AbstractQueuedSynchronizer浅析——同步
AbstractQueuedSynchronizer浅析——同步
锦语冰 发表于1年前
AbstractQueuedSynchronizer浅析——同步
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想研究并发编程快一年了,一直断断续续,没有重点,无所收获。写此文,以明志!

LockSupport,以后要重点看一下,在parkAndCheckInterrupt用到

conditionObject doReleaseShared

本文主要讲独占、共享地获取释放锁,condition没讲

先从数据结构开始,Node与Condition。源码是最好的老师

Node

static final class Node {
        /** Marker to indicate a node is waiting in shared mode */
        static final Node SHARED = new Node();//节点处于共享模式的标志,即使更改属性,引用不变。要的只是引用——线程安全
        /** Marker to indicate a node is waiting in exclusive mode */
        static final Node EXCLUSIVE = null;//节点处于独占模式的标志

        /** waitStatus value to indicate thread has cancelled */
        static final int CANCELLED =  1;//等待状态:线程取消了获取锁(独占\共享)的操作
        /** waitStatus value to indicate successor's thread needs unparking */
        static final int SIGNAL    = -1;//后继(不一定是下一个)节点的线程需要unparking
        /** waitStatus value to indicate thread is waiting on condition */
        static final int CONDITION = -2;//线程在条件队列等待
        /**
         * waitStatus value to indicate the next acquireShared should
         * unconditionally propagate
         */
        static final int PROPAGATE = -3;//获取锁的操作需要无条件传播(共享模式下),表示当前场景下后续的acquireShared能够得以执行

        /**
         * Status field, taking on only the values:
         *   SIGNAL:     The successor of this node is (or will soon be)
         *               blocked (via park), so the current node must
         *               unpark its successor when it releases or
         *               cancels. To avoid races, acquire methods must
         *               first indicate they need a signal,
         *               then retry the atomic acquire, and then,
         *               on failure, block.//只有当前状态为signal,才能获取锁,不然release\cancel会“忘了”unpark后面的线程
         *   CANCELLED:  This node is cancelled due to timeout or interrupt.
         *               Nodes never leave this state. In particular,
         *               a thread with cancelled node never again blocks.
         *   CONDITION:  This node is currently on a condition queue.
         *               It will not be used as a sync queue node
         *               until transferred, at which time the status
         *               will be set to 0. (Use of this value here has
         *               nothing to do with the other uses of the
         *               field, but simplifies mechanics.)//表明节点在条件队列。当条件队列转为同步队列时,状态位置0(条件队列、同步队列可以参考wait/notify机制)
         *   PROPAGATE:  A releaseShared should be propagated to other
         *               nodes. This is set (for head node only) in
         *               doReleaseShared to ensure propagation
         *               continues, even if other operations have
         *               since intervened.//releaseShared后,状态传播(只有头结点会)
         *   0:          None of the above            //当前节点在sync队列中,等待着获取锁。
         *
         * The values are arranged numerically to simplify use.
         * Non-negative values mean that a node doesn't need to
         * signal. So, most code doesn't need to check for particular
         * values, just for sign.//非负数表示当前节点不需要唤醒后继节点\传播状态
         *
         * The field is initialized to 0 for normal sync nodes, and
         * CONDITION for condition nodes.  It is modified using CAS
         * (or when possible, unconditional volatile writes).
         */
        volatile int waitStatus;//等待状态是volatile,保证多线程间的可见性

        /**
         * Link to predecessor node that current node/thread relies on
         * for checking waitStatus. Assigned during enqueuing, and nulled
         * out (for sake of GC) only upon dequeuing.  Also, upon
         * cancellation of a predecessor, we short-circuit while
         * finding a non-cancelled one, which will always exist
         * because the head node is never cancelled: A node becomes
         * head only as a result of successful acquire. A
         * cancelled thread never succeeds in acquiring, and a thread only
         * cancels itself, not any other node.
         */
        volatile Node prev;//前驱节点,在出入queue时赋值,非cancel节点。一定存在,因为头结点非cancel

        /**
         * Link to the successor node that the current node/thread
         * unparks upon release. Assigned during enqueuing, adjusted
         * when bypassing cancelled predecessors, and nulled out (for
         * sake of GC) when dequeued.  The enq operation does not
         * assign next field of a predecessor until after attachment,
         * so seeing a null next field does not necessarily mean that
         * node is at end of queue. However, if a next field appears
         * to be null, we can scan prev's from the tail to
         * double-check.  The next field of cancelled nodes is set to
         * point to the node itself instead of null, to make life
         * easier for isOnSyncQueue.
         */
        volatile Node next;//后继节点,释放锁时直接链到后继节点。入队时赋值,前驱节点 取消 时更改,出队时为null。
                           //enq在入队时赋值,为null时不一定为tail。cancel节点的next为自身,以方便isOnSyncQueue
        /**
         * The thread that enqueued this node.  Initialized on
         * construction and nulled out after use.
         */
        volatile Thread thread;//使节点入队的线程,构造时初始化,use后为null

