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Nginx+Memcached+Tomcat集群配置实践(Sticky Session)

风灬云
 风灬云
发布于 2016/04/06 16:58
字数 4120
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准备工作

创建一个简单的web应用,名为session。其中有两个页面,分别如下所示:
  • 页面login.jsp
<%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=UTF-8"
     pageEncoding="UTF-8"%>
<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
<html>
<head>
<title>登录页面</title>
<meta http-equiv="pragma" content="no-cache">
<meta http-equiv="cache-control" content="no-cache">
<meta http-equiv="expires" content="0">
<meta http-equiv="keywords" content="keyword1,keyword2,keyword3">
<meta http-equiv="description" content="This is my page">
</head>
<body>
     <table bgcolor="#F8C3C3" border="1" borderColor="#FF0000"
          align="center" width="260" height="160">
          <tr>
               <td height="15" colspan="2" align="center"
                    style="background-color: #000000; font-size: 28px; color: #FFFF00"><b>用户登录</b></td>
          </tr>
          <form method="post" action="login">
               <tr>
                    <td width="80" align="center"><b>用户名</b></td>
                    <td><input type="text" name="userName" value="" /></td>
               </tr>
               <tr>
                    <td align="center"><b>密 码</b></td>
                    <td><input type="password" name="password" value="" /></td>
               </tr>
               <tr>
                    <td colspan="2" align="center" style="background-color: #000000;">
                         <input type="submit" value="登 录" />  <input type="reset"
                         value="重 置" />
                    </td>
               </tr>
          </form>
     </table>
</body>
</html>
  • 登录成功页面success.jsp
<%@ page language="java" import="java.util.*" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%>
<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
<html>
<head>
<title>登录成功页面</title>
<meta http-equiv="pragma" content="no-cache">
<meta http-equiv="cache-control" content="no-cache">
<meta http-equiv="expires" content="0">
<meta http-equiv="keywords" content="keyword1,keyword2,keyword3">
<meta http-equiv="description" content="This is my page">
</head>
<%
     String userName = (String) request.getSession().getAttribute("userName");
%>
<body bgcolor="#000000">
     <table width="500" height="200" align="center" border="1"
          style="background-color: #000000;">
          <tr>
               <td align="center"
                    style="background-color: #F8C3C3; color: #00FF00; font-weight: bold; font-size: 30px">
                    当前登录用户:<%=userName %>
               </td>
          </tr>
     </table>
</body>
</html>
还有一个Servlet,负责请求的转发,并设置session数据,如下所示:
package org.shirdrn.cluster.tomcat.servlet;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;

import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;

import org.apache.commons.logging.Log;
import org.apache.commons.logging.LogFactory;

public class LoginSevlet extends HttpServlet {
     private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
     private static final Log LOG = LogFactory.getLog(LoginSevlet.class);
    private static Map<String, String> accountDB = new HashMap<String, String>();
    static {
         accountDB.put("shirdrn", "123456");
         accountDB.put("admin", "999999");
         accountDB.put("dev", "000888");
         accountDB.put("007", "007007");
    }
   
    public LoginSevlet() {
        super();
    }

     protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
          this.doPost(request, response);
     }

     protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
          String userName = request.getParameter("userName");
          String password = request.getParameter("password");
          LOG.info("Raw input:userName=" + userName + ",password=" + password);
         
          if(userName!=null && password!=null
                    && accountDB.containsKey(userName)
                    && accountDB.get(userName).equals(password)) {
               LOG.info("Login;status=SUCCESS");
               request.getSession().setAttribute("userName", userName);
               request.getRequestDispatcher("success.jsp").forward(request, response);              
          } else {
               LOG.info("Login;status=FAIL");
               request.getRequestDispatcher("login.jsp").forward(request, response);
          }
     }

