《GNU通用公共许可证》第3版 中英对照翻译版 By: 冰枫火灵X

2018/04/14 11:58
阅读数 911

GNU 通用公共许可证

GNU 通用公共许可证 第3版 翻译。
翻译者:冰焰火灵X 1079092922@qq.com
本翻译文本采用 知识共享 - 署名 4.0 国际版许可证 进行许可。


This is an unofficial translation of the GNU General Public License into Chinese. It was not published by the Free Software Foundation, and does not legally state the distribution terms for software that uses the GNU GPL--only the original English text of the GNU GPL http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-3.0.html does that. However, we hope that this translation will help Chinese speakers understand the GNU GPL better.

这是一份 GNU 通用公共许可证 的非官方中文简体翻译。它并非由自由软件基金会发布,也不是使用 GNU 通用公共许可证 的软件的法定发布条款——只有 GNU 通用公共许可证的英文原版 http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-3.0.html 具有这样的效力。然而,我们希望这份翻译能够帮助中文读者更好的理解 GNU 通用公共许可证

GNU 通用公共许可证

版本 3, 2007年 6月 29日

版权所有(C) 2007 自由软件基金会 https://fsf.org/


GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 3, 29 June 2007

Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. https://fsf.org/ Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.



The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license for software and other kinds of works.

大多数用于软件和其他实用的作品的许可证被设计为剥夺你分享和更改软件的自由。相反地, GNU 通用公共许可证 旨在 保证你自由地共享和更改一个程序的所有的版本——以确保它对所有用户都是自由软件。我们,自由软件基金会,使用 GNU 通用公共许可证 ,对于我们的大多数软件。它也适用于作者以这种方法发布的任何作品(work)。你也可以把它应用到你的程序里面。

The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed to take away your freedom to share and change the works. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change all versions of a program--to make sure it remains free software for all its users. We, the Free Software Foundation, use the GNU General Public License for most of our software; it applies also to any other work released this way by its authors. You can apply it to your programs, too.

当我们讲到自由软件(Free Software)的时候,我们指的是自由,而不是价格。我们的公共许可证被设计为确保你拥有复制和再分发自由软件副本的自由(你也可以从中收费),你能够收到,或者可以获得源代码,你可以在新的自由程序中更改软件或者使用它,而且使你知道你可以做这些事情。

When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for them if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs, and that you know you can do these things.


To protect your rights, we need to prevent others from denying you these rights or asking you to surrender the rights. Therefore, you have certain responsibilities if you distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it: responsibilities to respect the freedom of others.


For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or for a fee, you must pass on to the recipients the same freedoms that you received. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights.

使用GNU GPL的开发人员用两个步骤来保护你的权利:

  • (1) 声明软件的版权

  • (2)向您提供本许可证,给你复制,分发,和/或者 修改 的法律许可。

Developers that use the GNU GPL protect your rights with two steps: (1) assert copyright on the software, and (2) offer you this License giving you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify it.


For the developers' and authors' protection, the GPL clearly explains that there is no warranty for this free software. For both users' and authors' sake, the GPL requires that modified versions be marked as changed, so that their problems will not be attributed erroneously to authors of previous versions.


Some devices are designed to deny users access to install or run modified versions of the software inside them, although the manufacturer can do so. This is fundamentally incompatible with the aim of protecting users' freedom to change the software. The systematic pattern of such abuse occurs in the area of products for individuals to use, which is precisely where it is most unacceptable. Therefore, we have designed this version of the GPL to prohibit the practice for those products. If such problems arise substantially in other domains, we stand ready to extend this provision to those domains in future versions of the GPL, as needed to protect the freedom of users.



Finally, every program is threatened constantly by software patents. States should not allow patents to restrict development and use of software on general-purpose computers, but in those that do, we wish to avoid the special danger that patents applied to a free program could make it effectively proprietary. To prevent this, the GPL assures that patents cannot be used to render the program non-free.


