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flask-session

o
 osc_z1hvg4cu
发布于 2018/04/24 21:34
字数 1916
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内置session原理

请求到来

"""
1. 请求刚刚达到
    ctx = RequestContext(...)
          - request
          - session=None
    ctx.push()
        ctx.session = SecureCookieSessionInterface.open_session
lku
2. 视图函数

3. 请求结束
    SecureCookieSessionInterface.save_session()
"""
from flask import Flask,session
app = Flask(__name__)
app.secret_key = 'sadfasdfasdf'

@app.route('/x1')
def index():
    # 去ctx中获取session
    session['k1'] = 123
    session['k2'] = 123
    del session['k2']
    return "Index"


@app.route('/x2')
def order():
    print(session['k1'])
    return "Order"

if __name__ == '__main__':
    app.run()

    # 1. 请求一旦到来显
    app.__call__
    app.wsgi_app
    app.open_session

当请求进来之后,先执行Flask对象的 __call__ 方法

def wsgi_app(self, environ, start_response):
        # 获取请求相关数据,并进行封装和加工
        ctx = self.request_context(environ)
        # 将请求消息推送到堆栈中,并执行 open_session方法
        ctx.push()
        error = None
        try:
            try:
                response = self.full_dispatch_request()
            except Exception as e:
                error = e
                response = self.make_response(self.handle_exception(e))
            return response(environ, start_response)
        finally:
            if self.should_ignore_error(error):
                error = None
            ctx.auto_pop(error)

    def __call__(self, environ, start_response):
        """Shortcut for :attr:`wsgi_app`."""
        return self.wsgi_app(environ, start_response)
def push(self):
        top = _request_ctx_stack.top
        if top is not None and top.preserved:
            top.pop(top._preserved_exc)

        # Before we push the request context we have to ensure that there
        # is an application context.
        app_ctx = _app_ctx_stack.top
        if app_ctx is None or app_ctx.app != self.app:
            app_ctx = self.app.app_context()
            app_ctx.push()
            self._implicit_app_ctx_stack.append(app_ctx)
        else:
            self._implicit_app_ctx_stack.append(None)

        if hasattr(sys, 'exc_clear'):
            sys.exc_clear()

        _request_ctx_stack.push(self)

        # 调用Flask对象的open_session方法
        self.session = self.app.open_session(self.request)
        if self.session is None:
            self.session = self.app.make_null_session()
def open_session(self, request):
        """Creates or opens a new session.  Default implementation stores all
        session data in a signed cookie.  This requires that the
        :attr:`secret_key` is set.  Instead of overriding this method
        we recommend replacing the :class:`session_interface`.

        :param request: an instance of :attr:`request_class`.
        """
        # self指的是Flask对象,session_interface默认值为SecureCookieSessionInterface()
        return self.session_interface.open_session(self, request)

由以上源码发现,当接收到用户请求之后,会调用 Flask对象的 session_interface对象的open_session方法,以此来获取一个session对象。

class SecureCookieSessionInterface(SessionInterface):
    """The default session interface that stores sessions in signed cookies
    through the :mod:`itsdangerous` module.
    """
    #: the salt that should be applied on top of the secret key for the
    #: signing of cookie based sessions.
    salt = 'cookie-session'
    #: the hash function to use for the signature.  The default is sha1
    digest_method = staticmethod(hashlib.sha1)
    #: the name of the itsdangerous supported key derivation.  The default
    #: is hmac.
    key_derivation = 'hmac'
    #: A python serializer for the payload.  The default is a compact
    #: JSON derived serializer with support for some extra Python types
    #: such as datetime objects or tuples.
    serializer = session_json_serializer
    session_class = SecureCookieSession

    def get_signing_serializer(self, app):
        if not app.secret_key:
            return None
        signer_kwargs = dict(
            key_derivation=self.key_derivation,
            digest_method=self.digest_method
        )
        return URLSafeTimedSerializer(app.secret_key, salt=self.salt,
                                      serializer=self.serializer,
                                      signer_kwargs=signer_kwargs)

    def open_session(self, app, request):
        # 获取加密相关的类,必须设置app.secret_key,不然s就是None
        s = self.get_signing_serializer(app)

        if s is None:
            return None
        # 去Cookie中获取 session 对应的值(该值默认是加密之后的session的值,也可以改造成随机字符串)
        val = request.cookies.get(app.session_cookie_name)
        if not val:
            # 未获取到值,则创建一个空字典(就是flask中用到的session)
            return self.session_class()
        max_age = total_seconds(app.permanent_session_lifetime)
        try:
            data = s.loads(val, max_age=max_age)
            # 如果获取到值,则将值放入字典中(就是flask中用到的session)
            return self.session_class(data)
        except BadSignature:
            # 解密失败,则创建一个空字典(就是flask中用到的session)
            return self.session_class()