        /**
         * Link to next node waiting on condition, or the special
         * value SHARED.  Because condition queues are accessed only
         * when holding in exclusive mode, we just need a simple
         * linked queue to hold nodes while they are waiting on
         * conditions. They are then transferred to the queue to
         * re-acquire. And because conditions can only be exclusive,
         * we save a field by using special value to indicate shared
         * mode.
         */
        Node nextWaiter;//条件队列里的next,或SHARED.条件队列只会被独占模式访问,所以只需要简单的linkedQueue维护(因为线程安全)
                        //也用它表示共享模式
        /**
         * Returns true if node is waiting in shared mode.
         */
        final boolean isShared() {
            return nextWaiter == SHARED;
        }

        /**
         * Returns previous node, or throws NullPointerException if null.
         * Use when predecessor cannot be null.  The null check could
         * be elided, but is present to help the VM.
         *
         * @return the predecessor of this node
         */
        final Node predecessor() throws NullPointerException {
            Node p = prev;
            if (p == null)
                throw new NullPointerException();
            else
                return p;
        }

        Node() {    // Used to establish initial head or SHARED marker
        }

        Node(Thread thread, Node mode) {     // Used by addWaiter
            this.nextWaiter = mode;//独占模式、共享模式、条件队列的next节点。入队使用
            this.thread = thread;
        }

        Node(Thread thread, int waitStatus) { // Used by Condition,如条件队列时使用
            this.waitStatus = waitStatus;
            this.thread = thread;
        }
    }

Node主要是由thread,waitStatus组成的数据结构,多个Node组成一个同步队列<acquire,release>,或条件队列<wait,notify>

ConditionObject

关于ConditionObject,我以后好好研究一下再讲

/**
     * Condition implementation for a {@link
     * AbstractQueuedSynchronizer} serving as the basis of a {@link
     * Lock} implementation.
     *
     * <p>Method documentation for this class describes mechanics,
     * not behavioral specifications from the point of view of Lock
     * and Condition users. Exported versions of this class will in
     * general need to be accompanied by documentation describing
     * condition semantics that rely on those of the associated
     * {@code AbstractQueuedSynchronizer}.
     *
     * <p>This class is Serializable, but all fields are transient,
     * so deserialized conditions have no waiters.
     */
    public class ConditionObject implements Condition, java.io.Serializable {
        private static final long serialVersionUID = 1173984872572414699L;
        /** First node of condition queue. */
        private transient Node firstWaiter;
        /** Last node of condition queue. */
        private transient Node lastWaiter;

        /**
         * Creates a new {@code ConditionObject} instance.
         */
        public ConditionObject() { }

        // Internal methods

        /**
         * Adds a new waiter to wait queue.
         * @return its new wait node
         */
        private Node addConditionWaiter() {
            Node t = lastWaiter;
            // If lastWaiter is cancelled, clean out.
            if (t != null && t.waitStatus != Node.CONDITION) {
                unlinkCancelledWaiters();
                t = lastWaiter;
            }
            Node node = new Node(Thread.currentThread(), Node.CONDITION);
            if (t == null)
                firstWaiter = node;
            else
                t.nextWaiter = node;
            lastWaiter = node;
            return node;
        }

        /**
         * Removes and transfers nodes until hit non-cancelled one or
         * null. Split out from signal in part to encourage compilers
         * to inline the case of no waiters.
         * @param first (non-null) the first node on condition queue
         */
        private void doSignal(Node first) {
            do {
                if ( (firstWaiter = first.nextWaiter) == null)
                    lastWaiter = null;
                first.nextWaiter = null;
            } while (!transferForSignal(first) &&
                     (first = firstWaiter) != null);
        }

        /**
         * Removes and transfers all nodes.
         * @param first (non-null) the first node on condition queue
         */
        private void doSignalAll(Node first) {
            lastWaiter = firstWaiter = null;
            do {
                Node next = first.nextWaiter;
                first.nextWaiter = null;
                transferForSignal(first);
                first = next;
            } while (first != null);
        }

        /**
         * Unlinks cancelled waiter nodes from condition queue.
         * Called only while holding lock. This is called when
         * cancellation occurred during condition wait, and upon
         * insertion of a new waiter when lastWaiter is seen to have
         * been cancelled. This method is needed to avoid garbage
         * retention in the absence of signals. So even though it may
         * require a full traversal, it comes into play only when
         * timeouts or cancellations occur in the absence of
         * signals. It traverses all nodes rather than stopping at a
         * particular target to unlink all pointers to garbage nodes
         * without requiring many re-traversals during cancellation
         * storms.
         */
        private void unlinkCancelledWaiters() {
            Node t = firstWaiter;
            Node trail = null;
            while (t != null) {
                Node next = t.nextWaiter;
                if (t.waitStatus != Node.CONDITION) {
                    t.nextWaiter = null;
                    if (trail == null)
                        firstWaiter = next;
                    else
                        trail.nextWaiter = next;
                    if (next == null)
                        lastWaiter = trail;
                }
                else
                    trail = t;
                t = next;
            }
        }

        // public methods

        /**
         * Moves the longest-waiting thread, if one exists, from the
         * wait queue for this condition to the wait queue for the
         * owning lock.
         *
         * @throws IllegalMonitorStateException if {@link #isHeldExclusively}
         *         returns {@code false}
         */
        public final void signal() {
            if (!isHeldExclusively())
                throw new IllegalMonitorStateException();
            Node first = firstWaiter;
            if (first != null)
                doSignal(first);
        }