The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow.


0. 定义

  1. Definitions.

“本许可证”指的是 GNU 通用公共许可证 的第3版。

"This License" refers to version 3 of the GNU General Public License.


"Copyright" also means copyright-like laws that apply to other kinds of works, such as semiconductor masks.


"The Program" refers to any copyrightable work licensed under this License. Each licensee is addressed as "you". "Licensees" and "recipients" may be individuals or organizations.


To "modify" a work means to copy from or adapt all or part of the work in a fashion requiring copyright permission, other than the making of an exact copy. The resulting work is called a "modified version" of the earlier work or a work "based on" the earlier work.

一个 “涉及的作品” 指的是未经修改的程序,或一项基于(已有的)程序的作品。

A "covered work" means either the unmodified Program or a work based on the Program.

"传播"一份作品的意思是,做任何未经允许的事都会让你直接或间接地在适用的著作权法中对侵权行为负责,除非是在计算机上或修改私人副本。传播包括复制、分发(有或没有进行修改)、 向公众开放,以及在一些国家的其他活动。

To "propagate" a work means to do anything with it that, without permission, would make you directly or secondarily liable for infringement under applicable copyright law, except executing it on a computer or modifying a private copy. Propagation includes copying, distribution (with or without modification), making available to the public, and in some countries other activities as well.


To "convey" a work means any kind of propagation that enables other parties to make or receive copies. Mere interaction with a user through a computer network, with no transfer of a copy, is not conveying.


  • (1) 显示适当的版权公告,

  • (2) 告诉用户,作品没有保修(除非提供保修的程度),被许可方可以在本许可证下传送作品,以及如何查看该许可的副本。如果界面显示了用户命令或选项的列表,比如菜单,列表中的一个突出条目将满足这个标准。

An interactive user interface displays "Appropriate Legal Notices" to the extent that it includes a convenient and prominently visible feature that (1) displays an appropriate copyright notice, and (2) tells the user that there is no warranty for the work (except to the extent that warranties are provided), that licensees may convey the work under this License, and how to view a copy of this License. If the interface presents a list of user commands or options, such as a menu, a prominent item in the list meets this criterion.

1. 源代码


  1. Source Code

The "source code" for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. "Object code" means any non-source form of a work.

“标准接口”指的是一个接口,这个接口,是由公认的标准机构定义的官方标准,或者是针对特定编程语言指定的接口 —— 在使用这个语言的开发人员中被广泛使用的接口。

A "Standard Interface" means an interface that either is an official standard defined by a recognized standards body, or, in the case of interfaces specified for a particular programming language, one that is widely used among developers working in that language.


  • (a) 以一般形式打包的一个主要的部件,但它不是这个主要部件的一部分,

  • (b) 只适用于使用这个主要部分的作品,

  • 实现一个标准接口,该接口的实现可以用源代码形式对外公布。

“主要部件” 在这种背景下,

  • 表示可执行作品运行的特定操作系统(如果有的话)的主要基本组件(内核、窗口系统等等),


  • 用于生成作品的编译器,或者是用于运行它的 对象代码解释器。

The "System Libraries" of an executable work include anything, other than the work as a whole, that

(a) is included in the normal form of packaging a Major Component, but which is not part of that Major Component,


(b) serves only to enable use of the work with that Major Component,


to implement a Standard Interface for which an implementation is available to the public in source code form.

A "Major Component", in this context, means a major essential component (kernel, window system, and so on) of the specific >>operating system (if any) on which the executable work runs,


a compiler used to produce the work, or an object code interpreter used to run it.




The "Corresponding Source" for a work in object code form means all the source code needed to generate, install, and (for an >executable work) run the object code and to modify the work, including scripts to control those activities.

However, it does not include the work's System Libraries, or general-purpose tools or generally available free programs which >are used unmodified in performing those activities but which are not part of the work.

