Nginx端口转发与Let's Encrypt增加SSL认证
Nginx端口转发与Let's Encrypt增加SSL认证
啊丢丢 发表于6个月前
Nginx端口转发与Let's Encrypt增加SSL认证
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前面做个人服务器需要用到Nginx转发tomcat的网页服务,然后顺带给服务器加上了SSL。

服务器是——nginx反向代理+tomcat作为web服务器——这样的体系架构。

第一步使用Let's Encrypt 生成相关秘钥文件和证书

本人服务器系统为Ubuntu 16.04,其他的相似发行版有的会有少许出入

首先安装certbot软件

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:certbot/certbot
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install certbot

后面的内容将基于nginx进行,如果没有安装nginx,请查看我的其他博客内容

sudo vim /etc/nginx/sites-available/default

添加如下内容

 location ~ /.well-known {
                allow all;
        }

检查配置语法错误并重启nginx服务:

sudo nginx -t
sudo systemctl restart nginx

下面将生成秘钥证书:如果这是第一次运行certbot,系统将提示输入电子邮件地址并同意服务条款。进程是否成功以及证书的存储位置:


sudo certbot certonly --webroot --webroot-path=/var/www/html -d example.com -d www.example.com
IMPORTANT NOTES:
 - Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at
   /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/fullchain.pem. Your cert
   will expire on 2017-07-26. To obtain a new or tweaked version of
   this certificate in the future, simply run certbot again. To
   non-interactively renew *all* of your certificates, run "certbot
   renew"
 - If you lose your account credentials, you can recover through
   e-mails sent to sammy@example.com.
 - Your account credentials have been saved in your Certbot
   configuration directory at /etc/letsencrypt. You should make a
   secure backup of this folder now. This configuration directory will
   also contain certificates and private keys obtained by Certbot so
   making regular backups of this folder is ideal.
 - If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by:

   Donating to ISRG / Let's Encrypt:   https://letsencrypt.org/donate
   Donating to EFF:                    https://eff.org/donate-le

进程是否成功以及证书的存储位置如上所示,需要记录证书的路径和到期日期。

防火墙注意:如果你收到这样的错误Failed to connect to host for DVSNI challenge,你的服务器的防火墙,可能需要配置为允许TCP端口的流量80443

证书文件

获得证书后,您将拥有以下PEM编码文件:

  • cert.pem:域名证书
  • chain.pem:加密连锁证书
  • fullchain.pem: cert.pemchain.pem合并
  • privkey.pem:证书的私钥

您必须知道刚刚创建的证书文件的位置,以便您可以在Web服务器配置中使用它们。文件本身被放在一个子目录中/etc/letsencrypt/archive。但是,Certbot会创建与目录中最新证书文件的符号链接。因为链接将始终指向最新的证书文件,所以这是您应该用来引用证书文件的路径。/etc/letsencrypt/live/your_domain_name

您可以通过运行此命令来检查文件是否存在(用你的域名替换掉your_domain_name):

sudo ls -l /etc/letsencrypt/live/your_domain_name

输出应该是前面提到的四个证书文件。稍后,您将配置您的Web服务器fullchain.pem作为证书文件以及privkey.pem证书密钥文件。

以下为官方建议,没有试过:

为了进一步提高安全性,您还应该生成一个强大的Diffie-Hellman组。要生成2048位组,请使用以下命令:

sudo openssl dhparam -out /etc/ssl/certs/dhparam.pem 2048

 这可能需要几分钟的时间,但完成后您将拥有一个强大的DH组/etc/ssl/certs/dhparam.pem

我的nginx配置文件如下:

​##
# You should look at the following URL's in order to grasp a solid understanding
# of Nginx configuration files in order to fully unleash the power of Nginx.
# http://wiki.nginx.org/Pitfalls
# http://wiki.nginx.org/QuickStart
# http://wiki.nginx.org/Configuration
#
# Generally, you will want to move this file somewhere, and start with a clean
# file but keep this around for reference. Or just disable in sites-enabled.
#
# Please see /usr/share/doc/nginx-doc/examples/ for more detailed examples.
##

# Default server configuration
#
server {
 listen 80;
 server_name servername;
 return 301 https://$server_name$request_uri;
 }
server {
 listen 443 ssl default_server;
# listen [::]:80 default_server;

 # SSL configuration
 #
 # listen 443 ssl default_server;
 # listen [::]:443 ssl default_server;
 #
 # Note: You should disable gzip for SSL traffic.
 # See: https://bugs.debian.org/773332
 #
 # Read up on ssl_ciphers to ensure a secure configuration.
 # See: https://bugs.debian.org/765782
 #
 # Self signed certs generated by the ssl-cert package
 # Don't use them in a production server!
 #
 # include snippets/snakeoil.conf;
 ssl on;
 ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/your_domain_name/fullchain.pem;
 ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/your_domain_name/privkey.pem;

 root /opt/tomcat/webapps/servername;

 # Add index.php to the list if you are using PHP
 

 server_name servername;

 location / {
 proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host $host;
 proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Server $host;
 proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
 proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:8080/servername/;
 }


 location ~ /.well-known {
 allow all;
 }

 # pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server listening on 127.0.0.1:9000
 #
 #location ~ \.php$ {
 # include snippets/fastcgi-php.conf;
 #
 # # With php7.0-cgi alone:
 # fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
 # # With php7.0-fpm:
 # fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php7.0-fpm.sock;
 #}

 # deny access to .htaccess files, if Apache's document root
 # concurs with nginx's one
 #
 #location ~ /\.ht {
 # deny all;
 #}
}


# Virtual Host configuration for example.com
#
# You can move that to a different file under sites-available/ and symlink that
# to sites-enabled/ to enable it.
#
#server {
# listen 80;
# listen [::]:80;
#
# server_name example.com;
#
# root /var/www/example.com;
# index index.html;
#
# location / {
# try_files $uri $uri/ =404;
# }
#}

​

然后再次执行nginx配置文件的测试命令(反正我是遇到问题反复了好几次,建议每次修改后都可以检查一下):

sudo nginx -t

执行测试并通guo。至此,外部对本服务器可以发起https请求了,nginx会将该请求转发至后台tomcat的8080端口。

 

标签: nginx tomcat
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