        /**
         * Moves all threads from the wait queue for this condition to
         * the wait queue for the owning lock.
         *
         * @throws IllegalMonitorStateException if {@link #isHeldExclusively}
         *         returns {@code false}
         */
        public final void signalAll() {
            if (!isHeldExclusively())
                throw new IllegalMonitorStateException();
            Node first = firstWaiter;
            if (first != null)
                doSignalAll(first);
        }

        /**
         * Implements uninterruptible condition wait.
         * <ol>
         * <li> Save lock state returned by {@link #getState}.
         * <li> Invoke {@link #release} with saved state as argument,
         *      throwing IllegalMonitorStateException if it fails.
         * <li> Block until signalled.
         * <li> Reacquire by invoking specialized version of
         *      {@link #acquire} with saved state as argument.
         * </ol>
         */
        public final void awaitUninterruptibly() {
            Node node = addConditionWaiter();
            int savedState = fullyRelease(node);
            boolean interrupted = false;
            while (!isOnSyncQueue(node)) {
                LockSupport.park(this);
                if (Thread.interrupted())
                    interrupted = true;
            }
            if (acquireQueued(node, savedState) || interrupted)
                selfInterrupt();
        }

        /*
         * For interruptible waits, we need to track whether to throw
         * InterruptedException, if interrupted while blocked on
         * condition, versus reinterrupt current thread, if
         * interrupted while blocked waiting to re-acquire.
         */

        /** Mode meaning to reinterrupt on exit from wait */
        private static final int REINTERRUPT =  1;
        /** Mode meaning to throw InterruptedException on exit from wait */
        private static final int THROW_IE    = -1;

        /**
         * Checks for interrupt, returning THROW_IE if interrupted
         * before signalled, REINTERRUPT if after signalled, or
         * 0 if not interrupted.
         */
        private int checkInterruptWhileWaiting(Node node) {
            return Thread.interrupted() ?
                (transferAfterCancelledWait(node) ? THROW_IE : REINTERRUPT) :
                0;
        }

        /**
         * Throws InterruptedException, reinterrupts current thread, or
         * does nothing, depending on mode.
         */
        private void reportInterruptAfterWait(int interruptMode)
            throws InterruptedException {
            if (interruptMode == THROW_IE)
                throw new InterruptedException();
            else if (interruptMode == REINTERRUPT)
                selfInterrupt();
        }

        /**
         * Implements interruptible condition wait.
         * <ol>
         * <li> If current thread is interrupted, throw InterruptedException.
         * <li> Save lock state returned by {@link #getState}.
         * <li> Invoke {@link #release} with saved state as argument,
         *      throwing IllegalMonitorStateException if it fails.
         * <li> Block until signalled or interrupted.
         * <li> Reacquire by invoking specialized version of
         *      {@link #acquire} with saved state as argument.
         * <li> If interrupted while blocked in step 4, throw InterruptedException.
         * </ol>
         */
        public final void await() throws InterruptedException {
            if (Thread.interrupted())
                throw new InterruptedException();
            Node node = addConditionWaiter();
            int savedState = fullyRelease(node);
            int interruptMode = 0;
            while (!isOnSyncQueue(node)) {
                LockSupport.park(this);
                if ((interruptMode = checkInterruptWhileWaiting(node)) != 0)
                    break;
            }
            if (acquireQueued(node, savedState) && interruptMode != THROW_IE)
                interruptMode = REINTERRUPT;
            if (node.nextWaiter != null) // clean up if cancelled
                unlinkCancelledWaiters();
            if (interruptMode != 0)
                reportInterruptAfterWait(interruptMode);
        }

        /**
         * Implements timed condition wait.
         * <ol>
         * <li> If current thread is interrupted, throw InterruptedException.
         * <li> Save lock state returned by {@link #getState}.
         * <li> Invoke {@link #release} with saved state as argument,
         *      throwing IllegalMonitorStateException if it fails.
         * <li> Block until signalled, interrupted, or timed out.
         * <li> Reacquire by invoking specialized version of
         *      {@link #acquire} with saved state as argument.
         * <li> If interrupted while blocked in step 4, throw InterruptedException.
         * </ol>
         */
        public final long awaitNanos(long nanosTimeout)
                throws InterruptedException {
            if (Thread.interrupted())
                throw new InterruptedException();
            Node node = addConditionWaiter();
            int savedState = fullyRelease(node);
            final long deadline = System.nanoTime() + nanosTimeout;
            int interruptMode = 0;
            while (!isOnSyncQueue(node)) {
                if (nanosTimeout <= 0L) {
                    transferAfterCancelledWait(node);
                    break;
                }
                if (nanosTimeout >= spinForTimeoutThreshold)
                    LockSupport.parkNanos(this, nanosTimeout);
                if ((interruptMode = checkInterruptWhileWaiting(node)) != 0)
                    break;
                nanosTimeout = deadline - System.nanoTime();
            }
            if (acquireQueued(node, savedState) && interruptMode != THROW_IE)
                interruptMode = REINTERRUPT;
            if (node.nextWaiter != null)
                unlinkCancelledWaiters();
            if (interruptMode != 0)
                reportInterruptAfterWait(interruptMode);
            return deadline - System.nanoTime();
        }