For example, Corresponding Source includes interface definition files associated with source files for the work, and the source code for shared libraries and dynamically linked subprograms that the work is specifically designed to require, such as by intimate data communication or control flow between those subprograms and other parts of the work.



The Corresponding Source need not include anything that users can regenerate automatically from other parts of the Corresponding Source.

The Corresponding Source for a work in source code form is that same work.

2. 基本的许可





  1. Basic Permissions.

All rights granted under this License are granted for the term of copyright on the Program, and are irrevocable provided the stated conditions are met. This License explicitly affirms your unlimited permission to run the unmodified Program. The output from running a covered work is covered by this License only if the output, given its content, constitutes a covered work. This License acknowledges your rights of fair use or other equivalent, as provided by copyright law.




You may make, run and propagate covered works that you do not convey, without conditions so long as your license otherwise remains in force. You may convey covered works to others for the sole purpose of having them make modifications exclusively for you, or provide you with facilities for running those works, provided that you comply with the terms of this License in conveying all material for which you do not control copyright. Those thus making or running the covered works for you must do so exclusively on your behalf, under your direction and control, on terms that prohibit them from making any copies of your copyrighted material outside their relationship with you.


Conveying under any other circumstances is permitted solely under the conditions stated below. Sublicensing is not allowed; section 10 makes it unnecessary.

3. 保护用户的合法权利不受反规避(反破解)法律的影响


  1. Protecting Users' Legal Rights From Anti-Circumvention Law.

No covered work shall be deemed part of an effective technological measure under any applicable law fulfilling obligations under article 11 of the WIPO copyright treaty adopted on 20 December 1996, or similar laws prohibiting or restricting circumvention of such measures.

当你传送一种被涉及的作品,放弃任何禁止规避技术的法定权利措施在一定程度上规避影响本许可证下行使权利的涉及的作品,你否认任何 企图限制操作或修改作品的实施,—— 针对作品(work)的用户,(放弃)你或第三方禁止规避技术措施的法律权利。

When you convey a covered work, you waive any legal power to forbid circumvention of technological measures to the extent such circumvention is effected by exercising rights under this License with respect to the covered work, and you disclaim any intention to limit operation or modification of the work as a means of enforcing, against the work's users, your or third parties' legal rights to forbid circumvention of technological measures.

4. 传送逐字复制



  1. Conveying Verbatim Copies.

You may convey verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice; keep intact all notices stating that this License and any non-permissive terms added in accord with section 7 apply to the code; keep intact all notices of the absence of any warranty; and give all recipients a copy of this License along with the Program.

You may charge any price or no price for each copy that you convey, and you may offer support or warranty protection for a fee.

5. 传送修改过的源代码版本


  • a)这项作品必须带有明显的通知,说明你修改了它,并给出了相关日期。

  • b)这项作品必须带有明显的通知,说明它是根据本许可证发布的,以及在第7节中添加的任何条件。这一需求修改了第4部分中的需求,以“保持完整的所有通知”。

  • c)你必须将整个作品,作为一个整体,授权给任何拥有副本的人。因此,该许可将与所有适用的第7条附加条款,适用于整个作品及其所有部分,无论它们是如何打包的。本许可证不允许以任何其他方式授权此项作品,但它不会使这种许可无效,如果你单独收到。

  • d)如果作品有交互的用户界面,每一个都必须显示适当的法律声明;但是,如果程序具有不显示适当的法律声明的交互界面,您的作品也不需要执行此操作。

  1. Conveying Modified Source Versions.

You may convey a work based on the Program, or the modifications to produce it from the Program, in the form of source code under the terms of section 4, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:

a) The work must carry prominent notices stating that you modified it, and giving a relevant date. b) The work must carry prominent notices stating that it is released under this License and any conditions added under section 7. This requirement modifies the requirement in section 4 to “keep intact all notices”. c) You must license the entire work, as a whole, under this License to anyone who comes into possession of a copy. This License will therefore apply, along with any applicable section 7 additional terms, to the whole of the work, and all its parts, regardless of how they are packaged. This License gives no permission to license the work in any other way, but it does not invalidate such permission if you have separately received it. d) If the work has interactive user interfaces, each must display Appropriate Legal Notices; however, if the Program has interactive interfaces that do not display Appropriate Legal Notices, your work need not make them do so.