}
这里模拟了一个账号数据库,对用户的登录请求进行处理。
最后打成WAR包,部署到Tomcat集群中的每个结点上。
Memcached安装、配置、启动

在Ubuntu系统下,如果没有安装Memcached,可以执行如下命令进行安装:
sudo apt-get install memcached
然后,启动Memcached服务进程,这里,我启动了两个服务进程,分别监听端口11211、11311,启动命令如下所示:
sudo /usr/bin/memcached -m 64 -d -u memcache -p 11211 -l 192.168.1.104 -c 5000 -P /tmp/n1-memcached.pid
sudo /usr/bin/memcached -m 64 -d -u memcache -p 11311 -l 192.168.1.104 -c 5000 -P /tmp/n2-memcached.pid
查询Memcached服务状态:
shirdrn@dev:~/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached$ ps -ef | grep memcached
memcache  1578     1  0 Jan25 ?        00:00:00 /usr/bin/memcached -m 64 -p 11211 -u memcache -l 127.0.0.1
memcache  3300     1  0 Jan25 ?        00:00:00 /usr/bin/memcached -m 64 -d -u memcache -p 11211 -l 192.168.1.104 -c 5000 -P /tmp/n1-memcached.pid
memcache  3308     1  0 00:00 ?        00:00:00 /usr/bin/memcached -m 64 -d -u memcache -p 11311 -l 192.168.1.104 -c 5000 -P /tmp/n2-memcached.pid
shirdrn   3318  3095  0 00:00 pts/5    00:00:00 grep --color=auto memcached

Tomcat集群配置

Tomcat集群配置,集群中各个结点通过共享存储在缓存Memcached中session来实现session的共享:如果有一台机器上的Tomcat服务停掉了,对于其他对等服务器上的session数据仍然可以从Memcached缓存中读取,从而不会发生session丢失的问题。
对于满足这种配置的实现方案,可以在 https://code.google.com/p/memcached-session-managerhttps://spymemcached.googlecode.com上下载相关的jar文件。因为基于不同的序列化方案,可以有多种配置方法,下面是选择Javolution序列化框架,需要提供如下库文件:
下载上述jar文件,拷贝到$CATALINA_HOME/lib目录下,然后需要配置$CATALINA_HOME/conf/server.xml文件。
Tomcat集群中,每个结点的$CATALINA_HOME/conf/server.xml基本配置都是相同的,不同配置内容分别如下:
  • 如果在同一台机器上,要保证各个服务端口不相冲突
  • <Manager>元素中failoverNodes属性值不同
例如,我们在同一台机器上配置了两个Tomcat服务器实例,所在目录分别为tomcat-1和tomcat-2,对应的conf/server.xml配置内容如下:
  • tomcat-1/conf/server.xml
<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>

<Server port="8085" shutdown="SHUTDOWN">
     <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.AprLifecycleListener" SSLEngine="on" />
     <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.JasperListener" />
     <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.JreMemoryLeakPreventionListener" />
     <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.mbeans.GlobalResourcesLifecycleListener" />
     <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.ThreadLocalLeakPreventionListener" />

     <GlobalNamingResources>
          <Resource name="UserDatabase" auth="Container" type="org.apache.catalina.UserDatabase"
               description="User database that can be updated and saved" factory="org.apache.catalina.users.MemoryUserDatabaseFactory"
               pathname="conf/tomcat-users.xml" />
     </GlobalNamingResources>

     <Service name="Catalina">
          <Connector port="8088" protocol="HTTP/1.1" connectionTimeout="20000"
               redirectPort="8443" />
          <Connector port="8089" protocol="AJP/1.3" redirectPort="8443" />
          <Engine name="Catalina" defaultHost="localhost" jvmRoute="tomcat1">

               <Realm className="org.apache.catalina.realm.LockOutRealm">
                    <Realm className="org.apache.catalina.realm.UserDatabaseRealm"
                         resourceName="UserDatabase" />
               </Realm>