上述中 self.session_class 就是创建的一个SecureCookieSession对象,这个类是继承了字典的类,其实就是一个特殊的字典。

class SessionMixin(object):
    """Expands a basic dictionary with an accessors that are expected
    by Flask extensions and users for the session.
    """

    def _get_permanent(self):
        return self.get('_permanent', False)

    def _set_permanent(self, value):
        self['_permanent'] = bool(value)

    #: this reflects the ``'_permanent'`` key in the dict.
    permanent = property(_get_permanent, _set_permanent)
    del _get_permanent, _set_permanent

    #: some session backends can tell you if a session is new, but that is
    #: not necessarily guaranteed.  Use with caution.  The default mixin
    #: implementation just hardcodes ``False`` in.
    new = False

    #: for some backends this will always be ``True``, but some backends will
    #: default this to false and detect changes in the dictionary for as
    #: long as changes do not happen on mutable structures in the session.
    #: The default mixin implementation just hardcodes ``True`` in.
    modified = True

class UpdateDictMixin(object):

    """Makes dicts call `self.on_update` on modifications.

    .. versionadded:: 0.5

    :private:
    """

    on_update = None

    def calls_update(name):
        def oncall(self, *args, **kw):
            rv = getattr(super(UpdateDictMixin, self), name)(*args, **kw)
            if self.on_update is not None:
                self.on_update(self)
            return rv
        oncall.__name__ = name
        return oncall

    def setdefault(self, key, default=None):
        modified = key not in self
        rv = super(UpdateDictMixin, self).setdefault(key, default)
        if modified and self.on_update is not None:
            self.on_update(self)
        return rv

    def pop(self, key, default=_missing):
        modified = key in self
        if default is _missing:
            rv = super(UpdateDictMixin, self).pop(key)
        else:
            rv = super(UpdateDictMixin, self).pop(key, default)
        if modified and self.on_update is not None:
            self.on_update(self)
        return rv

    __setitem__ = calls_update('__setitem__')
    __delitem__ = calls_update('__delitem__')
    clear = calls_update('clear')
    popitem = calls_update('popitem')
    update = calls_update('update')
    del calls_update


class CallbackDict(UpdateDictMixin, dict):

    """A dict that calls a function passed every time something is changed.
    The function is passed the dict instance.
    """

    def __init__(self, initial=None, on_update=None):
        dict.__init__(self, initial or ())
        self.on_update = on_update

    def __repr__(self):
        return '<%s %s>' % (
            self.__class__.__name__,
            dict.__repr__(self)
        )


class SecureCookieSession(CallbackDict, SessionMixin):
    """Base class for sessions based on signed cookies."""

    def __init__(self, initial=None):
        def on_update(self):
            self.modified = True
        CallbackDict.__init__(self, initial, on_update)
        self.modified = False

该字典其实就是继承了字典,并在其基础上定制了一些功能,如

class MyDict(dict):
    def __init__(self, initial):
        dict.__init__(self, initial)


session = MyDict({'k1': 123})

print(session, type(session)) # {'k1': 123} <class '__main__.MyDict'>


session['k2'] = 'v2'
print(session)

所以,Flask的视图函数中在对session进行操作时,其实就是在内存中修改一个字典的数据。

业务处理

设置session

响应内容

响应内容其实就讲数据返回给用户,并且把内容中的session重新保存

def wsgi_app(self, environ, start_response):
        """The actual WSGI application.  This is not implemented in
        `__call__` so that middlewares can be applied without losing a
        reference to the class.  So instead of doing this::

            app = MyMiddleware(app)

        It's a better idea to do this instead::

            app.wsgi_app = MyMiddleware(app.wsgi_app)

        Then you still have the original application object around and
        can continue to call methods on it.

        .. versionchanged:: 0.7
           The behavior of the before and after request callbacks was changed
           under error conditions and a new callback was added that will
           always execute at the end of the request, independent on if an
           error occurred or not.  See :ref:`callbacks-and-errors`.

        :param environ: a WSGI environment
        :param start_response: a callable accepting a status code,
                               a list of headers and an optional
                               exception context to start the response
        """
        ctx = self.request_context(environ)
        ctx.push()
        error = None
        try:
            try:
                # 处理业务请求,并获取返回值
                response = self.full_dispatch_request()
            except Exception as e:
                error = e
                response = self.make_response(self.handle_exception(e))
            return response(environ, start_response)
        finally:
            if self.should_ignore_error(error):
                error = None
            ctx.auto_pop(error)
def full_dispatch_request(self):
        """Dispatches the request and on top of that performs request
        pre and postprocessing as well as HTTP exception catching and
        error handling.