A compilation of a covered work with other separate and independent works, which are not by their nature extensions of the covered work, and which are not combined with it such as to form a larger program, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the compilation and its resulting copyright are not used to limit the access or legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. Inclusion of a covered work in an aggregate does not cause this License to apply to the other parts of the aggregate.

6. 传送非源代码形式


  • a)在物理产品(包括物理分布介质)中传递对象代码(包括物理分发介质),并将相应的源代码固定在通常用于软件交换的耐久的物理介质上。

  • b)在物理产品(包括物理分发介质)中传送目标代码(包括物理分发介质),并伴随有书面要约(Written offer),有效期至少三年,有效期只要你为产品模型提供备件或客户支持,为拥有目标代码的任何人提供,要么

    • (1)本许可所涵盖的产品中所有软件的相应来源的副本,该许可涵盖的产品的所有软件的相应来源的副本,在通常用于软件交换的持久物理介质上,不超过您物理地执行该源传输的合理费用, 或
    • (2)免费从网络服务器复制相应源的价格。
  • c)用一份书面要约(Written offer)的副本,将目标代码的个别副本传递给相应的来源。这种方法只允许偶尔并且非商业性质的,并且只有当您收到这样一个提到的对象代码时,才符合第6b部分。

  • d)通过提供从指定地点(免费提供或收取费用)的访问来传送目标代码,并以相同方式通过相同的地点不需再收费的方式提供对相应源的同等访问。您无需要求接收者与目标代码一起复制相应的源(代码)文件。如果复制目标代码的位置是一个网络服务器,那么对应的源可能在一个不同的服务器上(由您或目标代码旁边保持清晰的指示,说明在哪里找到相应的源代码。无论什么服务器主机拥有相应的来源,您仍有义务确保其可用,只要满足这些要求即可。)

  • e)使用点对点传输来传递目标代码,只要你通知其他的对等点,在第6d部分下,对象代码和相应的作品的源不收费地提供给普通大众。

  1. Conveying Non-Source Forms.

You may convey a covered work in object code form under the terms of sections 4 and 5, provided that you also convey the machine-readable Corresponding Source under the terms of this License, in one of these ways:

a) Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by the Corresponding Source fixed on a durable physical medium customarily used for software interchange. b) Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by a written offer, valid for at least three years and valid for as long as you offer spare parts or customer support for that product model, to give anyone who possesses the object code either (1) a copy of the Corresponding Source for all the software in the product that is covered by this License, on a durable physical medium customarily used for software interchange, for a price no more than your reasonable cost of physically performing this conveying of source, or (2) access to copy the Corresponding Source from a network server at no charge. c) Convey individual copies of the object code with a copy of the written offer to provide the Corresponding Source. This alternative is allowed only occasionally and noncommercially, and only if you received the object code with such an offer, in accord with subsection 6b. d) Convey the object code by offering access from a designated place (gratis or for a charge), and offer equivalent access to the Corresponding Source in the same way through the same place at no further charge. You need not require recipients to copy the Corresponding Source along with the object code. If the place to copy the object code is a network server, the Corresponding Source may be on a different server (operated by you or a third party) that supports equivalent copying facilities, provided you maintain clear directions next to the object code saying where to find the Corresponding Source. Regardless of what server hosts the Corresponding Source, you remain obligated to ensure that it is available for as long as needed to satisfy these requirements. e) Convey the object code using peer-to-peer transmission, provided you inform other peers where the object code and Corresponding Source of the work are being offered to the general public at no charge under subsection 6d.


