# [翻译]mongodb日志分析工具mtools之mplotqueries

2014/11/27 16:39

mtools是一组非常好用的mongodb日志分析工具，里面最复杂的命令是mplotqueries，上网查了一下，还没有人翻译过。英文不好，费了好大的劲翻完，翻的不好，但没有办法，我英文水平就这么多~

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## mplotqueries

mplotqueries is a tool to visualize operations in MongoDB logfiles. It has several different plot types and can group information in various ways.

### Usage（使用说明）

mplotqueries [-h] [--version] logfile [logfile ...]               [--group GROUP]               [--logscale]               [--type {nscanned/n,rsstate,connchurn,histogram,range,scatter,event} ]               [--overlay [ {add,list,reset} ]]               [additional plot type parameters]

mplotqueries can also be used with shell pipe syntax, for example:

mlogfilter logfile [parameters] | mplotqueries --type histogram

### General Parameters（全局参数）

###### -h, --help

shows the help text and exits.

###### --version

shows the version number and exits.

###### Logarithmic Scale （对数模式）

--logscale
This option enables the logarithmic scale for plots where this makes sense. This is very useful if the plot contains outliers that squash all other data points to the bottom of the graph (see below comparison on the same data between log scale disabled and enabled). It can also be enabled with the l (lowercase L) shortcut once a plot is rendered. Switching scale on an already rendered plot may take a few seconds before the new scale is shown.

###### Custom Title（自定义标题）

--title
This option lets you overwrite the default title (the file name(s)) with a custom title. If the title contains spaces, the full title needs to be quoted in strings. The title of a plot is shown above the graph. A file read in from stdin does not use a title.

###### Operation Start Time （操作开始时间）

--optime-start
Events are written to the log file when they finish, and by default, mplotqueries plots the operation on the x-axis at that point in time. Sometimes, it can be useful to see when operations started instead. For operations that have a duration (queries, updates, etc.) mplotqueries can subtract the duration and plot the operation when it started instead. Turn this feature on with the --optime-start flag.

###### Output to File （输出文件）

--output-file
With this option, the plot can be written to a file rather than opening the interactive view window. The format is auto-recognized from the filename extension, with many supported formats, e.g. .png, .pdf, ...

### Groupings （分组）

###### Group By （分组）

--group GROUP
The group parameter specifies what the data should be grouped on. Grouping can have different meaning for the various plots below, but generally, groups are represented by color. A scatter plot would choose one color for each group. A histogram plot would also choose a color per group, but additionally stack the histogrammed groups on top of each other. Some plots don't support grouping at all. See the plot types below for information about their grouping behavior.

The following values are possible for GROUP for most plots (some plots may not support all groups)

• namespace (default for single file) ( 单文件时的默认选项 )

• filename (default for multiple files) ( 多文件时的默认选项 )

• operation (queries, inserts, updates, ...) （操作）

• log2code (not supported by every plot type) （不支持图表）

• pattern (query pattern, e.g. {foo: 1, bar: 1}, no sub-documents) （查询表达式，不包含子文档）

• custom grouping with regular expressions (see Python's regex syntax（正则表达式格式的自定义分组）

###### Example （示例）
mplotqueries mongod.log --group operation

This command creates a scatter plot on duration (by default) and colors the operations (queries, inserts, updates, deletes, commands, getmores) in individual colors.

###### Example （示例）
mlogfilter mongod.log --operation update --namespace test.users |    mplotqueries --type histogram --group "_id: ObjectId$'([^']+)'$"

This command combination creates a histogram plot on duration of all the update operations on the test.users collection and groups the updates based on the _idObjectId (extracted by the regular expression). If parentheses are present in the regular expression, then only the first matched group is being used as the group string (in this case, the 24 hex characters in the ObjectId). If parentheses are not present, the full regex match is being used as group string. Parentheses (and other reserved symbols) that need to be matched literally (like the parentheses inObjectId('...') above) need to be escaped with a \.

If the number of groups is large, like in this example, it can be reduced with the --group-limit option below.

###### Group Limits （分组限制）

--group-limit N

This parameter will limit the number of groups to the top N, based on the number of matching lines per group (descending). The remaining groups are then grouped together in a single bucket called other. This option is useful if the number of groups is very large, as repetitions in color (there are only 14 distinct colors) could otherwise make it hard to distinguish all the groups for some plot types.

###### Example （例如）
mplotqueries mongod.log --type range --group log2code --group-limit 10

This command creates a range plot, grouped on log2code, but only displays the 10 most frequently occurring log messages as separate groups. All others are plotted as one additional group others.

