C语言字符串相关函数大全

原创
2016/07/14 22:28
阅读数 65

 

1、stpcpy


功  能:拷贝一个字符串到另一个
用  法:char *stpcpy(char *destin, char *source);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

int main(void)
{
   char string[10];
   char *str1 = "abcdefghi";

   stpcpy(string, str1);
   printf("%s\n", string);
   return 0;
}

2、strcat


功  能:字符串拼接函数
用  法:char *strcat(char *destin, char *source);
程序例:

#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   char destination[25];
   char *blank = " ", *c = "C++", *Borland = "Borland";

   strcpy(destination, Borland);
   strcat(destination, blank);
   strcat(destination, c);

   printf("%s\n", destination);
   return 0;
}

3、strchr


功  能:在一个串中查找给定字符的第一个匹配之处\
用  法: char *strchr(char *str, char c);
程序例:

#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
 {
    char string[15];
    char *ptr, c = 'r';

    strcpy(string, "This is a string");
    ptr = strchr(string, c);
    if (ptr)
       printf("The character %c is at position: %d\n", c, ptr-string);
    else
       printf("The character was not found\n");
    return 0;
 }

4、strcmp


功  能:串比较
用  法: int strcmp(char *str1, char *str2);
看Asic码,str1>str2,返回值 > 0;两串相等,返回0
程序例:

#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
 {
    char *buf1 = "aaa", *buf2 = "bbb", *buf3 = "ccc";
    int ptr;

    ptr = strcmp(buf2, buf1);
    if (ptr > 0)
       printf("buffer 2 is greater than buffer 1\n");
    else
       printf("buffer 2 is less than buffer 1\n");

    ptr = strcmp(buf2, buf3);
    if (ptr > 0)
       printf("buffer 2 is greater than buffer 3\n");
    else
       printf("buffer 2 is less than buffer 3\n");

    return 0;
 }

5、strncmpi


功  能: 将一个串中的一部分与另一个串比较, 不管大小写
用  法: int strncmpi(char *str1, char *str2, unsigned maxlen);
程序例:

#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   char *buf1 = "BBB", *buf2 = "bbb";
   int ptr;

   ptr = strcmpi(buf2, buf1);

   if (ptr > 0)
      printf("buffer 2 is greater than buffer 1\n");

   if (ptr < 0)
      printf("buffer 2 is less than buffer 1\n");

   if (ptr == 0)
      printf("buffer 2 equals buffer 1\n");

   return 0;
}

6、strcpy


功  能:串拷贝
用  法:char *strcpy(char *str1, char *str2);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

int main(void)
 {
    char string[10];
    char *str1 = "abcdefghi";

    strcpy(string, str1);
    printf("%s\n", string);
    return 0;
 }

7、strcspn


功  能: 在串中查找第一个给定字符集内容的段
用  法: int strcspn(char *str1, char *str2);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <alloc.h>

int main(void)
 {
    char *string1 = "1234567890";
    char *string2 = "747DC8";
    int length;

    length = strcspn(string1, string2);
    printf("Character where strings intersect is at position %d\n", length);

    return 0;
 }

8、strdup


功  能:将串拷贝到新建的位置处
用  法: char *strdup(char *str);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <alloc.h>

int main(void)
 {
    char *dup_str, *string = "abcde";

    dup_str = strdup(string);
    printf("%s\n", dup_str);
    free(dup_str);

    return 0;
 }

9、stricmp


功  能: 以大小写不敏感方式比较两个串
用  法: int stricmp(char *str1, char *str2);
程序例:

#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   char *buf1 = "BBB", *buf2 = "bbb";
   int ptr;

   ptr = stricmp(buf2, buf1);

   if (ptr > 0)
      printf("buffer 2 is greater than buffer 1\n");

   if (ptr < 0)
      printf("buffer 2 is less than buffer 1\n");

   if (ptr == 0)
      printf("buffer 2 equals buffer 1\n");

   return 0;
}

10、strerror


功  能:返回指向错误信息字符串的指针
用  法: char *strerror(int errnum);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <errno.h>

int main(void)
{
   char *buffer;
   buffer = strerror(errno);
   printf("Error: %s\n", buffer);
   return 0;
}

11、strcmpi


功  能: 将一个串与另一个比较, 不管大小写
用  法: int strcmpi(char *str1, char *str2);
程序例:

#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   char *buf1 = "BBB", *buf2 = "bbb";
   int ptr;

   ptr = strcmpi(buf2, buf1);

   if (ptr > 0)
      printf("buffer 2 is greater than buffer 1\n");

   if (ptr < 0)
      printf("buffer 2 is less than buffer 1\n");

   if (ptr == 0)
      printf("buffer 2 equals buffer 1\n");

   return 0;
}

12、strncmp


功  能:串比较
用  法:int strncmp(char *str1, char *str2, int maxlen);
程序例:

#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int  main(void)

{
   char *buf1 = "aaabbb", *buf2 = "bbbccc", *buf3 = "ccc";
   int ptr;

   ptr = strncmp(buf2,buf1,3);
   if (ptr > 0)
      printf("buffer 2 is greater than buffer 1\n");
   else
      printf("buffer 2 is less than buffer 1\n");

   ptr = strncmp(buf2,buf3,3);
   if (ptr > 0)
      printf("buffer 2 is greater than buffer 3\n");
   else
      printf("buffer 2 is less than buffer 3\n");

   return(0);
}

13、strncmpi


功  能:把串中的一部分与另一串中的一部分比较, 不管大小写
用  法:int strncmpi(char *str1, char *str2);
程序例:

