Oracle Spatial基础

2018/04/04 11:25
阅读数 68

完全转自:http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_439d2cef01009c4a.html

 

一、Oracle Spatial简介

    Oracle 支持自定义的数据类型,可以用数组,结构体或者带有构造函数,功能函数的类来定义自己的对象类型。这样的对象类型可以用于属性列的数据类型,也可以用来创建对象表。而Oracle Spatial也正是基于此种特性所开发的一套空间数据处理系统。
    Spatial 的自定义数据类型有很多,全部在MDSYS方案下,经常使用到的是SDO_GEOMETRY类型。SDO_GEOMETRY表示一个几何对象,可以是点、线、面、多点、多线、多面或混合对象。
    Spatial 在此数据类型的基础上,实现了R树空间索引和四叉树空间索引,还以SQL函数的形式实现了多种空间分析功能。

 


二、测试表的建立与应用(点类型)

 

 

-- 创建测试用表
CREATE TABLE "SPATIALTEST" (
 "ID" VARCHAR2(20) NOT NULL,
 "NAME" VARCHAR2(100),
 "ADDRESS" VARCHAR2(200),
 "TELEPHONE" VARCHAR2(50),
 "LOCATION" "MDSYS"."SDO_GEOMETRY"
)LOGGING;

 

 

 

-- 创建主键约束
ALTER TABLE "SPATIALTEST"
 ADD CONSTRAINT "PK_SPATIAL" PRIMARY KEY("ID");

 

 

 

-- 根据用户表填写空间元数据
INSERT INTO USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATA
  VALUES(
  'SPATIALTEST',
  'location',
  MDSYS.SDO_DIM_ARRAY(
   MDSYS.SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Longitude',-180,180,10),
   MDSYS.SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Latitude',-90,90,10)
  ),
  8307
 );

 

 

 

-- 建立空间索引
CREATE INDEX SPATIAL_IDX
 ON SPATIALTEST(location)
 INDEXTYPE IS MDSYS.SPATIAL_INDEX;

 

 

 

-- 导入测试数据
INSERT INTO "SPATIALTEST"
 VALUES(
  'dbeb7ea11eaf2b53a9b7',
  '小肥羊(天河店)',
  '广州市天河区天寿路25号',
  '020-38217746',
  MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY(
   2001,
   8307,
   MDSYS.SDO_POINT_TYPE(113.3293658, 23.14338586, 0),
   NULL,
   NULL
  )
 );


INSERT INTO "SPATIALTEST"
 VALUES(
  'ef8393ef6273a72b2f70',
  '山东老家',
  '广州市越秀区合群一马路43号',
  '020-87778983',
  MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY(
   2001,
   8307,
   MDSYS.SDO_POINT_TYPE(113.2932474, 23.11883515, 0),
   NULL,
   NULL
  )
 );

 

--其他

INSERT INTO cola_markets VALUES(
 2,
 'cola_b',
 MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY(
  2003,  -- 2-dimensional polygon
  NULL,
  NULL,
  MDSYS.SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1003,1), -- one polygon (exterior polygon ring)
  MDSYS.SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(5,1, 8,1, 8,6, 5,7, 5,1)
 )
);

 

 

 

-- 属性信息查询
SQL> select location from spatialtest;

LOCATION(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z), SDO_ELEM_INFO, SDO_ORDINATES)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SDO_GEOMETRY(2001, 8307, SDO_POINT_TYPE(113.329366, 23.1433859, 0), NULL, NULL)

SQL> select s.location.SDO_POINT.x langtitude from spatialtest s;

LANGTITUDE
----------
113.329366

 

 

 

-- 空间分析查询(113.2359818,23.16937253)周边十公里信息5条
SELECT
  B.id id, B.name name, B.dist dist
FROM (
  SELECT
    A.id id, A.name name, SDO_GEOM.SDO_DISTANCE(A.location,MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY(2001,8307,MDSYS.SDO_POINT_TYPE(113.2359818,23.16937253,0),NULL,NULL),1) dist
  FROM
    spatialtest A
  WHERE
   SDO_WITHIN_DISTANCE(A.LOCATION,MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY(2001,8307,MDSYS.SDO_POINT_TYPE(113.2359818,23.16937253,0),NULL,NULL),'distance=10000') = 'TRUE'
  ORDER BY A.name
  ) B
WHERE
  ROWNUM <= 5
;