A separable portion of the object code, whose source code is excluded from the Corresponding Source as a System Library, need not be included in conveying the object code work.


  • (1)“消费产品”,指个人、家庭或家庭用途通常使用的任何有形个人财产,
  • (2)任何设计或出售用于与住宅结合的任何个人财产。在确定产品是否为消费者产品时,疑难案件应予以解决,有利于承保范围。对于特定用户所接收的特定产品,“通常使用”是指一类产品的典型的或普通的使用,而与特定用户的状态或特定用户实际使用或期望或预期使用该产品的方式无关。产品是一种消费产品,无论该产品是否有大量的商业、工业或非消费者使用,除非这些用途是产品使用的唯一重要模式。

A “User Product” is either (1) a “consumer product”, which means any tangible personal property which is normally used for personal, family, or household purposes, or (2) anything designed or sold for incorporation into a dwelling. In determining whether a product is a consumer product, doubtful cases shall be resolved in favor of coverage. For a particular product received by a particular user, “normally used” refers to a typical or common use of that class of product, regardless of the status of the particular user or of the way in which the particular user actually uses, or expects or is expected to use, the product. A product is a consumer product regardless of whether the product has substantial commercial, industrial or non-consumer uses, unless such uses represent the only significant mode of use of the product.


“Installation Information” for a User Product means any methods, procedures, authorization keys, or other information required to install and execute modified versions of a covered work in that User Product from a modified version of its Corresponding Source. The information must suffice to ensure that the continued functioning of the modified object code is in no case prevented or interfered with solely because modification has been made.

如果您根据本节中的目标代码作品在用户产品中,或与其一起使用,或专门用于用户产品,并且传输是作为交易的一部分发生的,则将用户产品的拥有权和使用权转让给 永久或固定期限的收款人(无论交易如何表征),根据本节传达的对应源代码必须附有安装信息。 但是,如果您或任何第三方都不保留在用户产品上安装修改后的目标代码(例如,作品已经安装在ROM)的能力,这一要求并不会生效。

If you convey an object code work under this section in, or with, or specifically for use in, a User Product, and the conveying occurs as part of a transaction in which the right of possession and use of the User Product is transferred to the recipient in perpetuity or for a fixed term (regardless of how the transaction is characterized), the Corresponding Source conveyed under this section must be accompanied by the Installation Information. But this requirement does not apply if neither you nor any third party retains the ability to install modified object code on the User Product (for example, the work has been installed in ROM).



The requirement to provide Installation Information does not include a requirement to continue to provide support service, warranty, or updates for a work that has been modified or installed by the recipient, or for the User Product in which it has been modified or installed. Access to a network may be denied when the modification itself materially and adversely affects the operation of the network or violates the rules and protocols for communication across the network.

Corresponding Source conveyed, and Installation Information provided, in accord with this section must be in a format that is publicly documented (and with an implementation available to the public in source code form), and must require no special password or key for unpacking, reading or copying.

7. 附加的条款




  1. Additional Terms.

“Additional permissions” are terms that supplement the terms of this License by making exceptions from one or more of its conditions. Additional permissions that are applicable to the entire Program shall be treated as though they were included in this License, to the extent that they are valid under applicable law. If additional permissions apply only to part of the Program, that part may be used separately under those permissions, but the entire Program remains governed by this License without regard to the additional permissions.

