将Jupyter/JupyterHub/JupyterLab运行为系统服务

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2020/01/08 09:08
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Jupyter/JupyterHub/JupyterLab能够以多种方式运行,包括命令行、系统服务、Docker实例、Kubernetes应用等。这里介绍将其作为系统服务运行的方式,通过使用《IPython 6/Jupyter的magic操作符》、《 IPython的Magics魔法操作符》可提供更好的控制台操作(谁用谁知道!如果在Notebook中需要输入密码,可以使用sshpass参考《Ubuntu上使用sshpass远程脚本免密安全交互 ),也支持标准的远程shell控制台。

首先,在宿主机安装Anaconda、Jupyter和JupyterLab。方法如下:

1、Jupyter for Ubuntu/Debian Anaconda3 with systemd

创建服务描述文件:

#/etc/systemd/system/jupyter.service

编辑文件: 

sudo nano /etc/systemd/system/jupyter.service

把下面的内容复制进去:

[Unit]
Description=Jupyter
After=syslog.target network.target

[Service]
User=supermap
Environment="PATH=/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/opt/anaconda3/bin"
WorkingDirectory=/home/supermap/
ExecStart=/home/supermap/anaconda3/bin/jupyter lab --ip=10.1.1.201

Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=10

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

重新载入服务:

sudo systemctl daemon-reload

启动服务:

sudo systemctl start jupyter

查看状态:

sudo systemctl status jupyter --no-pager

可以看到相应的登录地址和token等信息,将其输入浏览器即可访问。

设置为系统启动时自动启动:

sudo systemctl enable jupyter

2、JupyterHub for Ubuntu/Debian Anaconda3 with systemd

如果使用JupyterHub,采用 /opt/anaconda3/jupyterhub 作为配置目录。保存下面内容为文件 /etc/systemd/system/jupyterhub.service。

[Unit]
Description=Jupyterhub
After=syslog.target network.target

[Service]
User=root
Environment="PATH=/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/opt/anaconda3/bin"
ExecStart=/opt/anaconda3/bin/jupyterhub -f /etc/jupyterhub/jupyterhub_config.py

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

如果保存配置 c.JupyterHub.cleanup_servers = False 在 JupyterHub config,需要加入 KillMode=process 在 [Service] 段中。缺省情况下,systemd将在退出时kill掉所有的子进程。

使用sudo systemctl daemon-reload 和 sudo systemctl <start|stop|status> jupyterhub来启动服务。 sudo systemctl enable jupyterhub 将使 jupyterhub 开机自动启动。

3、JupyterHub for Ubuntu/Debian 的非systemd配置

保存 https://gist.github.com/lambdalisue/f01c5a65e81100356379 为 /etc/init.d/jupyterhub。如下:

#! /bin/sh
### BEGIN INIT INFO
# Provides:          jupyterhub
# Required-Start:    $remote_fs $syslog
# Required-Stop:     $remote_fs $syslog
# Default-Start:     2 3 4 5
# Default-Stop:      0 1 6
# Short-Description: Start jupyterhub
# Description:       This file should be used to construct scripts to be
#                    placed in /etc/init.d.
### END INIT INFO

# Author: Alisue <lambdalisue@hashnote.net>
#
# Please remove the "Author" lines above and replace them
# with your own name if you copy and modify this script.

# Do NOT "set -e"

# PATH should only include /usr/* if it runs after the mountnfs.sh script
PATH=/sbin:/usr/sbin:/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin
DESC="Multi-user server for Jupyter notebooks"
NAME=jupyterhub
DAEMON=/usr/local/bin/jupyterhub
DAEMON_ARGS="--config=/etc/jupyterhub/jupyterhub_config.py"
PIDFILE=/var/run/$NAME.pid
SCRIPTNAME=/etc/init.d/$NAME

# Exit if the package is not installed
[ -x "$DAEMON" ] || exit 0

# Read configuration variable file if it is present
[ -r /etc/default/$NAME ] && . /etc/default/$NAME

# Load the VERBOSE setting and other rcS variables
. /lib/init/vars.sh

# Define LSB log_* functions.
# Depend on lsb-base (>= 3.2-14) to ensure that this file is present
# and status_of_proc is working.
. /lib/lsb/init-functions

#
# Function that starts the daemon/service
#
do_start()
{
	# Return
	#   0 if daemon has been started
	#   1 if daemon was already running
	#   2 if daemon could not be started
	start-stop-daemon --start --quiet --pidfile $PIDFILE --exec $DAEMON --test > /dev/null \
		|| return 1
	start-stop-daemon --start --background --make-pidfile --quiet --pidfile $PIDFILE --exec $DAEMON -- \
		$DAEMON_ARGS \
		|| return 2
	# Add code here, if necessary, that waits for the process to be ready
	# to handle requests from services started subsequently which depend
	# on this one.  As a last resort, sleep for some time.
}

#
# Function that stops the daemon/service
#
do_stop()
{
	# Return
	#   0 if daemon has been stopped
	#   1 if daemon was already stopped
	#   2 if daemon could not be stopped
	#   other if a failure occurred
	start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --retry=TERM/30/KILL/5 --pidfile $PIDFILE --name $NAME
	RETVAL="$?"
	[ "$RETVAL" = 2 ] && return 2
	# Wait for children to finish too if this is a daemon that forks
	# and if the daemon is only ever run from this initscript.
	# If the above conditions are not satisfied then add some other code
	# that waits for the process to drop all resources that could be
	# needed by services started subsequently.  A last resort is to
	# sleep for some time.
	start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --oknodo --retry=0/30/KILL/5 --exec $DAEMON
	[ "$?" = 2 ] && return 2
	# Many daemons don't delete their pidfiles when they exit.
	rm -f $PIDFILE
	return "$RETVAL"
}