        /**
         * Implements absolute timed condition wait.
         * <ol>
         * <li> If current thread is interrupted, throw InterruptedException.
         * <li> Save lock state returned by {@link #getState}.
         * <li> Invoke {@link #release} with saved state as argument,
         *      throwing IllegalMonitorStateException if it fails.
         * <li> Block until signalled, interrupted, or timed out.
         * <li> Reacquire by invoking specialized version of
         *      {@link #acquire} with saved state as argument.
         * <li> If interrupted while blocked in step 4, throw InterruptedException.
         * <li> If timed out while blocked in step 4, return false, else true.
         * </ol>
         */
        public final boolean awaitUntil(Date deadline)
                throws InterruptedException {
            long abstime = deadline.getTime();
            if (Thread.interrupted())
                throw new InterruptedException();
            Node node = addConditionWaiter();
            int savedState = fullyRelease(node);
            boolean timedout = false;
            int interruptMode = 0;
            while (!isOnSyncQueue(node)) {
                if (System.currentTimeMillis() > abstime) {
                    timedout = transferAfterCancelledWait(node);
                    break;
                }
                LockSupport.parkUntil(this, abstime);
                if ((interruptMode = checkInterruptWhileWaiting(node)) != 0)
                    break;
            }
            if (acquireQueued(node, savedState) && interruptMode != THROW_IE)
                interruptMode = REINTERRUPT;
            if (node.nextWaiter != null)
                unlinkCancelledWaiters();
            if (interruptMode != 0)
                reportInterruptAfterWait(interruptMode);
            return !timedout;
        }

        /**
         * Implements timed condition wait.
         * <ol>
         * <li> If current thread is interrupted, throw InterruptedException.
         * <li> Save lock state returned by {@link #getState}.
         * <li> Invoke {@link #release} with saved state as argument,
         *      throwing IllegalMonitorStateException if it fails.
         * <li> Block until signalled, interrupted, or timed out.
         * <li> Reacquire by invoking specialized version of
         *      {@link #acquire} with saved state as argument.
         * <li> If interrupted while blocked in step 4, throw InterruptedException.
         * <li> If timed out while blocked in step 4, return false, else true.
         * </ol>
         */
        public final boolean await(long time, TimeUnit unit)
                throws InterruptedException {
            long nanosTimeout = unit.toNanos(time);
            if (Thread.interrupted())
                throw new InterruptedException();
            Node node = addConditionWaiter();
            int savedState = fullyRelease(node);
            final long deadline = System.nanoTime() + nanosTimeout;
            boolean timedout = false;
            int interruptMode = 0;
            while (!isOnSyncQueue(node)) {
                if (nanosTimeout <= 0L) {
                    timedout = transferAfterCancelledWait(node);
                    break;
                }
                if (nanosTimeout >= spinForTimeoutThreshold)
                    LockSupport.parkNanos(this, nanosTimeout);
                if ((interruptMode = checkInterruptWhileWaiting(node)) != 0)
                    break;
                nanosTimeout = deadline - System.nanoTime();
            }
            if (acquireQueued(node, savedState) && interruptMode != THROW_IE)
                interruptMode = REINTERRUPT;
            if (node.nextWaiter != null)
                unlinkCancelledWaiters();
            if (interruptMode != 0)
                reportInterruptAfterWait(interruptMode);
            return !timedout;
        }

        //  support for instrumentation

        /**
         * Returns true if this condition was created by the given
         * synchronization object.
         *
         * @return {@code true} if owned
         */
        final boolean isOwnedBy(AbstractQueuedSynchronizer sync) {
            return sync == AbstractQueuedSynchronizer.this;
        }

        /**
         * Queries whether any threads are waiting on this condition.
         * Implements {@link AbstractQueuedSynchronizer#hasWaiters(ConditionObject)}.
         *
         * @return {@code true} if there are any waiting threads
         * @throws IllegalMonitorStateException if {@link #isHeldExclusively}
         *         returns {@code false}
         */
        protected final boolean hasWaiters() {
            if (!isHeldExclusively())
                throw new IllegalMonitorStateException();
            for (Node w = firstWaiter; w != null; w = w.nextWaiter) {
                if (w.waitStatus == Node.CONDITION)
                    return true;
            }
            return false;
        }

        /**
         * Returns an estimate of the number of threads waiting on
         * this condition.
         * Implements {@link AbstractQueuedSynchronizer#getWaitQueueLength(ConditionObject)}.
         *
         * @return the estimated number of waiting threads
         * @throws IllegalMonitorStateException if {@link #isHeldExclusively}
         *         returns {@code false}
         */
        protected final int getWaitQueueLength() {
            if (!isHeldExclusively())
                throw new IllegalMonitorStateException();
            int n = 0;
            for (Node w = firstWaiter; w != null; w = w.nextWaiter) {
                if (w.waitStatus == Node.CONDITION)
                    ++n;
            }
            return n;
        }