### Plot Types（图像类别）

#### Scatter Plot（散点图，默认的）

--type scatter (default)
A scatter plot prints a marker on a two-dimensional axis, where the x-axis represents date and time, and the y-axis represents a certain numeric value. The numeric value for the y-axis can be chosen with an additional parameter (--yaxis, see below). By default, scatter plots show the duration of operations (queries, updates, inserts, deletes, ...) on the y-axis.

##### Available Groupings （有效分组）

Scatter plots use colors and additionally different marker shapes (circles, squares, diamonds, ...) to display different groups. The supported groupings for scatter plots are:namespace, operation, thread, filename (for multiple files), and regular expressions.

###### Y-Axis Value （y轴值）

--yaxis FIELD

This parameter determines what value should be considered for the location on the y-axis. By default, the y-axis plots duration. Other possibilities are nscanned, nupdated,ninserted, ntoreturn, nreturned, numYields, r (read lock), w (write lock).

###### Example （例如）
mplotqueries mongod.log --type scatter --yaxis w

This command plots the time (x-axis) vs. the write lock values of all operations (y-axis). Only lines that have a write lock value present are considered for the plot. Note that the unit for read/write lock is in microseconds.

#### Scan Ratio Plot （扫描比例图）

--type nscanned/n
The scan ratio plot is a special type of scatter plot. Instead of plotting a single field as the standard scatter plot, it will calculate the ratio between the nscanned value and the nreturned value, and uses that result as the value for the y-axis. This plot is very useful to quickly find inefficient queries.

###### Example （例如）
mplotqueries mongod.log --type nscanned/n

#### Duration Line Plot （持续时间图）

--type durline
The Duration Line plot shows operations that have a duration (like queries, updates, inserts, commands, etc). It draws a diagnonal line from when the operation started (touching the x-axis) to when the operation stopped. This plot is especially useful to see when operations started and what impact they had on other queries during that time. It has the nice side-effect that all operations that started at the same time lie on the same diagonal line. Duration Line plots also make good plots to overlay with others.

###### Example （例如）
  grep "oplog.rs" mongod.log | mplotqueries --type durline --overlay    mplotqueries mongod.log --group operation

This command plots long-running oplog.rs operations as duration lines, and overlays them with a scatter plot of all operations.

#### Histogram Plot （柱状图）

--type histogram
Histogram plots don't consider a particular value in the log line (like for example scatter plots do), but rather bin the occurrence of log lines together in time buckets and present the result as a bar chart. The more occurrences of a certain log line (per group) in a given time frame, the higher the bar for that bucket. The size of a bucket is 60 seconds by default, but can be configured to another value (--bucketsize, see below). Unless one wants to know the total number of log lines per time bucket (which is not very useful information), this command should always be preceeded with a filter, for examplemlogfilter or grep.

##### Available Groupings （有效的分组）

Histogram plots use colors to display different groups. Each group gets its own bar, the bars are stacked on top of each other to also give an indication of the total number of matched lines per bucket. The supported groupings for histogram plots are: namespace,operation, thread, filename (for multiple files), log2code and regular expressions.

###### Bucket Size

--bucketsize SIZE, -b SIZE (alias)

This parameter sets the bucket size for an individual bucket (bar). The unit is measured in seconds and the default value is 60 seconds. This needs to be adjusted if the total time span of a log file is rather large. More than 1000 buckets are slow to render, andmplotqueries will output a warning to consider increasing the bucket size.

###### Example （示例）
mlogfilter mongod.log --operation insert |     mplotqueries --type histogram --bucketsize 3600

This command plots the inserts per hour (3600 seconds) as a histogram plot. By default, the grouping is on namespace.

See this plot for another histogram plot example.

#### Connection Churn Plot （连接产生图）

--type connchurn
A connection churn plot is a special plot that only considers lines about opening and closing connections. It will then create an opened (green bars) vs. closed (red bars) plot over time, and additionally show the number of currently open connections (black line, only for MongoDB log files >= 2.2).

##### Available Groupings （有效分组）

No groupings are supported by this type of plot.

###### Bucket Size （块大小）

--bucketsize SIZE, -b SIZE (alias)

As with histogram plots, this parameter sets the bucket size for an individual bucket (bar). The unit is measured in seconds and the default value is 60 seconds. This needs to be adjusted if the total time span of a log file is rather large. More than 1000 buckets are slow to render, and mplotqueries will output a warning to consider increasing the bucket size.

###### Example （示例）
mplotqueries mongod.log --type connchurn --bucketsize 600

This command plots connection churn per 10 minutes (600 seconds) as a bi-directional histogram plot, as well as the total number of open connections at each time (black line).