When you convey a copy of a covered work, you may at your option remove any additional permissions from that copy, or from any part of it. (Additional permissions may be written to require their own removal in certain cases when you modify the work.) You may place additional permissions on material, added by you to a covered work, for which you have or can give appropriate copyright permission.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, for material you add to a covered work, you may (if authorized by the copyright holders of that material) supplement the terms of this License with terms:

  • a)对本许可证第15条和第16条的规定拒绝保修或限制赔偿责任; 或者
  • b)要求保存特定的合理的法律通知或作者在该材料或其作品所显示的适当法律通知; 或者
  • c)禁止歪曲材料的来源,或者要求修改版本的材料以合理的方式标记与原始版本不同; 或者
  • )限制使用许可方或材料作者的名称的宣传目的; 或者
  • e)拒绝授予商标法的权利,用于使用一些商业名称,商标或服务标志; 或者
  • f)要求任何将该材料(或其修改版本)的材料(或修改版本)向接受方承担赔偿责任的人,对这些合同假设直接强加给这些许可方和作者的任何责任,都需要向许可方和作者提供赔偿。

a) Disclaiming warranty or limiting liability differently from the terms of sections 15 and 16 of this License; or b) Requiring preservation of specified reasonable legal notices or author attributions in that material or in the Appropriate Legal Notices displayed by works containing it; or c) Prohibiting misrepresentation of the origin of that material, or requiring that modified versions of such material be marked in reasonable ways as different from the original version; or d) Limiting the use for publicity purposes of names of licensors or authors of the material; or e) Declining to grant rights under trademark law for use of some trade names, trademarks, or service marks; or f) Requiring indemnification of licensors and authors of that material by anyone who conveys the material (or modified versions of it) with contractual assumptions of liability to the recipient, for any liability that these contractual assumptions directly impose on those licensors and authors.

其他非允许的附加条款在第10节的含义中 被认为是"进一步限制"。如果你收到的程序,或者它的任何一部分,都包含了一张通知来声明它是由这个许可证管理的,还有一个更严格的限制,你可以移除这一项(限制条款)。如果一份许可文件中有进一步的限制但是允许重新授权或在这一许可下进行传输,你可以在许可文件的条款中添加一份涉及的作品资料,前提是进一步的限制不能通过重新授权或传递的方式来维持。

All other non-permissive additional terms are considered “further restrictions” within the meaning of section 10. If the Program as you received it, or any part of it, contains a notice stating that it is governed by this License along with a term that is a further restriction, you may remove that term. If a license document contains a further restriction but permits relicensing or conveying under this License, you may add to a covered work material governed by the terms of that license document, provided that the further restriction does not survive such relicensing or conveying.


附加条款,许可或不许可的,可以以单独书面许可的形式来说明,或者表述为例外; 上述要求适用于任何一种方式。

If you add terms to a covered work in accord with this section, you must place, in the relevant source files, a statement of the additional terms that apply to those files, or a notice indicating where to find the applicable terms.

Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in the form of a separately written license, or stated as exceptions; the above requirements apply either way.

8. 终止

除非本许可中明确规定,否则您不得传播或修改涉及的作品。 任何以其他方式传播或修改它的尝试都是无效的,并且将自动终止您在本许可下的权利(包括根据第11节第3段授予的任何专利许可)。

  1. Termination.

You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to propagate or modify it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License (including any patent licenses granted under the third paragraph of section 11).

但是,如果您停止一切违反本许可的行为,那么您的许可将从特定的版权所有者暂时恢复, 除非及直至






However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.

Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses for the same material under section 10.



  1. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies.

You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or run a copy of the Program. Ancillary propagation of a covered work occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance. However, nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or modify any covered work. These actions infringe copyright if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or propagating a covered work, you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so.

10. 下游接收方的自动许可


  1. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients.

Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and propagate that work, subject to this License. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License.


An “entity transaction” is a transaction transferring control of an organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an organization, or merging organizations. If propagation of a covered work results from an entity transaction, each party to that transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever licenses to the work the party's predecessor in interest had or could give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts.