        /**
         * Returns a collection containing those threads that may be
         * waiting on this Condition.
         * Implements {@link AbstractQueuedSynchronizer#getWaitingThreads(ConditionObject)}.
         *
         * @return the collection of threads
         * @throws IllegalMonitorStateException if {@link #isHeldExclusively}
         *         returns {@code false}
         */
        protected final Collection<Thread> getWaitingThreads() {
            if (!isHeldExclusively())
                throw new IllegalMonitorStateException();
            ArrayList<Thread> list = new ArrayList<Thread>();
            for (Node w = firstWaiter; w != null; w = w.nextWaiter) {
                if (w.waitStatus == Node.CONDITION) {
                    Thread t = w.thread;
                    if (t != null)
                        list.add(t);
                }
            }
            return list;
        }
    }

Field

    /**
     * Head of the wait queue, lazily initialized.  Except for
     * initialization, it is modified only via method setHead.  Note:
     * If head exists, its waitStatus is guaranteed not to be
     * CANCELLED.
     * 等待队列的head,懒加载。除了初始化,只会被setHead修改。如果存在head,他的waiitStatus绝对不是canceled
     */
    private transient volatile Node head;

    /**
     * Tail of the wait queue, lazily initialized.  Modified only via
     * method enq to add new wait node.
     * 等待队列的tali,懒加载。只会被enq修改
     */
    private transient volatile Node tail;

    /**
     * The synchronization state.同步器的状态
     */
    private volatile int state;

下面重点讲方法

Method

    扩展——非抽象方法

    以下5个protected方法,不是传统的abstract方法,是为了让子类选择性实现,如:writeLock只需要实现tryAcquire/tryRelease这种独占锁的方法,readLock只需要实现tryAcquireShared/tryReleaseShared这种共享锁的方法。

    // Main exported methods                          主要暴露出去的方法,给了子类实现上的灵活性

    /**
     * Attempts to acquire in exclusive mode. This method should query
     * if the state of the object permits it to be acquired in the
     * exclusive mode, and if so to acquire it.
     * 以独占的模式获取锁。需要查看 状态 来决定是否能获取锁
     * <p>This method is always invoked by the thread performing
     * acquire.  If this method reports failure, the acquire method
     * may queue the thread, if it is not already queued, until it is
     * signalled by a release from some other thread. This can be used
     * to implement method {@link Lock#tryLock()}.
     * 被尝试获取锁的线程调用,会进入\停在队列,直到被其他线程release后signal。该方法可以实现Lock.tryLock
     * <p>The default
     * implementation throws {@link UnsupportedOperationException}.
     *
     * @param arg the acquire argument. This value is always the one
     *        passed to an acquire method, or is the value saved on entry
     *        to a condition wait.  The value is otherwise uninterpreted
     *        and can represent anything you like.
     * @return {@code true} if successful. Upon success, this object has
     *         been acquired.
     * @throws IllegalMonitorStateException if acquiring would place this
     *         synchronizer in an illegal state. This exception must be
     *         thrown in a consistent fashion for synchronization to work
     *         correctly.
     * @throws UnsupportedOperationException if exclusive mode is not supported
     */
    protected boolean tryAcquire(int arg) {
        throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
    }

    /**
     * Attempts to set the state to reflect a release in exclusive
     * mode.
     *
     * <p>This method is always invoked by the thread performing release.
     *
     * <p>The default implementation throws
     * {@link UnsupportedOperationException}.
     *
     * @param arg the release argument. This value is always the one
     *        passed to a release method, or the current state value upon
     *        entry to a condition wait.  The value is otherwise
     *        uninterpreted and can represent anything you like.
     * @return {@code true} if this object is now in a fully released
     *         state, so that any waiting threads may attempt to acquire;
     *         and {@code false} otherwise.
     * @throws IllegalMonitorStateException if releasing would place this
     *         synchronizer in an illegal state. This exception must be
     *         thrown in a consistent fashion for synchronization to work
     *         correctly.
     * @throws UnsupportedOperationException if exclusive mode is not supported
     */
    protected boolean tryRelease(int arg) {
        throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
    }

    /**
     * Attempts to acquire in shared mode. This method should query if
     * the state of the object permits it to be acquired in the shared
     * mode, and if so to acquire it.
     *
     * <p>This method is always invoked by the thread performing
     * acquire.  If this method reports failure, the acquire method
     * may queue the thread, if it is not already queued, until it is
     * signalled by a release from some other thread.
     *
     * <p>The default implementation throws {@link
     * UnsupportedOperationException}.
     *
     * @param arg the acquire argument. This value is always the one
     *        passed to an acquire method, or is the value saved on entry
     *        to a condition wait.  The value is otherwise uninterpreted
     *        and can represent anything you like.
     * @return a negative value on failure; zero if acquisition in shared
     *         mode succeeded but no subsequent shared-mode acquire can
     *         succeed; and a positive value if acquisition in shared
     *         mode succeeded and subsequent shared-mode acquires might
     *         also succeed, in which case a subsequent waiting thread
     *         must check availability. (Support for three different
     *         return values enables this method to be used in contexts
     *         where acquires only sometimes act exclusively.)  Upon
     *         success, this object has been acquired.
     * @throws IllegalMonitorStateException if acquiring would place this
     *         synchronizer in an illegal state. This exception must be
     *         thrown in a consistent fashion for synchronization to work
     *         correctly.
     * @throws UnsupportedOperationException if shared mode is not supported
     */
    protected int tryAcquireShared(int arg) {
        throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
    }

