发布于 2016/08/10 23:02
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1、When you declare a reference variable (i.e. an object) you are really creating a pointer to an object. Consider the following code where you declare a variable of primitive type int:

int x;
x = 10;

In this example the variable x is an int and Java will initialize it to 0 for you. When you assign it to 10 in the second line your value 10 is written into the memory location pointed to by x.

But, when you try to declare a reference type something different happens. Take the following code:

Integer num;
num = new Integer(10);

The first line declares a variable named num, but, it does not contain a primitive value. Instead it contains a pointer (because the type is Integer which is a reference type). Since you did not say as yet what to point to Java sets it to null, meaning "I am pointing at nothing".

In the second line, the new keyword is used to instantiate (or create) an object of type Integer and the pointer variable num is assigned this object. You can now reference the object using the dereferencing operator . (a dot).

The Exception that you asked about occurs when you declare a variable but did not create an object. If you attempt to dereference num BEFORE creating the object you get a NullPointerException. In the most trivial cases the compiler will catch the problem and let you know that "num may not have been initialized" but sometime you write code that does not directly create the object.

For instance you may have a method as follows:

public void doSomething(SomeObject obj){
   //do something to obj

in which case you are not creating the object obj, rather assuming that is was created before the doSomething method was called. Unfortunately it is possible to call the method like this:


in which case obj is null. If the method is intended to do something to the passed-in object, it is appropriate to throw the NullPointerException because it's a user error and the user will need that information for debugging purposes.

Alternatively, there may be cases where the purpose of the method is not solely to operate on the passed in object, and therefore a null parameter may be acceptable. In this case, you would need to check for a null parameter and behave differently. You should also explain this in the documentation. For example, doSomething could be written as:

/**@param obj An optional foo for ____. May be null, in which case 
*  the result will be ____. */
public void doSomething(SomeObject obj){
    if(obj != null){
       //do something
    } else {
       //do something else

Finally, http://stackoverflow.com/q/3988788/2775450


2、"The best way to avoid this type of exception is to always check for null when you did not create the object yourself." If the caller passes null, but null is not a valid argument for the method, then it's correct to throw the exception back at the caller because it's the caller's fault. Silently ignoring invalid input and doing nothing in the method is extremely poor advice because it hides the problem.


3、Check if the object equals null before you invoke a method on it or try to access a variable it might have. Some times structuring your code can help avoid null pointer exception. eg when checking an input string with a constant string you should start with the constant string like here: if ("SomeString".equals(inputString)) {} //even if inputString is null no exception is thrown. So there are a bunch of things that you can do to try to be safe.

They're exceptions that occur when you try to use a reference that points to no location in memory (null) as though it were referencing an object. Calling a method on a null reference or trying to access a field of a null reference will trigger a NPE. These are the most common, but other ways are listed on the NullPointerException javadoc page.

Probably the quickest example code I could come up with to illustrate a NPE would be:

public class Example
    public static void main(String[] args)
        Object obj = null;

On the first line inside main I'm explicitly setting the Object reference obj to null. This means I have a reference, but it isn't pointing to any object. After that, I try to treat the reference as though it points to an object by calling a method on it. This results in a NPE because there is no code to execute in the location that the reference is pointing.

(This is a technicality, but I think it bears mentioning: A reference that points to null isn't the same as a C pointer that points to an invalid memory location. A null pointer is literally not pointing anywhere, which is subtly different than pointing to a location that happens to be invalid.)



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