你不得对行使本许可证所授予或者确认的权利施加任何进一步的限制。例如, 你不可以要求授权费用, 版税 , 或其他行使本许可证授予的权利的费用, 以及你可能不启动诉讼(包括扣除金额或在诉讼中反诉), 声称侵犯任何专利的索赔,是由于制造、使用、销售、提供销售、或导入程序或任何部分。

An “entity transaction” is a transaction transferring control of an organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an organization, or merging organizations. If propagation of a covered work results from an entity transaction, each party to that transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever licenses to the work the party's predecessor in interest had or could give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts.**

11. 专利

“贡献者”是根据本程序许可或本程序所基于的作品授权使用的版权所有者。 由此获得许可的作品被称为贡献者的“贡献者版本”。

贡献者的“基本专利权利要求”是由贡献者拥有或控制的所有专利权利要求,不管是已经获得的还是未来获得的,将被本许可所允许的某种方式侵犯制作,使用或销售其贡献者版本,但 不包括仅由于撰稿人版本的进一步修改而被侵权的声明。 就此定义而言,“控制”包括以符合本许可证要求的方式授予专利分许可证的权利。

  1. Patents.

A “contributor” is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based. The work thus licensed is called the contributor's “contributor version”.

A contributor's “essential patent claims” are all patent claims owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted by this License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version, but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a consequence of further modification of the contributor version. For purposes of this definition, “control” includes the right to grant patent sublicenses in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License.



Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free patent license under the contributor's essential patent claims, to make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and otherwise run, modify and propagate the contents of its contributor version.

In the following three paragraphs, a “patent license” is any express agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent (such as an express permission to practice a patent or covenant not to sue for patent infringement). To “grant” such a patent license to a party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a patent against the party.


  • (1)使对应的源代码是如此可用的, 或者
  • (2)为这项特殊作品的专利申请而放弃自己的利益, 或者
  • (3)以符合本许可证要求的方式安排向下游接收者发放专利许可。 “明知地依赖”意味着您有实际的知识,但是对于专利许可,您在一个国家传达涉及的作品,或者您的接受者在一个国家使用涵盖的作品会侵犯您在该国的一项或多项可识别的专利, 有理由相信是有效的。

If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license, and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a publicly available network server or other readily accessible means, then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent license to downstream recipients. “Knowingly relying” means you have actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the covered work in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that country that you have reason to believe are valid.




If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered work and works based on it.

A patent license is “discriminatory” if it does not include within the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are specifically granted under this License. You may not convey a covered work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily for and in connection with specific products or compilations that contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement, or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.

Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.

12. 不要放弃他人的自由

如果你的条件(无论是法院命令、 协议或其他)与本许可证的条件相抵触,他们不会原谅你这个许可证的条件。如果你不能传送一份涉及的作品以同时满足你在本许可证下的义务和任何其他相关义务,那么你根本不可以传送它。例如,如果你同意条款,要求你收取一笔版税,以进一步传送你所传送的项目,你唯一能同时满足这两项条款的方法,就是完全不要传送这个程序。

  1. No Surrender of Others' Freedom.

If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot convey a covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not convey it at all. For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.

13. 与GNU Affero通用公共许可证一起使用

尽管该许可有任何其他条款,您可以将任何已涉及的作品与 GNU Affero公共许可证第三版 许可的作品连接或合并到一个单独的作品中,并传送所产生的作品。本许可证的条款将继续适用于所涵盖的部分,但 GNU Affero通用公共许可证 (第13条)关于通过网络进行交互的特殊要求将适用于这种组合。

  1. Use with the GNU Affero General Public License.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed under version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License into a single combined work, and to convey the resulting work. The terms of this License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work, but the special requirements of the GNU Affero General Public License, section 13, concerning interaction through a network will apply to the combination as such.