    /**
     * Attempts to set the state to reflect a release in shared mode.
     *
     * <p>This method is always invoked by the thread performing release.
     *
     * <p>The default implementation throws
     * {@link UnsupportedOperationException}.
     *
     * @param arg the release argument. This value is always the one
     *        passed to a release method, or the current state value upon
     *        entry to a condition wait.  The value is otherwise
     *        uninterpreted and can represent anything you like.
     * @return {@code true} if this release of shared mode may permit a
     *         waiting acquire (shared or exclusive) to succeed; and
     *         {@code false} otherwise
     * @throws IllegalMonitorStateException if releasing would place this
     *         synchronizer in an illegal state. This exception must be
     *         thrown in a consistent fashion for synchronization to work
     *         correctly.
     * @throws UnsupportedOperationException if shared mode is not supported
     */
    protected boolean tryReleaseShared(int arg) {
        throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
    }

    /**
     * Returns {@code true} if synchronization is held exclusively with
     * respect to the current (calling) thread.  This method is invoked
     * upon each call to a non-waiting {@link ConditionObject} method.
     * (Waiting methods instead invoke {@link #release}.)
     *
     * <p>The default implementation throws {@link
     * UnsupportedOperationException}. This method is invoked
     * internally only within {@link ConditionObject} methods, so need
     * not be defined if conditions are not used.
     *
     * @return {@code true} if synchronization is held exclusively;
     *         {@code false} otherwise
     * @throws UnsupportedOperationException if conditions are not supported
     */
    protected boolean isHeldExclusively() {
        throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
    }

      独占模式——获取锁

    // Queuing utilities

    /**
     * The number of nanoseconds for which it is faster to spin
     * rather than to use timed park. A rough estimate suffices
     * to improve responsiveness with very short timeouts.
     */
    static final long spinForTimeoutThreshold = 1000L;//自旋阈值

    /**
     * Acquires in exclusive mode, ignoring interrupts.  Implemented
     * by invoking at least once {@link #tryAcquire},
     * returning on success.  Otherwise the thread is queued, possibly
     * repeatedly blocking and unblocking, invoking {@link
     * #tryAcquire} until success.  This method can be used
     * to implement method {@link Lock#lock}.
     * 独占模式获取锁,不响应 中断 。至少调用一次tryAcquire,如果返回true,结束。否则,线程入队,在blocking-unblocking
     * 之间徘徊,直到tryAcquire成功。
     * @param arg the acquire argument.  This value is conveyed to
     *        {@link #tryAcquire} but is otherwise uninterpreted and
     *        can represent anything you like.
     */
    public final void acquire(int arg) {//tryAcquire由子类继承
        if (!tryAcquire(arg) &&
            acquireQueued(addWaiter(Node.EXCLUSIVE), arg))
            selfInterrupt();
    }

    /**
     * Creates and enqueues node for current thread and given mode.
     * 为当前线程以给定的模式(独占、共享)创建node,并enqueue,入队列
     * @param mode Node.EXCLUSIVE for exclusive, Node.SHARED for shared
     * @return the new node
     */
    private Node addWaiter(Node mode) {
        Node node = new Node(Thread.currentThread(), mode);//构造新节点,有独占、共享,两种模式
        // Try the fast path of enq; backup to full enq on failure,fast-fail机制,先部分调用enq,fail后full调用enq
        Node pred = tail;//获取tail节点
        if (pred != null) {//如果存在
            node.prev = pred;//prev,volatile变量
            if (compareAndSetTail(pred, node)) {//以cas方式(保证线程安全)设置尾节点,成功
                pred.next = node;//设置两个节点的双向关系 node1<=>node2
                return node;
            }
        }
        enq(node);
        return node;
    }