#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   char *buf1 = "BBBccc", *buf2 = "bbbccc";
   int ptr;

   ptr = strncmpi(buf2,buf1,3);

   if (ptr > 0)
      printf("buffer 2 is greater than buffer 1\n");

   if (ptr < 0)
      printf("buffer 2 is less than buffer 1\n");

   if (ptr == 0)
      printf("buffer 2 equals buffer 1\n");

   return 0;
}

14、strncpy


功  能:串拷贝
用  法:char *strncpy(char *destin, char *source, int maxlen);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

int main(void)
{
   char string[10];
   char *str1 = "abcdefghi";

   strncpy(string, str1, 3);
   string[3] = '\0';
   printf("%s\n", string);
   return 0;
}

15、strnicmp


功  能:不注重大小写地比较两个串
用  法: int strnicmp(char *str1, char *str2, unsigned maxlen);
程序例:

#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   char *buf1 = "BBBccc", *buf2 = "bbbccc";
   int ptr;

   ptr = strnicmp(buf2, buf1, 3);

   if (ptr > 0)
      printf("buffer 2 is greater than buffer 1\n");

   if (ptr < 0)
      printf("buffer 2 is less than buffer 1\n");

   if (ptr == 0)
      printf("buffer 2 equals buffer 1\n");

   return 0;
}

16、strnset


功  能:将一个串中的所有字符都设为指定字符
用  法:char *strnset(char *str, char ch, unsigned n);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

int main(void)
{
   char *string = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz";
   char letter = 'x';

   printf("string before strnset: %s\n", string);
   strnset(string, letter, 13);
   printf("string after  strnset: %s\n", string);

   return 0;
}

17、strpbrk


功  能: 在串中查找给定字符集中的字符
用  法:char *strpbrk(char *str1, char *str2);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

int main(void)
{
   char *string1 = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz";
   char *string2 = "onm";
   char *ptr;

   ptr = strpbrk(string1, string2);

   if (ptr)
      printf("strpbrk found first character: %c\n", *ptr);
   else
      printf("strpbrk didn't find character in set\n");

   return 0;
}

18、strrchr


功  能:在串中查找指定字符的最后一个出现
用  法:char *strrchr(char *str, char c);
程序例:

#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   char string[15];
   char *ptr, c = 'r';

   strcpy(string, "This is a string");
   ptr = strrchr(string, c);
   if (ptr)
      printf("The character %c is at position: %d\n", c, ptr-string);
   else
      printf("The character was not found\n");
   return 0;
}

19、strrev


功  能:串倒转
用  法:char *strrev(char *str);
程序例:

#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   char *forward = "string";

   printf("Before strrev(): %s\n", forward);
   strrev(forward);
   printf("After strrev():  %s\n", forward);
   return 0;
}

20、strset


功  能:将一个串中的所有字符都设为指定字符
用  法:char *strset(char *str, char c);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

int main(void)
{
   char string[10] = "123456789";
   char symbol = 'c';

   printf("Before strset(): %s\n", string);
   strset(string, symbol);
   printf("After strset():  %s\n", string);
   return 0;
}

21、strspn


功  能:在串中查找指定字符集的子集的第一次出现
用  法:int strspn(char *str1, char *str2);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <alloc.h>

int main(void)
{
   char *string1 = "1234567890";
   char *string2 = "123DC8";
   int length;

   length = strspn(string1, string2);
   printf("Character where strings differ is at position %d\n", length);
   return 0;
}

22、strstr


功  能:在串中查找指定字符串的第一次出现
用  法:char *strstr(char *str1, char *str2);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

int main(void)
{
   char *str1 = "Borland International", *str2 = "nation", *ptr;

   ptr = strstr(str1, str2);
   printf("The substring is: %s\n", ptr);
   return 0;
}

23、strtod


功  能:将字符串转换为double型值
用  法:double strtod(char *str, char **endptr);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

int main(void)
{
   char input[80], *endptr;
   double value;

   printf("Enter a floating point number:");
   gets(input);
   value = strtod(input, &endptr);
   printf("The string is %s the number is %lf\n", input, value);
   return 0;
}

24、strtok


功  能:查找由在第二个串中指定的分界符分隔开的单词
用  法:char *strtok(char *str1, char *str2);
程序例:

#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   char input[16] = "abc,d";
   char *p;

   /* strtok places a NULL terminator
   in front of the token, if found */
   p = strtok(input, ",");
   if (p)   printf("%s\n", p);

   /* A second call to strtok using a NULL
   as the first parameter returns a pointer
   to the character following the token  */
   p = strtok(NULL, ",");
   if (p)   printf("%s\n", p);
   return 0;
}

25、strtol


功  能:将串转换为长整数
用  法:long strtol(char *str, char **endptr, int base);
程序例:

#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   char *string = "87654321", *endptr;
   long lnumber;

   /* strtol converts string to long integer  */
   lnumber = strtol(string, &endptr, 10);
   printf("string = %s  long = %ld\n", string, lnumber);

   return 0;
}

26、strupr


功  能:将串中的小写字母转换为大写字母
用  法:char *strupr(char *str);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

int main(void)
{
   char *string = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz", *ptr;

   /* converts string to upper case characters */
   ptr = strupr(string);
   printf("%s\n", ptr);
   return 0;
}

27、swab


功  能:交换字节
用  法:void swab (char *from, char *to, int nbytes);
程序例:

#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

char source[15] = "rFna koBlrna d";
char target[15];

int main(void)
{
   swab(source, target, strlen(source));
   printf("This is target: %s\n", target);
   return 0;
}

 

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