jdbc连接oracle12c的pdb和cdb

2017/11/27 16:35
阅读数 5K

1       本文简介:

通过特意引发问题,聚焦问题,解决问题,并循序渐进

最后总结jdbc连接oracle12c中cdb和pdb的条件.

软件环境:Redhat7.1+orcacle12c

 

 

2       准备阶段:

2.1  listener.ora和tnsnames.ora配置:

 

所有动作前,先贴出listener.ora和tnsnames.ora配置:

2.1.1  listener.ora>>

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# listener.ora Network Configuration File: /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1/network/admin/listener.ora
# Generated by Oracle configuration tools.

LISTENER =
  (DESCRIPTION_LIST =
    (DESCRIPTION =
      (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = localhost)(PORT = 1521))
    )
  )

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2.1.2  tnsnames.ora>>

 

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# tnsnames.ora Network Configuration File: /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1/network/admin/tnsnames.ora
# Generated by Oracle configuration tools.

PDBORCL =
  (DESCRIPTION =
    (ADDRESS_LIST =
      (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 127.0.0.1)(PORT = 1521))
    )
    (CONNECT_DATA =
      (SERVICE_NAME = pdborcl)
    )
  )

LISTENER_ORACLE12C =
  (DESCRIPTION =
    (ADDRESS_LIST =
      (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 127.0.0.1)(PORT = 1521))
    )
    (CONNECT_DATA =
      (SERVICE_NAME = oracle12c)
    )
  )

ORACLE12C =
  (DESCRIPTION =
    (ADDRESS_LIST =
      (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 127.0.0.1)(PORT = 1521))
    )
    (CONNECT_DATA =
      (SERVICE_NAME = oracle12c)
    )
  )

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(注意添加PDBORCL)

2.1  用户创建

2.1.1  用户创建:

 

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SQL> create user scott identified by scott;
create user scott identified by scott
            *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-65096: invalid common user or role name
 
 
SQL> !oerr ora 65096
65096, 00000, "invalid common user or role name"
// *Cause:  An attempt was made to create a common user or role with a name
//          that wass not valid for common users or roles.  In addition to
//          the usual rules for user and role names, common user and role 
//          names must start with C## or c## and consist only of ASCII 
//          characters.
// *Action: Specify a valid common user or role name.
//
 
SQL> create user c##scott identified by scott;
 
User created.

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(公共用户名注意以c##开头)

2.1.2  用户授权:

SQL> grant dba to c##scott; 
 
Grant succeeded.

 

3       开始阶段:

3.1  启动监听:

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LSNRCTL> start
Starting /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1/bin/tnslsnr: please wait...

TNSLSNR for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production
System parameter file is /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1/network/admin/listener.ora
Log messages written to /u01/app/oracle/diag/tnslsnr/localhost/listener/alert/log.xml
Listening on: (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=localhost)(PORT=1521)))

Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=localhost)(PORT=1521)))
STATUS of the LISTENER
------------------------
Alias                     LISTENER
Version                   TNSLSNR for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production
Start Date                04-JUN-2015 09:17:52
Uptime                    0 days 0 hr. 0 min. 0 sec
Trace Level               off
Security                  ON: Local OS Authentication
SNMP                      OFF
Listener Parameter File   /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1/network/admin/listener.ora
Listener Log File         /u01/app/oracle/diag/tnslsnr/localhost/listener/alert/log.xml
Listening Endpoints Summary...
  (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=localhost)(PORT=1521)))
The listener supports no services
The command completed successfully

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远程机子ping服务机

C:\Users\baby>tnsping 192.168.75.131:1521

TNS Ping Utility for 32-bit Windows: Version 11.2.0.1.0 - Production on 04-6月 -
2015 12:30:50

Copyright (c) 1997, 2010, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

 

已使用的参数文件:

已使用 HOSTNAME 适配器来解析别名
尝试连接 (DESCRIPTION=(CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=))(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST
=192.168.75.131)(PORT=1521)))
OK (30 毫秒)
成功启动监听,并如上远程tnsping通监听,但未启动数据库服务时,
Jdbc连接时就会报如下错误

java.sql.SQLRecoverableException: Listener refused the connection with the following error:
ORA-12514, TNS:listener does not currently know of service requested in connect descriptor

 

3.2  启动数据库服务:

 

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LSNRCTL> exit
[oracle@localhost Desktop]$ sqlplussys/sys_oracle as sysdba
 
SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.2.0 Production onThu Jun 4 09:51:07 2015
 
Copyright (c) 1982, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.
 
