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实用 .htaccess 用法大全

neou
 neou
发布于 2015/09/10 16:42
字数 2067
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  这里收集的是各种实用的 .htaccess 代码片段,你能想到的用法几乎全在这里。

  免责声明: 虽然将这些代码片段直接拷贝到你的 .htaccess 文件里,绝大多数情况下都是好用的,但也有极个别情况需要你修改某些地方才行。风险自负。

  重要提示: Apache 2.4 有不兼容的修改,特别是在访问配置控制方面。详细信息请参考这篇更新文档以及这篇文章


重新和重定向

  注意:首先需要服务器安装和启用mod_rewrite模块。

  强制 www

RewriteEngine on
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^example\.com [NC]
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://www.example.com/$1 [L,R=301,NC]

  强制 www通用方法

RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^$
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\. [NC]
RewriteCond %{HTTPS}s ^on(s)|
RewriteRule ^ http%1://www.%{HTTP_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI} [R=301,L]

  这种方法可以使用在任何网站中。 Source

  强制 non-www

  究竟是WWW好,还是non-www好,没有定论,如果你喜欢不带www的,可以使用下面的脚本:

RewriteEngine on
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www\.example\.com [NC]
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://example.com/$1 [L,R=301]

  强制 non-www通用方法

RewriteEngine on
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www\.
RewriteCond %{HTTPS}s ^on(s)|off
RewriteCond http%1://%{HTTP_HOST} ^(https?://)(www\.)?(.+)$
RewriteRule ^ %1%3%{REQUEST_URI} [R=301,L]

  强制 HTTPS

RewriteEngine on
RewriteCond %{HTTPS} !on
RewriteRule (.*) https://%{HTTP_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI}

# Note: It's also recommended to enable HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS) 
# on your HTTPS website to help prevent man-in-the-middle attacks.
# See https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Security/HTTP_strict_transport_security
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
    Header always set Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=31536000; includeSubDomains"
</IfModule>

  强制 HTTPS 通过代理

  如果你使用了代理,这种方法对你很有用。

RewriteCond %{HTTP:X-Forwarded-Proto} !https
RewriteRule (.*) https://%{HTTP_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI}

  强制添加末尾斜杠

RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} /+[^\.]+$
RewriteRule ^(.+[^/])$ %{REQUEST_URI}/ [R=301,L]

  取掉末尾斜杠

RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteRule ^(.*)/$ /$1 [R=301,L]

  重定向到一个页面

Redirect 301 /oldpage.html http://www.example.com/newpage.html
Redirect 301 /oldpage2.html http://www.example.com/folder/

Source

  目录别名

RewriteEngine On
RewriteRule ^source-directory/(.*) target-directory/$1

  脚本别名

FallbackResource /index.fcgi

  This example has an index.fcgi file in some directory, and any requests within that directory that fail to resolve a filename/directory will be sent to the index.fcgi script. It’s good if you want baz.foo/some/cool/path to be handled by baz.foo/index.fcgi (which also supports requests to baz.foo) while maintaining baz.foo/css/style.css and the like. Get access to the original path from the PATH_INFO environment variable, as exposed to your scripting environment.

RewriteEngine On
RewriteRule ^$ index.fcgi/ [QSA,L]
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ index.fcgi/$1 [QSA,L]

  This is a less efficient version of the FallbackResource directive (because using mod_rewrite is more complex than just handling the FallbackResource directive), but it’s also more flexible.

  重定向整个网站

Redirect 301 / http://newsite.com/

  This way does it with links intact. That is www.oldsite.com/some/crazy/link.html will become www.newsite.com/some/crazy/link.html. This is extremely helpful when you are just “moving” a site to a new domain. Source

  干净的URL

  This snippet lets you use “clean” URLs — those without a PHP extension, e.g. example.com/users instead of example.com/users.php.

RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{SCRIPT_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteRule ^([^.]+)$ $1.php [NC,L]

Source

安全

  拒绝所有访问

## Apache 2.2
Deny from all

## Apache 2.4
# Require all denied

  But wait, this will lock you out from your content as well! Thus introducing…

  拒绝所有访问(排除部分)

## Apache 2.2
Order deny,allow
Deny from all
Allow from xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx

## Apache 2.4
# Require all denied
# Require ip xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx

  xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx is your IP. If you replace the last three digits with 0/12 for example, this will specify a range of IPs within the same network, thus saving you the trouble to list all allowed IPs separately. Source

  Now of course there’s a reversed version:

  屏蔽爬虫/恶意访问

## Apache 2.2
Order deny,allow
Allow from all
Deny from xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
Deny from xxx.xxx.xxx.xxy

## Apache 2.4
# Require all granted
# Require not ip xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
# Require not ip xxx.xxx.xxx.xxy

  保护隐藏文件和目录

  Hidden files and directories (those whose names start with a dot .) should most, if not all, of the time be secured. For example: .htaccess, .htpasswd, .git, .hg…

RewriteCond %{SCRIPT_FILENAME} -d [OR]
RewriteCond %{SCRIPT_FILENAME} -f
RewriteRule "(^|/)\." - [F]

  Alternatively, you can just raise a Not Found error, giving the attacker dude no clue:

RedirectMatch 404 /\..*$  保护备份文件和源代码文件

  These files may be left by some text/html editors (like Vi/Vim) and pose a great security danger if exposed to public.