#
# Function that sends a SIGHUP to the daemon/service
#
do_reload() {
	#
	# If the daemon can reload its configuration without
	# restarting (for example, when it is sent a SIGHUP),
	# then implement that here.
	#
	start-stop-daemon --stop --signal 1 --quiet --pidfile $PIDFILE --name $NAME
	return 0
}

case "$1" in
  start)
	[ "$VERBOSE" != no ] && log_daemon_msg "Starting $DESC" "$NAME"
	do_start
	case "$?" in
		0|1) [ "$VERBOSE" != no ] && log_end_msg 0 ;;
		2) [ "$VERBOSE" != no ] && log_end_msg 1 ;;
	esac
	;;
  stop)
	[ "$VERBOSE" != no ] && log_daemon_msg "Stopping $DESC" "$NAME"
	do_stop
	case "$?" in
		0|1) [ "$VERBOSE" != no ] && log_end_msg 0 ;;
		2) [ "$VERBOSE" != no ] && log_end_msg 1 ;;
	esac
	;;
  status)
	status_of_proc "$DAEMON" "$NAME" && exit 0 || exit $?
	;;
  #reload|force-reload)
	#
	# If do_reload() is not implemented then leave this commented out
	# and leave 'force-reload' as an alias for 'restart'.
	#
	#log_daemon_msg "Reloading $DESC" "$NAME"
	#do_reload
	#log_end_msg $?
	#;;
  restart|force-reload)
	#
	# If the "reload" option is implemented then remove the
	# 'force-reload' alias
	#
	log_daemon_msg "Restarting $DESC" "$NAME"
	do_stop
	case "$?" in
	  0|1)
		do_start
		case "$?" in
			0) log_end_msg 0 ;;
			1) log_end_msg 1 ;; # Old process is still running
			*) log_end_msg 1 ;; # Failed to start
		esac
		;;
	  *)
		# Failed to stop
		log_end_msg 1
		;;
	esac
	;;
  *)
	#echo "Usage: $SCRIPTNAME {start|stop|restart|reload|force-reload}" >&2
	echo "Usage: $SCRIPTNAME {start|stop|status|restart|force-reload}" >&2
	exit 3
	;;
esac

:

然后,执行配置过程:

$ sudo chmod +x /etc/init.d/jupyterhub
# Create a default config to /etc/jupyterhub/jupyterhub_config.py
$ sudo jupyterhub --generate-config -f /etc/jupyterhub/jupyterhub_config.py
# Reload systemctl daemon to notice the init.d script
$ sudo systemctl daemon-reload
# Start jupyterhub
$ sudo service jupyterhub start
# Stop jupyterhub
$ sudo service jupyterhub stop
# Start jupyterhub on boot
$ sudo update-rc.d jupyterhub defaults
# Or use rcconf to manage services http://manpages.ubuntu.com/manpages/natty/man8/rcconf.8.html
$ sudo rcconf

4、JupyterHub for CentOS/Fedora with Generic systemd

假设使用 /etc/jupyterhub 作为 configs,保存下面内容到文件 /lib/systemd/system/jupyterhub.service:

[Unit]
Description=Jupyterhub

[Service]
User=jupyterhub
ExecStart=/usr/bin/jupyterhub --JupyterHub.spawner_class=sudospawner.SudoSpawner
WorkingDirectory=/etc/jupyterhub

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
  • 注意:
    • 需要添加 After=network-online.target 到 [Unit] section,否则设置 service 开机启动将失败,因为网络还不可用。
    • 设置正确的 User 和争取的权限来运行 /usr/bin/jupyterhub。

运行: sudo systemctl daemon-reload. 然后 sudo systemctl <start|stop|status> jupyterhub来启动服务。

  • 注意:
    • 确保安装 sudospawner.SudoSpawner ,运行 pip3 install git+https://github.com/jupyter/sudospawner。

5、JupyterHub for OSX

添加 jupyterhub_config.py 到 /etc/jupyterhub (如果没有则创建之)。创建 /Library/LaunchDaemons/com.jupyterhub.plist 粘贴下面的内容并编辑路径,指向jupyterhub。

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE plist PUBLIC "-//Apple//DTD PLIST 1.0//EN" "http://www.apple.com/DTDs/PropertyList-1.0.dtd">
<plist version="1.0">
    <dict>
        <key>Label</key>
        <string>com.jupyterhub.app</string>
        <key>ProgramArguments</key>
        <array>
            <string>/opt/anaconda3/bin/jupyterhub</string>
            <string>-f</string>
            <string>/etc/jupyterhub/jupyterhub_config.py</string>
        </array>
        <key>KeepAlive</key>
        <true/>
        <key>StandardErrorPath</key>
        <string>/var/log/jupyterhuberr.log</string>
        <key>StandardOutPath</key>
        <string>/var/log/jupyterhubout.log</string>
        <key>EnvironmentVariables</key>
        <dict>
          <key>PATH</key>
            <string><![CDATA[/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/sbin:/opt/anaconda3/bin]]></string>
        </dict>

    </dict>
</plist>

载入和启动service,如下:

sudo launchctl load -w /Library/LaunchDaemons/com.jupyterhub.plist
sudo launchctl start -w /Library/LaunchDaemons/com.jupyterhub.plist

你的jupyterhub 可以通过localhost:8000 (缺省的config)来访问(如果需要外部机器访问,在启动命令行加上--ip=x.x.x.x.参数)。如果访问不了,通过 /var/log/system.log | grep jupyter 来查看状态或者查看日志文件 /var/log/jupyterhubout.log 来查看原因。

6、其他

查看 https://github.com/jupyter/jupyterhub/issues/317 并分享你的经验。

更多参考:

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