2018/07/18 12:03
阅读数 106

bin = BINaries

/dev = DEVices

/etc = ETCetera

/lib = LIBrary

/proc = PROCesses

/sbin = Superuser BINaries

/tmp = TeMPorary

/usr = Unix Shared Resources

/var = VARiable ?

FIFO = First In, First Out

GRUB = GRand Unified Bootloader

IFS = Internal Field Seperators

LILO = LInux LOader

MySQL = My是最初作者女儿的名字,SQL = Structured Query Language

PHP = Personal Home Page Tools = PHP Hypertext Preprocessor

PS = Prompt String

Perl = “Pratical Extraction and Report Language” = “Pathologically Eclectic Rubbish Lister”

Python 得名于电视剧Monty Python’s Flying Circus

Tcl = Tool Command Language

Tk = ToolKit

VT = Video Terminal

YaST = Yet Another Setup Tool

apache = “a patchy” server

apt = Advanced Packaging Tool

ar = archiver

as = assembler

awk = “Aho Weiberger and Kernighan” 三个作者的姓的第一个字母

bash = Bourne Again SHell

bc = Basic (Better) Calculator

bg = BackGround

biff = 作者Heidi Stettner在U.C.Berkely养的一条狗,喜欢对邮递员汪汪叫。

cal = CALendar

cat = CATenate

cd = Change Directory

chgrp = CHange GRouP

chmod = CHange MODe

chown = CHange OWNer

chsh = CHange SHell

cmp = compare

cobra = Common Object Request Broker Architecture

comm = common

cp = CoPy

cpio = CoPy In and Out

cpp = C Pre Processor

cron = Chronos 希腊文时间

cups = Common Unix Printing System

cvs = Current Version System

daemon = Disk And Execution MONitor

dc = Desk Calculator

dd = Disk Dump

df = Disk Free

diff = DIFFerence

dmesg = diagnostic message

du = Disk Usage

ed = editor

egrep = Extended GREP

elf = Extensible Linking Format

elm = ELectronic Mail

emacs = Editor MACroS

eval = EVALuate

ex = EXtended

exec = EXECute

fd = file descriptors

fg = ForeGround

fgrep = Fixed GREP

fmt = format

fsck = File System ChecK

fstab = FileSystem TABle

fvwm = F*** Virtual Window Manager

gawk = GNU AWK

gpg = GNU Privacy Guard

groff = GNU troff

hal = Hardware Abstraction Layer

joe = Joe’s Own Editor

ksh = Korn SHell

lame = Lame Ain’t an MP3 Encoder

lex = LEXical analyser

lisp = LISt Processing = Lots of Irritating Superfluous Parentheses

ln = LiNk

lpr = Line PRint

ls = list

lsof = LiSt Open Files

m4 = Macro processor Version 4

man = MANual pages

mawk = Mike Brennan’s AWK

mc = Midnight Commander

mkfs = MaKe FileSystem

mknod = MaKe NODe

motd = Message of The Day

mozilla = MOsaic GodZILLa

mtab = Mount TABle

mv = MoVe

nano = Nano’s ANOther editor

nawk = New AWK

nl = Number of Lines

nm = names

nohup = No HangUP

nroff = New ROFF

od = Octal Dump

passwd = PASSWorD

pg = pager

pico = PIne’s message COmposition editor

pine = “Program for Internet News & Email” = “Pine is not Elm”

ping = 拟声 又 = Packet InterNet Grouper

pirntcap = PRINTer CAPability

popd = POP Directory

pr = pre

printf = PRINT Formatted

ps = Processes Status

pty = pseudo tty

pushd = PUSH Directory

pwd = Print Working Directory

rc = runcom = run command, rc还是plan9的shell

rev = REVerse

rm = ReMove

rn = Read News

roff = RunOFF

rpm = RPM Package Manager = RedHat Package Manager

rsh, rlogin, rvim中的r = Remote

rxvt = ouR XVT

seamoneky = 我

sed = Stream EDitor

seq = SEQuence

shar = SHell ARchive

slrn = S-Lang rn

ssh = Secure SHell

ssl = Secure Sockets Layer

stty = Set TTY

su = Substitute User

svn = SubVersioN

tar = Tape ARchive

tcsh = TENEX C shell

tee = T (T形水管接口)