        .. versionadded:: 0.7
        """
        self.try_trigger_before_first_request_functions()
        try:
            request_started.send(self)
            # 执行视图函数,处理业务请求
            rv = self.preprocess_request()
            if rv is None:
                rv = self.dispatch_request()
        except Exception as e:
            rv = self.handle_user_exception(e)
        response = self.make_response(rv)
        # 处理响应内容
        response = self.process_response(response)
        request_finished.send(self, response=response)
        return response
def process_response(self, response):
        """Can be overridden in order to modify the response object
        before it's sent to the WSGI server.  By default this will
        call all the :meth:`after_request` decorated functions.

        .. versionchanged:: 0.5
           As of Flask 0.5 the functions registered for after request
           execution are called in reverse order of registration.

        :param response: a :attr:`response_class` object.
        :return: a new response object or the same, has to be an
                 instance of :attr:`response_class`.
        """
        ctx = _request_ctx_stack.top
        bp = ctx.request.blueprint
        funcs = ctx._after_request_functions
        if bp is not None and bp in self.after_request_funcs:
            funcs = chain(funcs, reversed(self.after_request_funcs[bp]))
        if None in self.after_request_funcs:
            funcs = chain(funcs, reversed(self.after_request_funcs[None]))
        for handler in funcs:
            response = handler(response)
        if not self.session_interface.is_null_session(ctx.session):
            # 执行flask对象的save_session方法
            self.save_session(ctx.session, response)
        return response

    def save_session(self, session, response):
        """Saves the session if it needs updates.  For the default
        implementation, check :meth:`open_session`.  Instead of overriding this
        method we recommend replacing the :class:`session_interface`.

        :param session: the session to be saved (a
                        :class:`~werkzeug.contrib.securecookie.SecureCookie`
                        object)
        :param response: an instance of :attr:`response_class`
        """
        # 执行session_interface的save_session方法,将内存中的session保存。
        return self.session_interface.save_session(self, session, response)

执行xxx的save_session方法,将内存中的数据保存。

class SecureCookieSessionInterface(SessionInterface):
    """The default session interface that stores sessions in signed cookies
    through the :mod:`itsdangerous` module.
    """
    #: the salt that should be applied on top of the secret key for the
    #: signing of cookie based sessions.
    salt = 'cookie-session'
    #: the hash function to use for the signature.  The default is sha1
    digest_method = staticmethod(hashlib.sha1)
    #: the name of the itsdangerous supported key derivation.  The default
    #: is hmac.
    key_derivation = 'hmac'
    #: A python serializer for the payload.  The default is a compact
    #: JSON derived serializer with support for some extra Python types
    #: such as datetime objects or tuples.
    serializer = session_json_serializer
    session_class = SecureCookieSession

    def get_signing_serializer(self, app):
        if not app.secret_key:
            return None
        signer_kwargs = dict(
            key_derivation=self.key_derivation,
            digest_method=self.digest_method
        )
        return URLSafeTimedSerializer(app.secret_key, salt=self.salt,
                                      serializer=self.serializer,
                                      signer_kwargs=signer_kwargs)

    def open_session(self, app, request):
        s = self.get_signing_serializer(app)
        if s is None:
            return None
        val = request.cookies.get(app.session_cookie_name)

        if not val:
            return self.session_class()
        max_age = total_seconds(app.permanent_session_lifetime)
        try:
            data = s.loads(val, max_age=max_age)
            return self.session_class(data)
        except BadSignature:
            return self.session_class()

    def save_session(self, app, session, response):
        domain = self.get_cookie_domain(app)
        path = self.get_cookie_path(app)

        # Delete case.  If there is no session we bail early.
        # If the session was modified to be empty we remove the
        # whole cookie.
        if not session:
            if session.modified:
                response.delete_cookie(app.session_cookie_name,
                                       domain=domain, path=path)
            return

        # Modification case.  There are upsides and downsides to
        # emitting a set-cookie header each request.  The behavior
        # is controlled by the :meth:`should_set_cookie` method
        # which performs a quick check to figure out if the cookie
        # should be set or not.  This is controlled by the
        # SESSION_REFRESH_EACH_REQUEST config flag as well as
        # the permanent flag on the session itself.
        if not self.should_set_cookie(app, session):
            return

        httponly = self.get_cookie_httponly(app)
        secure = self.get_cookie_secure(app)
        expires = self.get_expiration_time(app, session)
        val = self.get_signing_serializer(app).dumps(dict(session))
        response.set_cookie(app.session_cookie_name, val,
                            expires=expires, httponly=httponly,
                            domain=domain, path=path, secure=secure)

待续:

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