    /**
     * Inserts node into queue, initializing if necessary. See picture above.
     * @param node the node to insert
     * @return node's predecessor
     */
    private Node enq(final Node node) {
        for (;;) {//自旋
            Node t = tail;
            if (t == null) { // Must initialize
                if (compareAndSetHead(new Node()))
                    tail = head;
            } else {
                node.prev = t;
                if (compareAndSetTail(t, node)) {//需要for自旋与cas操作 保证线程安全
                    t.next = node;
                    return t;
                }
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Acquires in exclusive uninterruptible mode for thread already in
     * queue. Used by condition wait methods as well as acquire.
     * 在独占模式中不可中断地获取锁。也可用在条件队列中
     * @param node the node
     * @param arg the acquire argument
     * @return {@code true} if interrupted while waiting
     */
    final boolean acquireQueued(final Node node, int arg) {
        boolean failed = true;
        try {
            boolean interrupted = false;
            for (;;) {//可以看到,这里是一个自旋,acquire方法会“重复”在这里,直到获取锁成功
                final Node p = node.predecessor();//node.prev
                if (p == head && tryAcquire(arg)) {//如果node的前驱节点时头结点,且获取锁成功
                    setHead(node);
                    p.next = null; // help GC
                    failed = false;
                    return interrupted;
                }
                if (shouldParkAfterFailedAcquire(p, node) &&
                    parkAndCheckInterrupt())
                    interrupted = true;
            }
        } finally {
            if (failed)
                cancelAcquire(node);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Checks and updates status for a node that failed to acquire.
     * Returns true if thread should block. This is the main signal
     * control in all acquire loops.  Requires that pred == node.prev.
     * 检查并更新status of node that fails to acquire.
     * @param pred node's predecessor holding status
     * @param node the node
     * @return {@code true} if thread should block
     */
    private static boolean shouldParkAfterFailedAcquire(Node pred, Node node) {
        int ws = pred.waitStatus;//make sure that pred is node.prev :  ws是在for里循环调用的,不用担心现在的值马上会被修改
        if (ws == Node.SIGNAL)
            /*
             * This node has already set status asking a release
             * to signal it, so it can safely park.
             * node的前驱节点时signal,当pred做release操作时,会unpark node,所以node可以安全地park
             */
            return true;
        if (ws > 0) {
            /*
             * Predecessor was cancelled. Skip over predecessors and
             * indicate retry.
             * 前驱节点已经取消,prev往前移
             */
            do {
                node.prev = pred = pred.prev;
            } while (pred.waitStatus > 0);
            pred.next = node;
        } else {
            /*
             * waitStatus must be 0 or PROPAGATE.  Indicate that we
             * need a signal, but don't park yet.  Caller will need to
             * retry to make sure it cannot acquire before parking.
             * waitStatus must be 0 or PROPAGATE.但不用立即park线程,在for里再一次尝试获取锁
             * 可以发现这个cas没有直接包含在for循环里(调用shouldParkAfterFailedAcquire会自旋),不在乎一次的成败
             */
            compareAndSetWaitStatus(pred, ws, Node.SIGNAL);
        }
        return false;
    }

    /**
     * Convenience method to interrupt current thread.
     */
    static void selfInterrupt() {
        Thread.currentThread().interrupt();
    }

    /**
     * Convenience method to park and then check if interrupted
     *
     * @return {@code true} if interrupted
     */
    private final boolean parkAndCheckInterrupt() {
        LockSupport.park(this);
        return Thread.interrupted();
    }

LockSupport,以后要重点看一下

总结一下:先tryAcquire,成功则结束。失败,则先将当前线程包装成独占节点node,并尝试将node设为tail,从而加入等待队列(因为是多线程操作,直接加入等待队列会有问题,通过单次地成为tail,保证线程安全),如果没设成tail(多线程的复杂性),在for循环里设成tail。当加入队列后,在for循环里获取锁(自己成为头结点),如果没有获取锁,根据实际情况决定park,或者继续尝试获取锁。

独占模式——释放锁

    /**
     * Releases in exclusive mode.  Implemented by unblocking one or
     * more threads if {@link #tryRelease} returns true.
     * This method can be used to implement method {@link Lock#unlock}.
     *
     * @param arg the release argument.  This value is conveyed to
     *        {@link #tryRelease} but is otherwise uninterpreted and
     *        can represent anything you like.
     * @return the value returned from {@link #tryRelease}
     */
    public final boolean release(int arg) {
        if (tryRelease(arg)) {//if tryRelease success,
            Node h = head;
            if (h != null && h.waitStatus != 0)
                unparkSuccessor(h);
            return true;
        }
        return false;
    }

    /**
     * Wakes up node's successor, if one exists.
     * 唤醒后继节点
     * @param node the node
     */
    private void unparkSuccessor(Node node) {
        /*
         * If status is negative (i.e., possibly needing signal) try
         * to clear in anticipation of signalling.  It is OK if this
         * fails or if status is changed by waiting thread.
         */
        int ws = node.waitStatus;
        if (ws < 0)
            compareAndSetWaitStatus(node, ws, 0);//不在for循环里,不要求成功

        /*
         * Thread to unpark is held in successor, which is normally
         * just the next node.  But if cancelled or apparently null,
         * traverse backwards from tail to find the actual
         * non-cancelled successor.
         */
        Node s = node.next;
        if (s == null || s.waitStatus > 0) {//waitStatus>0 it has canceled
            s = null;
            for (Node t = tail; t != null && t != node; t = t.prev)
                if (t.waitStatus <= 0)
                    s = t;
        }
        if (s != null)
            LockSupport.unpark(s.thread);//唤醒在acquire里park住的线程
    }

如果tryRelease成功,唤醒后继节点(unpark在acuireQueue里park住的线程,让其进行下一次的for循环,final Node p = node.predecessor();  if (p == head && tryAcquire(arg)) )。

共享模式获取锁

    /**
     * Acquires in shared mode, ignoring interrupts.  Implemented by
     * first invoking at least once {@link #tryAcquireShared},
     * returning on success.  Otherwise the thread is queued, possibly
     * repeatedly blocking and unblocking, invoking {@link
     * #tryAcquireShared} until success.
     * 共享模式获取锁,不响应中断。失败后,进入队列,在blocking\unblocking之间徘徊,直到成功
     * @param arg the acquire argument.  This value is conveyed to
     *        {@link #tryAcquireShared} but is otherwise uninterpreted
     *        and can represent anything you like.
     */
    public final void acquireShared(int arg) {
        if (tryAcquireShared(arg) < 0)
            doAcquireShared(arg);
    }