telnet = TEminaL over Network

termcap = terminal capability

terminfo = terminal information

tex = τ?χνη的缩写,希腊文art

tr = traslate

troff = Typesetter new ROFF

tsort = Topological SORT

tty = TeleTypewriter

twm = Tom’s Window Manager

tz = TimeZone

udev = Userspace DEV

ulimit = User’s LIMIT

umask = User’s MASK

uniq = UNIQue

vi = VIsual = Very Inconvenient

vim = Vi IMproved

wall = write all

wc = Word Count

wine = WINE Is Not an Emulator

xargs = eXtended ARGuments

xdm = X Display Manager

xlfd = X Logical Font Description

xmms = X Multimedia System

xrdb = X Resources DataBase

xwd = X Window Dump

yacc = yet another compiler compiler



Fish = the Friendly Interactive SHell

su = Switch User

MIME = Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions

ECMA = European Computer Manufacturers Association



– Eric S. Raymond

构建于图形界面之上的操作系统,使用鼠标作为主输入设备,是否使用缩写并不重要。比如 Windows 系统中的目录,几乎都是全称…… 点击

两次鼠标进入文件夹 pf,并不意味着点击13次才能进入文件夹 Program Files

而构建于命令行之上的操作系统,如 Linux,只要3个字母以上的单词,几乎都要缩写。例如: cd 命令是 Change Directory 的缩写。作为常

用命令,如果使用它的全称 Change Directory,绝对是无聊和乏味的工作。


cd Change Directory

dd Disk Dump

df Disk Free

du Disk Usage

pwd Print Working Directory

ps Processes Status

PS Prompt Stringps

su Substitute User

rc Run Command

Tcl Tool Command Language

cups Common Unix Printing System

apt Advanced Packaging Tool

bg BackGround

ping Packet InterNet Grouper


chsh CHange SHell

chmod CHange MODe

chown CHange OWNer

chgrp CHange GRouP

bash Bourne Again SHell

zsh Z SHell

ksh Korn SHell

ssh Secure SHell


GNU GNU’s Not Unix

PHP PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor

RPM RPM Package Manager

WINE WINE Is Not an Emulator


nano Nano’s ANOther editor



RPM Package Manager

RedHat Package Manager


Basic Calculator

Better Calculator

这方面 Emacs 可谓独领风骚:


Editor MACroS

Emacs Makes A Computer Slow

Escape Meta Alt Control Shift

Emacs Makers Are Crazy Sickos

Emacs Makes All Computing Simple

Emacs Makefiles Annihilate C-Shells

Emacs Manuals Always Cause Senility

Emacs May Allow Customized Screwups

Emacs Manuals Are Cryptic and Surreal

Eventually Munches All Computer Storage

Eight Megabytes And Constantly Swapping

Elsewhere Maybe All Commands are Simple

Excellent Manuals Are Clearly Suppressed

Emacs May Alienate Clients and Supporters

Except by Middle Aged Computer Scientists

Extended Macros Are Considered Superfluous

Every Mode Accelerates Creation of Software

Each Manual’s Audience is Completely Stupefied

Exceptionally Mediocre Algorithm for Computer Scientists

Easily Maintained with the Assistance of Chemical Solutions

Eradication of Memory Accomplished with Complete Simplicity


cp CoPy

ln LiNk

ls LiSt

mv MoVe

rm ReMove


bin BINaries

dev DEVices

etc ETCetera

lib LIBrary

var VARiable

proc PROCesses

sbin Superuser BINaries

tmp TeMPorary

usr Unix Shared Resources


diff DIFFerences

cal CALendar

cat CATenate

ed EDitor

exec EXECute

tab TABle

regexp REGular EXPression


dmesg Diagnostic MESsaGe

sed Stream EDitor

stty Set TTY

fstab FileSystem TABle

passwd PASSWorD


awk Aho Weiberger and Kernighan

gawk GNU AWK

gpg GNU Privacy Guard

grep GNU Regular Expression Print

egrep Extended GREP

[3] 定义中包含自身缩写,如 GNU:

GNU’s Not Unix


(GNU’s Not Unix)’s Not Unix


(((((GNU’s Not Unix)’s Not Unix)’s Not Unix)’s Not Unix)’s Not Unix)’s Not Unix ……


Linux 命令的选项繁复庞杂,让人眼花缭乱。不过这些选项往往具有相对固定的涵义,熟悉了它们,记忆便不再困难


all : 全部,所有 (ls , lsattr , uname)

archive : 存档 (cp , rsync)

append : 附加 (tar -A , 7z)


blocksize : 块大小,带参数 (du , df)

batch : 批处理模式 (交互模式的程序通常拥有此选项,如 top -b)


commands : 执行命令,带参数 (bash , ksh , python)

create : 创建 (tar)


debug : 调试

delete : 删除

directory : 目录 (ls)


execute : 执行,带参数 (xterm , perl)

edit : 编辑

exclude : 排除


force : 强制,不经确认(cp , rm ,mv)

file : 文件,带参数 (tar)

configuration file : 指定配置文件(有些守护进程拥有此选项,如 ssh , lighttpd)



–help : 帮助

human readable : 人性化显示(ls , du , df)

headers : 头部


interactive : 交互模式,提示(rm , mv)

include : 包含


keep : 保留



long listing format : 长格式(ls)

list : 列表

load : 读取 (gcc , emacs)


message : 消息 (cvs)

manual : 手册 (whereis)

create home : 创建 home 目录 (usermod , useradd)


number : 行号、编号 (cat , head , tail , pstree , lspci)

no : (useradd , make)


output : 输出 (cc , sort)

options : 选项 (mount)


port : 端口,带参数 (很多网络工具拥有此选项,如 ssh , lftp )

protocol : 协议,带参数

passwd : 密码,带参数


quiet : 静默


reverse : 反转

recursive : 递归 (cp , rm , chmod -R)


silent : 安静

size : 大小,带参数




type : 类型 (mount)


user : 用户名、UID,带参数


verbose : 冗长

version : 版本


width : 宽度

warning : 警告


exclude : 排除 (tar , zip)




zip : 启用压缩 (bzip , tar , zcat , zip , cvs)

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