 

 

 

-- 空间分析查询(113.2359818,23.16937253)附近的5条信息
SELECT
  A.id id, A.name name,A.location.SDO_POINT.x langtitude, A.location.SDO_POINT.y latitude,MDSYS.SDO_NN_DISTANCE(1) distance
FROM
  spatialtest A
WHERE
 SDO_NN(A.LOCATION,MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY(2001,8307,MDSYS.SDO_POINT_TYPE(113.2359818,23.16937253,0),null,null),'SDO_NUM_RES=5',1) = 'TRUE'
;

 

 

 

-- Return the topological difference of two geometries.
SELECT SDO_GEOM.SDO_DIFFERENCE(c_a.shape, m.diminfo, c_c.shape, m.diminfo)
  FROM cola_markets c_a, cola_markets c_c, user_sdo_geom_metadata m
  WHERE m.table_name = 'COLA_MARKETS' AND m.column_name = 'SHAPE'
  AND c_a.name = 'cola_a' AND c_c.name = 'cola_c';

 

 


三、MDYSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY结构

 

 

CREATE TYPE SDO_GEOMETRY AS OBJECT(
  SDO_GTYPE NUMBER,       //表示几何实体的类型
  SDO_SRID NUMBER,       //用来表示坐标系(空间参考坐标系),与几何实体关联
  SDO_POINT MDSYS.SDO_POINT_TYPE,  //使用X,Y,Z属性值来定义对象类型

                   //它们都是NUMBER类型,
                   //如果SDO_GEOMETRY的SDO_ELEM_INFO及SDO_ORDINATES数组为
                   //空则SDO_POINT为非空,X和Y值就是点几何实体的坐标值
  SDO_ELEM_INFO MDSYS.SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY, //使用变长NUMBER型数组来表示。
                   //该属性将告知如何解释SDO_ORDINATES里边的坐标值;
  SDO_ORDINATES MDSYS.SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY   //存储坐标值

                   //形成空间对象的边界
);

 

 

MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY <--> OCCI 对照模型:

Oracle <wbr>Spatial <wbr>初探


四、Oracle Spatial 几个自定义函数(转帖)

--------------------------------------

 

 --得到线对象的终止点X坐标
create or replace function GetEndNodeX(coords in SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY) return varchar2 is
  Result varchar2(100);
begin
  if coords.count > 0 then
    Result := to_char(coords(coords.count-1));
  end if;
  return(Result);
end GetEndNodeX;

 

 --得到线对象的终止点的Y坐标
create or replace function GetEndNodeY(coords in SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY ) return varchar2 is
  Result varchar2(100);
begin
    if coords.count > 0 then
    Result := to_char(coords(coords.count));
  end if;
  return(Result);
end GetEndNodeY;

 

 --得到线对象的终止点坐标 X,Y 形式
create or replace function GetEndNodeXY(coords in SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY) return varchar2 is
  Result varchar2(200);
begin
  if coords.count > 0 then
    Result := to_char(coords(coords.count-1)) || ',' || to_char(coords(coords.count));
  end if;
  return(Result);
end GetEndNodeXY;

 

 --得到线对象的起始点X坐标
create or replace function GetStartNodeX(coords in SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY) return varchar2 is
  Result varchar2(100);
begin
  if coords.count > 0 then
   Result := to_char(coords(1));
  end if;
  return(Result);
end GetStartNodeX;

 

 --得到线对象的起始点的Y坐标
create or replace function GetStartNodeY(coords in SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY) return varchar2 is
  Result varchar2(100);
begin
  if coords.count > 0 then
   Result := to_char(coords(2));
  end if;
  return(Result);
end GetStartNodeY;

 