#### Range Plot （区间图）

--type range

Range plots are good in displaying when certain events occurred and how long they lasted. For example, you can grep for a certain error message and use the range plot to see when these errors mostly occurred. For each group, a range plot shows one or several (if the --gap option is used) horizontal bars, that go from beginning to end of a certain event. If no --gap value is provided, the default is to not have any gaps at all, and the bar goes from the time of the first to the time of the last line of that group. If --gap is used, then the bar is interrupted whenever two consecutive log lines are further apart than the gap threshold.

##### Available Groupings （可用分组）

Range plots use colors to display different groups. Each group gets its own horizontal bar(s). The supported groupings for range plots are: namespace, operation, thread,filename (for multiple files), log2code and regular expressions.

###### Example （示例）
mplotqueries primary.log seconary1.log secondary2.log --type range

This plot shows for multiple files when they start and finish. By default, the grouping for multiple files is on filename, and as there is no gap threshold given, the bars range from the first two the last log line per file. This is useful to find out if and where several log files have an overlap.

###### Gap Threshold （间隔空隙）

--gap LEN

If a gap threshold is provided, then the horizontal bars are interrupted when two consecutive events of the same group are further apart than LEN seconds.

###### Example （示例）
mplotqueries mongod.log --type range --group operation --gap 600

This plot shows ranges of contiguous blocks of updates where the gap threshold is 600 seconds (only gaps between two operations that are larger than 10 minutes are displayed as separate bars).

#### Event Plot （事件图）

--type event

Event plots show the occurrence of certain events in a log file. They make sense mostly in combination with a preceeding filter, either mlogfilter or a grep. For each matching event, a vertical line will be plotted at the time the event occurred. If the number of events is very large, you may want to consider using a range plot instead.

###### Example（示例）
grep "getlasterror" mongod.log | mplotqueries --type event

This plot shows the occurrences of all "getlasterror" events in the log file.

##### Available Groupings （有效分组）

Event plots use colors and to display different groups. The supported groupings for event plots are: namespace, operation, thread, filename (for multiple files), and regular expressions.

No additional parameters are supported by this type of plot.

#### Replica Set State Plot （副本集图）

Replica set state plots are specialized event plots, that only consider lines about replica set state changes in a log file. They will display all changes of all replica set members (not just the node itself) with colored vertical lines, indicating different states. The most common states are PRIMARY, SECONDARY, ARBITER, STARTUP2, DOWN and RECOVERING, but other state changes are also displayed if found. This plot type helps to quickly determine any state changes at a given time. It is also useful to overlay this plot with a different plot, for example a scatter plot.

###### Example （示例）
mplotqueries mongod.log --type rsstate

This plot shows the state changes of all replica set members found in the log file.

##### Available Groupings （有效分组）

No groupings are supported by this type of plot.

No additional parameters are supported by this type of plot.

### Overlays （组合）

The overlay mechanism allows you to overlay several plot types in one graphic. This is useful to see correlations, match information from different plot types and create graphs that show events from different angles.

Each of the plot types can in theory be used as an overlay, however some of them make more sense then others.

Overlays are created just as normal plots, except they are stored on disk and do not render immediately. The first call to mplotqueries that does not add another overlay then will load all existing overlays added previously and render them on top of each other, matching the time axis.

Overlays are stored globally and are persistent, independent of your current working directory. Therefore, if you no longer need to store added overlays, make sure that you remove them again or they will be added to your next call of mplotqueries.

Plot types that are often used for overlays are: event, range, rsstate, and scatter.

#### Creating Overlays （创建组合图）

To create an overlay, run mplotqueries as you would normally, with all the command line arguments. In addition, specify the --overlay add argument. As add is the default for overlays, it can be omitted.

###### Example （示例）
mplotqueries mongod.log --type scatter --overlay    Created overlay: 18124963

This will add an overlay plot. The plot is not shown but saved on disk instead, and rendered with the next call without --overlay.

#### List Existing Overlays （已存在的组合列表）

--overlay list

To see if overlays are currently existing, you can use this command. A list of existing overlay identifiers will be returned. Currently, the indentifiers are not all that useful by themselves, but the command will show you how many different overlays exist.

#### Remove Overlays （删除组合）

--overlay reset

To remove all overlays, you can use this command. It will delete all existing overlays, and the next (or current, if a log file is specified as well) call to mplotqueries will not show additional overlays anymore.

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2014/11/29 18:03

2014/11/28 13:35

2014/11/28 11:58

2014/11/28 09:40

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