Connected to an idle instance.
 
SQL> starttup
SP2-0042: unknown command"starttup" - rest of line ignored.
SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.
 
Total System Global Area  411041792 bytes
Fixed Size              2925024 bytes
Variable Size                276827680 bytes
Database Buffers      125829120 bytes
Redo Buffers                 5459968 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.

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3.3 查看监听状态

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SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Advanced Analytics and Real Application Testing options
[oracle@localhost Desktop]$ lsnrctl status

LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production on 04-JUN-2015 10:06:15

Copyright (c) 1991, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=localhost)(PORT=1521)))
STATUS of the LISTENER
------------------------
Alias                     LISTENER
Version                   TNSLSNR for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production
Start Date                04-JUN-2015 09:17:52
Uptime                    0 days 0 hr. 48 min. 22 sec
Trace Level               off
Security                  ON: Local OS Authentication
SNMP                      OFF
Listener Parameter File   /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1/network/admin/listener.ora
Listener Log File         /u01/app/oracle/diag/tnslsnr/localhost/listener/alert/log.xml
Listening Endpoints Summary...
  (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=localhost)(PORT=1521)))
  (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcps)(HOST=localhost)(PORT=5500))(Security=(my_wallet_directory=/u01/app/oracle/admin/oracle12c/xdb_wallet))(Presentation=HTTP)(Session=RAW))
Services Summary...
Service "oracle12c" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "oracle12c", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Service "oracle12cXDB" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "oracle12c", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Service "pdborcl" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "oracle12c", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
The command completed successfully

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3.4  Jdbc连接cdb数据库实例oracle12c过程:

Connection conn = null;  
Statement stmt = null;  
Class.forName("oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver");  
conn = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:oracle:thin:@192.168.75.131:1521/oracle12c", "c##scott", "scott");  
stmt = conn.createStatement();  
System.out.println("连接对象:"+conn);

 

 

3.5  Jdbc连接cdb数据库实例oracle12c结果:

连接对象:oracle.jdbc.driver.T4CConnection@3d3ee5c4

 

3.6  Jdbc连接pdb数据库实例oracle12c过程:

Connection conn = null;  
Statement stmt = null;  
Class.forName("oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver");  
conn = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:oracle:thin:@192.168.75.131:1521/pdborcl", " c##scott ", "scott");  
stmt = conn.createStatement();             
System.out.println("连接对象:"+conn);

 

3.7  Jdbc连接pdb数据库实例oracle12c结果:

(失败,原因:未启动名为pdborcl的pdb数据库)

 

java.sql.SQLRecoverableException:ORA-01033: ORACLE initialization or shutdown in progress

 

 

3.8  启动名为pdborcl的pdb数据库:

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[oracle@localhost Desktop]$ sqlplus sys/sys_oracle@pdborcl as sysdba;

SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.2.0 Production on Thu Jun 4 10:09:18 2015

Copyright (c) 1982, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Advanced Analytics and Real Application Testing options

SQL> show con_name;

CON_NAME
------------------------------
PDBORCL
SQL> startup
Pluggable Database opened.

