构建multipart/form-data实现文件上传

2019/01/03 17:16
阅读数 63

构建multipart/form-data实现文件上传

通常文件上传都是通过form表单中的file控件,并将form中的content-type设置为multipart/form-data。现在我们通过java来构建这部分请求内容实现文件上传功能。

一、关于multipart/form-data

文件上传本质上是一个POST请求。只不过请求头以及请求内容遵循一定的规则(协议)

  • 请求头(Request Headers)中需要设置 Content-Type 为 multipart/form-data; boundary=${boundary}。其中${boundary}分割线,需要在代码中替换,且尽量复杂,不易重复

  • 请求正文(Request Body)需要使用在 Header中设置的 ${boundary}来分割当前正文中的FormItem,内容格式如下

    --${boundary}
    Content-Disposition: form-data; name="id"
     
    testCodeUpload
    --${boundary}
    Content-Disposition: form-data; name="file";filename="xx.txt"
    Content-Type: application/octet-stream
     
    {{这里写入文件流}}
    --${boundary}--

    正文开始以前缀+${boundary}开始,以 前缀 +${boundary}+前缀结束。中间每个FormItem  前缀+${boundary}开始,以一个空白的换行结束。

二、代码实现

实例代码采用HttpURLConnection实现一个简单POST请求

  • 建立http请求,设置基本参数

URL postUrl = new URL(url);
HttpURLConnection conn = (HttpURLConnection) postUrl.openConnection();
conn.setRequestMethod("POST");
conn.setDoInput(true);
conn.setDoOutput(true);
conn.setUseCaches(false);
conn.setRequestProperty("connection", "Keep-Alive");
conn.setRequestProperty("Charset", "UTF-8");
  • 添加文件上传必须的请求信息,获取http请输出流

String boundary = "----" + UUID.randomUUID().toString();
conn.setRequestProperty("Content-Type",
"multipart/form-data; boundary=" + boundary);
OutputStream out = conn.getOutputStream();
StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
  • 一组FormItem

sb.append(boundaryPrefix);
sb.append(boundary);
sb.append(newLine);
sb.append("Content-Disposition: form-data; name=\"id\"");
sb.append(newLine);
sb.append(newLine);
sb.append("testCodeUpload");
sb.append(newLine);
  • 文件写人

sb.append(boundaryPrefix);
sb.append(boundary);
sb.append(newLine);
sb.append("Content-Disposition: form-data; name=\"file\"; filename=\""
+ fileName + "\"");
sb.append("Content-Type: application/octet-stream");
sb.append(newLine);
sb.append(newLine);
out.write(sb.toString().getBytes());
File file = new File(file1);
FileInputStream in = new FileInputStream(file);
byte[] bufferOut = new byte[1024];
int bytes = 0;
while ((bytes = in.read(bufferOut)) != -1) {
out.write(bufferOut, 0, bytes);
}
out.write(newLine.getBytes());
in.close();

 

  • 结束标志 前缀+boundary +前缀
byte[] end_data = (newLine + boundaryPrefix + boundary + boundaryPrefix + newLine)
.getBytes();
out.write(end_data);
out.flush();
out.close();

三、文件接收

  • 文件接收端通过迭代每个FileItem获取不同的数据

FileItemFactory factory = new DiskFileItemFactory();
ServletFileUpload upload = new ServletFileUpload(factory);
upload.setHeaderEncoding("UTF-8");
try {
  items = upload.parseRequest(request);
} catch (FileUploadException ex) {
  ex.printStackTrace();
  out.println(ex.getMessage());
  return;
}
Iterator<FileItem> itr = items.iterator();
String id = "", fileName = "";
int chunks = 1, chunk = 0;
FileItem tempFileItem = null;
while (itr.hasNext()) {
FileItem item = (FileItem) itr.next();
if (item.getFieldName().equals("id")) {
  id = item.getString();
} else if (item.getFieldName().equals("name")) {
  fileName = new String(item.getString().getBytes("ISO-8859-1"), "UTF-8");
} else if (item.getFieldName().equals("file")) {
  tempFileItem = item;
}

四、总结

 

通过代码实现一遍文件上传,了解其运行机制,解开了以前在写文件上传代码中item.getFieldName().equals("name")等相关判断的疑惑。所以,对于已有的基础代码,还是多看,多写,多实践。

附完整代码

 1 @Test
 2     public void buildUploadStream() throws IOException {
 3         String url ="uploadurl";
 4         file1 = "D:\\test.xls";
 5         fileName = "test.xls";
 6         
 7         String newLine = "\r\n";
 8         String boundaryPrefix = "--";
 9         String boundary = "----" + UUID.randomUUID().toString();
10 
11         URL postUrl = new URL(url);
12         HttpURLConnection conn = (HttpURLConnection) postUrl.openConnection();
13 
14         conn.setRequestMethod("POST");
15         conn.setDoInput(true);
16         conn.setDoOutput(true);
17         conn.setUseCaches(false);
18 
19         conn.setRequestProperty("connection", "Keep-Alive");
20         conn.setRequestProperty("Charset", "UTF-8");
21         conn.setRequestProperty("Content-Type",
22                 "multipart/form-data; boundary=" + boundary);
23 
24         OutputStream out = conn.getOutputStream();
25 
26         
27         StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
28 
29         sb.append(boundaryPrefix);
30         sb.append(boundary);
31         sb.append(newLine);
32 
33         sb.append("Content-Disposition: form-data; name=\"id\"");
34         sb.append(newLine);
35         sb.append(newLine);
36         sb.append("testCodeUpload");
37         sb.append(newLine);
38 
39         sb.append(boundaryPrefix);
40         sb.append(boundary);
41         sb.append(newLine);
42 
43         sb.append("Content-Disposition: form-data; name=\"name\"");
44         sb.append(newLine);
45         sb.append(newLine);
46         sb.append(fileName);
47         sb.append(newLine);
48 
49         sb.append(boundaryPrefix);
50         sb.append(boundary);
51         sb.append(newLine);
52 
53         sb.append("Content-Disposition: form-data; name=\"file\"; filename=\""
54                 + fileName + "\"");
55         sb.append("Content-Type: application/octet-stream");
56         sb.append(newLine);
57         sb.append(newLine);
58 
59         out.write(sb.toString().getBytes());
60         
61         File file = new File(file1);
62         FileInputStream in = new FileInputStream(file);
63         byte[] bufferOut = new byte[1024];
64         int bytes = 0;
65         while ((bytes = in.read(bufferOut)) != -1) {
66             out.write(bufferOut, 0, bytes);
67         }
68         out.write(newLine.getBytes());
69         in.close();
70         byte[] end_data = (newLine + boundaryPrefix + boundary + boundaryPrefix + newLine)
71                 .getBytes();
72         out.write(end_data);
73         out.flush();
74         out.close();
75 
76         BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(
77                 conn.getInputStream()));
78         String line = null;
79         while ((line = reader.readLine()) != null) {
80             System.out.println(line);
81         }
82     }
all code

 

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