<FilesMatch "(\.(bak|config|dist|fla|inc|ini|log|psd|sh|sql|swp)|~)$">
    ## Apache 2.2
    Order allow,deny
    Deny from all
    Satisfy All

    ## Apache 2.4
    # Require all denied
</FilesMatch>
Source

  禁止目录浏览

Options All -Indexes

  禁止图片盗链

RewriteEngine on
# Remove the following line if you want to block blank referrer too
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^$

RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^http(s)?://(.+\.)?example.com [NC]
RewriteRule \.(jpg|jpeg|png|gif|bmp)$ - [NC,F,L]

# If you want to display a "blocked" banner in place of the hotlinked image, 
# replace the above rule with:
# RewriteRule \.(jpg|jpeg|png|gif|bmp) http://example.com/blocked.png [R,L]

  禁止图片盗链(指定域名)

  Sometimes you want to 禁止图片盗链 from some bad guys only.

RewriteEngine on
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} ^http(s)?://(.+\.)?badsite\.com [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} ^http(s)?://(.+\.)?badsite2\.com [NC,OR]
RewriteRule \.(jpg|jpeg|png|gif)$ - [NC,F,L]

# If you want to display a "blocked" banner in place of the hotlinked image, 
# replace the above rule with:
# RewriteRule \.(jpg|jpeg|png|gif|bmp) http://example.com/blocked.png [R,L]

  密码保护目录

  First you need to create a .htpasswd file somewhere in the system:

htpasswd -c /home/fellowship/.htpasswd boromir

  Then you can use it for authentication:

AuthType Basic
AuthName "One does not simply"
AuthUserFile /home/fellowship/.htpasswd
Require valid-user

  密码保护文件

AuthName "One still does not simply"
AuthType Basic
AuthUserFile /home/fellowship/.htpasswd

<Files "one-ring.o">
Require valid-user
</Files>

<FilesMatch ^((one|two|three)-rings?\.o)$>
Require valid-user
</FilesMatch>

  通过Referrer过滤访客

  This denies access for all users who are coming from (referred by) a specific domain.
Source

RewriteEngine on
# Options +FollowSymlinks
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} somedomain\.com [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} anotherdomain\.com
RewriteRule .* - [F]  防止被别的网页嵌套

  This prevents the website to be framed (i.e. put into an iframe tag), when still allows framing for a specific URI.

SetEnvIf Request_URI "/starry-night" allow_framing=true
Header set X-Frame-Options SAMEORIGIN env=!allow_framing

性能

  压缩文件

<IfModule mod_deflate.c>

    # 强制 compression for mangled headers.
    # http://developer.yahoo.com/blogs/ydn/posts/2010/12/pushing-beyond-gzipping
    <IfModule mod_setenvif.c>
        <IfModule mod_headers.c>
            SetEnvIfNoCase ^(Accept-EncodXng|X-cept-Encoding|X{15}|~{15}|-{15})$ ^((gzip|deflate)\s*,?\s*)+|[X~-]{4,13}$ HAVE_Accept-Encoding
            RequestHeader append Accept-Encoding "gzip,deflate" env=HAVE_Accept-Encoding
        </IfModule>
    </IfModule>

    # Compress all output labeled with one of the following MIME-types
    # (for Apache versions below 2.3.7, you don't need to enable `mod_filter`
    #  and can remove the `<IfModule mod_filter.c>` and `</IfModule>` lines
    #  as `AddOutputFilterByType` is still in the core directives).
    <IfModule mod_filter.c>
        AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/atom+xml \
                                      application/javascript \
                                      application/json \
                                      application/rss+xml \
                                      application/vnd.ms-fontobject \
                                      application/x-font-ttf \
                                      application/x-web-app-manifest+json \
                                      application/xhtml+xml \
                                      application/xml \
                                      font/opentype \
                                      image/svg+xml \
                                      image/x-icon \
                                      text/css \
                                      text/html \
                                      text/plain \
                                      text/x-component \
                                      text/xml
    </IfModule>

</IfModule>

Source

  设置过期头信息

  Expires headers tell the browser whether they should request a specific file from the server or just grab it from the cache. It is advisable to set static content’s expires headers to something far in the future.