 --得到线对象的起始点XY坐标
create or replace function GetStartNodeXY(coords in SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY) return varchar2 is
  Result varchar2(200);
begin
  if coords.count > 0 then
     Result := to_char(coords(1))||','||to_char(coords(2));
  end if;
  return(Result);
end GetStartNodeXY;

 

 --把X,Y坐标转换成MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY的点对象
create or replace function To_Geomerty_Point(x in number,y in number ) return MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY is
  Result MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY;
begin

Result := MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY(2001,
                      8307,
                      null,
                      MDSYS.SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1, 1),
                      MDSYS.SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(x, y));

return(Result);
end To_Geomerty_Point;

 


--------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------查询 及测试语句---------------------------------------

 

 

--求线路的长度
  select c.routename, sdo_geom.sdo_length(c.geoloc,m.DIMINFO,'unit=KM')
  from tgs_route c,user_sdo_geom_metadata m

select * from tg_routev2

select a.geoloc.SDO_ORDINATES from tgs_route a
  where routename = '宣武-6-1'

select GetStartNodeXY(a.geoloc.SDO_ORDINATES) from tgs_route a
 where routename = '宣武-6-1'

select GetEndNodeXY(a.geoloc.SDO_ORDINATES) from tgs_route a
 where routename = '宣武-6-1'

 

--计算线路的起始点和终止点坐标
 create table routeNodeXY as
 select a.routename,
        GetStartNodeX(a.geoloc.SDO_ORDINATES) X1,
        GetStartNodeY(a.geoloc.SDO_ORDINATES) Y1,
        GetEndNodeX(a.geoloc.SDO_ORDINATES) X2,
        GetEndNodeY(a.geoloc.SDO_ORDINATES) Y2
   from tgs_route a

 

--更新tg_routev2 中的线起始点 终止点坐标
 alter table routeNodeXY add primary key(routename)

update (select a.*,b.* from tg_routev2 a,routeNodeXY b
 where a.routename = b.routename)
 set node1x = x1,node1y = Y1,node2x = X2,node2y = Y2
 where node1x is null

 

select sdo_geom.sdo_distance( from dual
 --物流中心坐标
 --116.635056
 --39.869170

 

--node1距离物流中心的  “南北直角折线”  距离
 select a.routename,
        (sdo_geom.sdo_distance(To_Geomerty_Point(a.node1x, a.node1y),
                               To_Geomerty_Point(116.635056, a.node1y),
                               0.005,
                               'unit=KM') +
        sdo_geom.sdo_distance(To_Geomerty_Point(a.node1x, a.node1y),
                               To_Geomerty_Point(a.node1x, 39.869170),
                               0.005,
                               'unit=KM')) dis1
   from tg_routev2 a
  order by dis1

 

--node2距离物流中心的  “南北直角折线”  距离
 select a.routename,
        (sdo_geom.sdo_distance(To_Geomerty_Point(a.node2x, a.node2y),
                               To_Geomerty_Point(116.635056, a.node1y),
                               0.005,
                               'unit=KM') +
        sdo_geom.sdo_distance(To_Geomerty_Point(a.node2x, a.node2y),
                               To_Geomerty_Point(a.node1x, 39.869170),
                               0.005,
                               'unit=KM')) dis2
   from tg_routev2 a
  order by dis2

 

 

 

--更新node1Distance 和 node2Distance  即线路起始点、终止点距离物流中心的  “南北直角折线” 距离
update

    tg_routev2
set

    node1Distance = (sdo_geom.sdo_distance(To_Geomerty_Point(node1x, node1y), To_Geomerty_Point(116.635056, node1y), 0.005, 'unit=KM')

  + sdo_geom.sdo_distance(To_Geomerty_Point(node1x, node1y), To_Geomerty_Point(node1x, 39.869170), 0.005, 'unit=KM')),
    node2Distance = (sdo_geom.sdo_distance(To_Geomerty_Point(node2x, node2y), To_Geomerty_Point(116.635056, node2y), 0.005, 'unit=KM')

  + sdo_geom.sdo_distance(To_Geomerty_Point(node2x, node2y), To_Geomerty_Point(node2x, 39.869170), 0.005, 'unit=KM'))
where

    node1Distance is null;

 

 

-The End-

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