    /**
     * Acquires in shared uninterruptible mode. do...实际执行体
     * @param arg the acquire argument
     */
    private void doAcquireShared(int arg) {
        final Node node = addWaiter(Node.SHARED);//创建共享节点,塞入队列尾部
        boolean failed = true;
        try {
            boolean interrupted = false;
            for (;;) {
                final Node p = node.predecessor();
                if (p == head) {
                    int r = tryAcquireShared(arg);//tryAcquire - boolean  tryAcquireShared - int
                    if (r >= 0) {
                        setHeadAndPropagate(node, r);
                        p.next = null; // help GC
                        if (interrupted)
                            selfInterrupt();
                        failed = false;
                        return;
                    }
                }
                if (shouldParkAfterFailedAcquire(p, node) &&
                    parkAndCheckInterrupt())
                    interrupted = true;
            }
        } finally {
            if (failed)
                cancelAcquire(node);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Creates and enqueues node for current thread and given mode.
     *
     * @param mode Node.EXCLUSIVE for exclusive, Node.SHARED for shared
     * @return the new node
     */
    private Node addWaiter(Node mode) {
        Node node = new Node(Thread.currentThread(), mode);
        // Try the fast path of enq; backup to full enq on failure
        Node pred = tail;
        if (pred != null) {
            node.prev = pred;
            if (compareAndSetTail(pred, node)) {
                pred.next = node;
                return node;
            }
        }
        enq(node);
        return node;
    }

    /**
     * Sets head of queue, and checks if successor may be waiting
     * in shared mode, if so propagating if either propagate > 0 or
     * PROPAGATE status was set.
     *
     * @param node the node
     * @param propagate the return value from a tryAcquireShared
     */
    private void setHeadAndPropagate(Node node, int propagate) {
        Node h = head; // Record old head for check below   老head
        setHead(node);
        /*
         * Try to signal next queued node if:
         *   Propagation was indicated by caller,//调用者明示:传播
         *     or was recorded (as h.waitStatus either before
         *     or after setHead) by a previous operation
         *     (note: this uses sign-check of waitStatus because
         *      PROPAGATE status may transition to SIGNAL.)
         * and
         *   The next node is waiting in shared mode,
         *     or we don't know, because it appears null
         *
         * The conservatism in both of these checks may cause
         * unnecessary wake-ups, but only when there are multiple
         * racing acquires/releases, so most need signals now or soon
         * anyway.
         */
        if (propagate > 0 || h == null || h.waitStatus < 0 ||
            (h = head) == null || h.waitStatus < 0) {
            Node s = node.next;
            if (s == null || s.isShared())
                doReleaseShared();
        }
    }

   /**
    * Returns true if node is waiting in shared mode.
    */
    final boolean isShared() {
        return nextWaiter == SHARED;
    }

    /**
     * Release action for shared mode -- signals successor and ensures
     * propagation. (Note: For exclusive mode, release just amounts
     * to calling unparkSuccessor of head if it needs signal.)
     * 共享模式释放锁 signal后继,并传播。独占模式只signal后继
     */
    private void doReleaseShared() {
        /*
         * Ensure that a release propagates, even if there are other
         * in-progress acquires/releases.  This proceeds in the usual
         * way of trying to unparkSuccessor of head if it needs
         * signal. But if it does not, status is set to PROPAGATE to
         * ensure that upon release, propagation continues.
         * Additionally, we must loop in case a new node is added
         * while we are doing this. Also, unlike other uses of
         * unparkSuccessor, we need to know if CAS to reset status
         * fails, if so rechecking.
         */
        for (;;) {
            Node h = head;
            if (h != null && h != tail) {
                int ws = h.waitStatus;
                if (ws == Node.SIGNAL) {//
                    if (!compareAndSetWaitStatus(h, Node.SIGNAL, 0))
                        continue;            // loop to recheck cases
                    unparkSuccessor(h);      //only signal 会唤醒后继
                }
                else if (ws == 0 &&
                         !compareAndSetWaitStatus(h, 0, Node.PROPAGATE))
                    continue;                // loop on failed CAS
            }
            if (h == head)                   // loop if head changed 暗示:其他线程获取锁(setHead)
                break;                       //此期间其余线程没有获取锁,才会结束
        }
    }

    /**
     * Wakes up node's successor, if one exists.
     *
     * @param node the node
     */
    private void unparkSuccessor(Node node) {
        /*
         * If status is negative (i.e., possibly needing signal) try
         * to clear in anticipation of signalling.  It is OK if this
         * fails or if status is changed by waiting thread.
         */
        int ws = node.waitStatus;
        if (ws < 0)
            compareAndSetWaitStatus(node, ws, 0);

        /*
         * Thread to unpark is held in successor, which is normally
         * just the next node.  But if cancelled or apparently null,
         * traverse backwards from tail to find the actual
         * non-cancelled successor.
         */
        Node s = node.next;
        if (s == null || s.waitStatus > 0) {
            s = null;
            for (Node t = tail; t != null && t != node; t = t.prev)
                if (t.waitStatus <= 0)
                    s = t;
        }
        if (s != null)
            LockSupport.unpark(s.thread);
    }

 

 

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