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3.9  再次尝试jdbc连接pdb数据库

Connection conn = null;  
Statement stmt = null;  
Class.forName("oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver");  
conn = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:oracle:thin:@192.168.75.131:1521/pdborcl", "c##scott", "scott");  
stmt = conn.createStatement();             
System.out.println("连接对象:"+conn);

 

 

3.10  再次尝试jdbc连接pdb数据库结果:

 

连接对象:oracle.jdbc.driver.T4CConnection@76c20307

 

 

4       引发问题集中营:

4.1  pdb数据库未开启引发问题:

 

java.sql.SQLRecoverableException:ORA-01033: ORACLE initialization or shutdown in progress

 

4.2  防火墙阻挡引发问题:

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[root@localhost ~]# systemctl status firewalld
firewalld.service - firewalld - dynamic firewall daemon
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/firewalld.service; disabled)
   Active: active (running) since Thu 2015-06-04 12:32:06 CST; 8s ago
 Main PID: 6060 (firewalld)
   CGroup: /system.slice/firewalld.service
           └─6060 /usr/bin/python -Es /usr/sbin/firewalld --nofork --nopid

Jun 04 12:32:06 localhost.localdomain systemd[1]: Started firewalld - dynamic...

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导致结果:

C:\Users\baby>tnsping 192.168.75.131:1521

TNS Ping Utility for 32-bit Windows: Version 11.2.0.1.0 - Production on 04-6月 -
2015 12:33:13

Copyright (c) 1997, 2010, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

 

已使用的参数文件:

已使用 HOSTNAME 适配器来解析别名
尝试连接 (DESCRIPTION=(CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=))(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST
=192.168.75.131)(PORT=1521)))
TNS-12535: TNS: 操作超时

 

(ps:防火墙命令由iptables迭代为firewalld;防火墙开启,且没取消阻挡端口,此时tnsping会等待很久,最后提示" TNS-12535:TNS: 操作超时")

 

至此,已经完成jdbc连接oracle12c的cdb和pdb数据库!

 

4.3  jdbc连接字符串引发问题:

l  jdbc连接cdb数据库时,url兼容2种模式:

ü  "jdbc:oracle:thin:@192.168.75.131:1521:oracle12c"

ü  "jdbc:oracle:thin:@192.168.75.131:1521/oracle12c"

l  jdbc连接pdb数据库时url必须使用:" jdbc:oracle:thin:@192.168.75.131:1521/oracle12c"格式,若使用传统格式" jdbc:oracle:thin:@192.168.75.131:1521:oracle12c"则会报一下错误:

 

java.sql.SQLException: Listenerrefused the connection with the following error:

ORA-12505, TNS:listener does notcurrently know of SID given in connect descriptor

 

5       总结概要:

5.1  tnsping能ping通的条件:

l  监听配置正确;

l  ping [ip] 能ping通,客户端与服务端网络互通;

l  关闭防火墙(systemctlstop firewalld);

5.2  jdbc连接oracle12的数据库需要具备的条件:

l  监听成功启用,且tnsping通过(OK (30 毫秒);

l  tnsnames.ora配置正确(连接pdb数据库,注意添加pdb服务项,具体如何配置查看[准备阶段]);

l  监听连带的相应数据库成功开启;

l  Jdbc连接字符串迭代更新为”jdbc:oracle:thin:@192.168.75.131:1521/pdborcl”而非" jdbc:oracle:thin:@192.168.75.131:1521:pdborcl"

 

 

6       知识补充:

6.1  Oracle12c新特性之cdb&pdb:

Oracle 12C引入了CDB与PDB的新特性,在ORACLE12C数据库引入的多租用户环境(Multitenant Environment)中,允许一个数据库容器(CDB)承载多个可插拔数据库(PDB)。CDB全称为ContainerDatabase,中文翻译为数据库容器,PDB全称为Pluggable Database,即可插拔数据库。在ORACLE 12C之前,实例与数据库是一对一或多对一关系(RAC):即一个实例只能与一个数据库相关联,数据库可以被多个实例所加载。而实例与数据库不可能是一对多的关系。当进入ORACLE 12C后,实例与数据库可以是一对多的关系。下面是官方文档关于CDB与PDB的关系图。

 

 

6.2  dba更多支持:

http://www.cnblogs.com/dingyingsi/p/3604789.html

http://www.cnblogs.com/kerrycode/p/3386917.html

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