  If you don’t control versioning with filename-based cache busting, consider lowering the cache time for resources like CSS and JS to something like 1 week. Source


  
  
<IfModule mod_expires.c>
    ExpiresActive on
    ExpiresDefault                                      "access plus 1 month"

  # CSS
    ExpiresByType text/css                              "access plus 1 year"

  # Data interchange
    ExpiresByType application/json                      "access plus 0 seconds"
    ExpiresByType application/xml                       "access plus 0 seconds"
    ExpiresByType text/xml                              "access plus 0 seconds"

  # Favicon (cannot be renamed!)
    ExpiresByType image/x-icon                          "access plus 1 week"

  # HTML components (HTCs)
    ExpiresByType text/x-component                      "access plus 1 month"

  # HTML
    ExpiresByType text/html                             "access plus 0 seconds"

  # JavaScript
    ExpiresByType application/javascript                "access plus 1 year"

  # Manifest files
    ExpiresByType application/x-web-app-manifest+json   "access plus 0 seconds"
    ExpiresByType text/cache-manifest                   "access plus 0 seconds"

  # Media
    ExpiresByType audio/ogg                             "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType image/gif                             "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType image/jpeg                            "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType image/png                             "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType video/mp4                             "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType video/ogg                             "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType video/webm                            "access plus 1 month"

  # Web feeds
    ExpiresByType application/atom+xml                  "access plus 1 hour"
    ExpiresByType application/rss+xml                   "access plus 1 hour"

  # Web fonts
    ExpiresByType application/font-woff2                "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType application/font-woff                 "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType application/vnd.ms-fontobject         "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType application/x-font-ttf                "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType font/opentype                         "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType image/svg+xml                         "access plus 1 month"
</IfModule>


关闭eTags标志

  By removing the ETag header, you disable caches and browsers from being able to validate files, so they are forced to rely on your Cache-Control and Expires header. Source

<IfModule mod_headers.c>
    Header unset ETag
</IfModule>
FileETag None
其它

  设置PHP变量

php_value <key> <val>

# For example:
php_value upload_max_filesize 50M
php_value max_execution_time 240

  Custom Error Pages

ErrorDocument 500 "Houston, we have a problem."
ErrorDocument 401 http://error.example.com/mordor.html
ErrorDocument 404 /errors/halflife3.html

  强制下载

  Sometimes you want to 强制 the browser to download some content instead of displaying it.

<Files *.md>
    ForceType application/octet-stream
    Header set Content-Disposition attachment
</Files>
  Now there is a yang to this yin:

  阻止下载

  Sometimes you want to 强制 the browser to display some content instead of downloading it.

<FilesMatch "\.(tex|log|aux)$">
    Header set Content-Type text/plain
</FilesMatch>

  运行跨域字体引用

  CDN-served webfonts might not work in Firefox or IE due to CORS. This snippet solves the problem.

<IfModule mod_headers.c>
    <FilesMatch "\.(eot|otf|ttc|ttf|woff|woff2)$">
        Header set Access-Control-Allow-Origin "*"
    </FilesMatch>
</IfModule>

Source

  Auto UTF-8 Encode

  Your text content should always be UTF-8 encoded, no?

# Use UTF-8 encoding for anything served text/plain or text/html
AddDefaultCharset utf-8

# 强制 UTF-8 for a number of file formats
AddCharset utf-8 .atom .css .js .json .rss .vtt .xml

Source

  切换PHP版本

  If you’re on a shared host, chances are there are more than one version of PHP installed, and sometimes you want a specific version for your website. For example, Laravel requires PHP >= 5.4. The following snippet should switch the PHP version for you.

AddHandler application/x-httpd-php55 .php

# Alternatively, you can use AddType
AddType application/x-httpd-php55 .php

  禁止IE兼容视图

  Compatibility View in IE may affect how some websites are displayed. The following snippet should 强制 IE to use the Edge Rendering Engine and disable the Compatibility View.

<IfModule mod_headers.c>
    BrowserMatch MSIE is-msie
    Header set X-UA-Compatible IE=edge env=is-msie
</IfModule>

  支持WebP图片格式

  If WebP images are supported and an image with a .webp extension and the same name is found at the same place as the jpg/png image that is going to be served, then the WebP image is served instead.

RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{HTTP_ACCEPT} image/webp
RewriteCond %{DOCUMENT_ROOT}/$1.webp -f
RewriteRule (.+)\.(jpe?g|png)$ $1.webp [T=image/webp,E=accept:1]

Source


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