14. 本许可证的修订版本

自由软件基金会可以地发布 GNU 通用公共许可证 的修订和/或新版本。这样的新版本在精神上与现在的版本保持一致,但可能在细节上有所不同,以解决新的问题或关注点。

每个版本都有一个不同的版本号。如果该程序指定了某个版本的 GNU 通用公共许可证 “或任何后续版本”适用于该版本,那么您就可以选择遵循该版本,或自由软件基金会发布的任何后续版本的条款和条件。如果程序没有指定 GNU 通用公共许可证 的版本号,您可以选择任何由自由软件基金会发布的版本。

如果程序指定了一个代理可以决定使用 GNU 通用公共许可证 的哪个版本,那么代理的公开声明就会永久地授权您选择该版本的程序。


  1. Revised Versions of this License.

The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the GNU General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.

Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU General Public License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of the GNU General Public License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Program.

Later license versions may give you additional or different permissions. However, no additional obligations are imposed on any author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a later version.

15. 免责声明

在适用法律允许的范围内,本程序不提供任何保修。 除非另有书面说明,否则版权持有人和/或其他各方按“原样”提供本程序,不提供任何形式的明示或暗示保证,包括但不限于对适销性和特定用途的适用性的暗示保证。 关于程序的质量和性能的全部风险由您承担。 如果程序证明存在缺陷,您应承担所有必要的维护,修复或更正的费用。

  1. Disclaimer of Warranty.


16. 责任限制

在任何情况下,除非适用法律要求或书面同意,否则任何版权所有者或任何修改和/或运行上述许可程序的其他方均不对您承担任何损失,包括任何一般的,特殊的,附带的或后果性的损失 因使用或无法使用本程序而导致的损害(包括但不限于数据丢失,或数据执行不准确,或您或第三方所持续的损失或程序无法与任何其他程序一起使用),即使 此类持有人或其他方已被告知此类损害的可能性。

  1. Limitation of Liability.


17. 解释第15和16节


  1. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.

If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms, reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a copy of the Program in return for a fee.






为此,请将以下通知附加到程序中。 将它们附加到每个源文件的开始部分是最安全的,以最有效地说明免除保修; 每个文件至少应该有“版权”线和一个指向完整通知的指针。

How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the “copyright” line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.


版权所有 (C) <年份> <作者名字>

这个程序是自由软件:你可以根据自由软件基金会发布的 GNU 通用公共许可证 对其进行重新分发和/或者修改。

这个程序的发布是希望它会有用,但没有任何保修,甚至没有适销性或针对特定用途的适用性的默认保证。 有关更多详细信息,请参阅 GNU 通用公共许可证

你应该已经连同本程序收到一份 GNU 通用公共许可证 的副本。 如果没有,请参阅https://www.gnu.org/licenses/

<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>

Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>

This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify

it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by

the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or

(at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,

but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of


GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License

along with this program. If not, see https://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

此外,还可以添加有关电子邮件和纸质邮件 联系方式的信息。


Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:

<程序> 版权所有(C) <年> <作者名字>。

此程序完全没有保修; 详情请输入' show w'。


在一定条件下; 键入“show c”以获取详细信息。

<program> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>

This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type show w. This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions; type “show c” for details.

假设的命令 “ show w ” 和 “ show c ” 应该显示通用公共许可证的适当部分。当然,您的程序的命令可能不同;对于GUI界面,您可以使用 “about box”。

你也应该让你的雇主(如果你是一个程序员)或者学校(如果有的话),在必要的时候签署一个“版权免责声明”。有关这方面的更多信息,以及如何应用和遵循GNU GPL,请参阅https://www.gnu.org/licenses/

The hypothetical commands show w' and show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, your program's commands might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an “about box”.

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school, if any, to sign a “copyright disclaimer” for the program, if necessary. For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see https://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

GNU通用公共许可证不允许将您的程序合并到专有程序中。如果您的程序是一个子程序库,您可能认为允许将专有应用程序与库链接起来更有用。如果这是您想要做的,使用 GNU 较宽松通用公共许可证 而不是这个许可证。但首先,请阅读https://www.gnu.org/licenses/wh-nonlgpl.html

The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. But first, please read https://www.gnu.org/licenses/why-not-lgpl.html.

0 收藏
0 评论
0 收藏