
org.springframework.boot.diagnostics.analyzer.BindFailureAnalyzer,\
org.springframework.boot.diagnostics.analyzer.BindValidationFailureAnalyzer,\
org.springframework.boot.diagnostics.analyzer.UnboundConfigurationPropertyFailureAnalyzer,\
org.springframework.boot.diagnostics.analyzer.ConnectorStartFailureAnalyzer,\
org.springframework.boot.diagnostics.analyzer.NoUniqueBeanDefinitionFailureAnalyzer,\
org.springframework.boot.diagnostics.analyzer.PortInUseFailureAnalyzer,\
org.springframework.boot.diagnostics.analyzer.ValidationExceptionFailureAnalyzer,\
org.springframework.boot.diagnostics.analyzer.InvalidConfigurationPropertyNameFailureAnalyzer,\
org.springframework.boot.diagnostics.analyzer.InvalidConfigurationPropertyValueFailureAnalyzer

# FailureAnalysisReporters
org.springframework.boot.diagnostics.FailureAnalysisReporter=\
org.springframework.boot.diagnostics.LoggingFailureAnalysisReporter

因此SpringApplication构造函数中加载的ApplicationContextInitializer类有如下

  • ConfigurationWarningsApplicationContextInitializer (对ComponentScan指定的值为"org"等进行报警输出)
  • ContextIdApplicationContextInitializer (创建默认名为application的ContextId对象,也可通过spring.application.name指定)
  • DelegatingApplicationContextInitializer (对context.initializer.classes指定的class集合进行加载)
  • ServerPortInfoApplicationContextInitializer (将local.server.port设置为指定的web端口,默认为8080)


而加载的ApplicationListener类有如下

  • ClearCachesApplicationListener (反射工具缓存清空事件)
  • ParentContextCloserApplicationListener (父ApplicationContext关闭事件)
  • FileEncodingApplicationListener (系统变量配置的file.encoding值是否与环境变量spring.mandatory-file-encoding一致事件)
  • AnsiOutputApplicationListener (控制台彩色输出事件,可通过spring.output.ansi.enabled来指定)
  • ConfigFileApplicationListener (读取spring.profile.active/spring.profile.include配置)
  • DelegatingApplicationListener (委托事件处理类)
  • ClasspathLoggingApplicationListener (打印classpath信息,级别为debug)
  • LoggingApplicationListener (日志处理事件)
  • LiquibaseServiceLocatorApplicationListener (classpath是否存在liquibase的CustomResolverServiceLocator类判断事件)

其中ApplicationListener所绑定事件的触发顺序小结如下

1.ApplicationStartingEvent[应用程序启动事件starting]

2.ApplicationEnvironmentPreparedEvent[环境变量配置事件environmentPrepared]

3.ApplicationPreparedEvent[spring上下文加载前事件contextPrepared]

4.ApplicationStartedEvent[spring上下文加载完毕事件contextLoaded]此事件之后会统一调用ApplicationRunner/CommandLineRunner的实现类

5.ApplicationReadyEvent[应用准备事件running]

6.ApplicationFailedEvent/ContextClosedEvent[抛异常或者启动失败调用]

小结

由此SpringApplication构造函数完成了一些必要的初始化,重点在于ApplicationContextInitializerApplicationListener接口类。并且通过构造函数反射来进行实例化

限于篇幅过长,笔者将对*SpringApplication#run()*方法的具体解析放于下一章节来分析

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