               <Host name="localhost" appBase="webapps" unpackWARs="true" autoDeploy="true" deployOnStartup="true">
                    <Context docBase="/home/shirdrn/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached/webapps/session.war" path="/session" reloadable="true">
                         <Manager className="de.javakaffee.web.msm.MemcachedBackupSessionManager"
                                            memcachedNodes="n1:192.168.1.104:11211,n2:192.168.1.104:11311"
                                            failoverNodes="n1"
                                            requestUriIgnorePattern=".*\.(png|gif|jpg|css|js)$"
                                            sessionBackupAsync="false"
                                            sessionBackupTimeout="100"
                             transcoderFactoryClass="de.javakaffee.web.msm.serializer.javolution.JavolutionTranscoderFactory"
                             copyCollectionsForSerialization="false" />
                    </Context>
                    <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.valves.AccessLogValve"
                         directory="logs" prefix="localhost_access_log." suffix=".txt"
                         pattern="%h %l %u %t "%r" %s %b" />
               </Host>

          </Engine>
     </Service>
</Server>
这里面,failover的Memcached结点是n1,也就是说,如果tomcat-1和n1在同一台机器上的话,session数据会优先复制到存储到Memcached结点n2,这样即使n1所在的结点宕机了,n2所在结点仍然存储了之前的session数据。
  • tomcat-2/conf/server.xml
<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>

<Server port="9085" shutdown="SHUTDOWN">
     <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.AprLifecycleListener" SSLEngine="on" />
     <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.JasperListener" />
     <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.JreMemoryLeakPreventionListener" />
     <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.mbeans.GlobalResourcesLifecycleListener" />
     <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.ThreadLocalLeakPreventionListener" />

     <GlobalNamingResources>
          <Resource name="UserDatabase" auth="Container" type="org.apache.catalina.UserDatabase"
               description="User database that can be updated and saved" factory="org.apache.catalina.users.MemoryUserDatabaseFactory"
               pathname="conf/tomcat-users.xml" />
     </GlobalNamingResources>

     <Service name="Catalina">
          <Connector port="9088" protocol="HTTP/1.1" connectionTimeout="20000"
               redirectPort="9443" />
          <Connector port="9089" protocol="AJP/1.3" redirectPort="9443" />
          <Engine name="Catalina" defaultHost="localhost" jvmRoute="tomcat1">

               <Realm className="org.apache.catalina.realm.LockOutRealm">
                    <Realm className="org.apache.catalina.realm.UserDatabaseRealm"
                         resourceName="UserDatabase" />
               </Realm>

               <Host name="localhost" appBase="webapps" unpackWARs="true" autoDeploy="true" deployOnStartup="true">
                    <Context docBase="/home/shirdrn/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached/webapps/session.war" path="/session" reloadable="true">
                         <Manager className="de.javakaffee.web.msm.MemcachedBackupSessionManager"
                                            memcachedNodes="n1:192.168.1.104:11211,n2:192.168.1.104:11311"
                                            failoverNodes="n2"
                                            requestUriIgnorePattern=".*\.(png|gif|jpg|css|js)$"
                                            sessionBackupAsync="false"
                                            sessionBackupTimeout="100"
                             transcoderFactoryClass="de.javakaffee.web.msm.serializer.javolution.JavolutionTranscoderFactory"
                             copyCollectionsForSerialization="false" />
                    </Context>
                    <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.valves.AccessLogValve"
                         directory="logs" prefix="localhost_access_log." suffix=".txt"
                         pattern="%h %l %u %t "%r" %s %b" />
               </Host>

          </Engine>
     </Service>
</Server>
和上面类似,failover的Memcached结点是n2,也就是说,如果tomcat-2和n2在同一台机器上的话,Session数据会优先复制到存储到Memcached结点n1,这样即使n2所在的结点宕机了,n1所在结点仍然存储了之前的Session数据。

上面的配置实现了Tomcat集群中,通过Memcached实现了Sticky Session(粘性Session),主要是通过配置failover结点来达到目的的。如果采用Non-sticky Session方式,就不需要考虑failover的问题,详细配置扩参考文档( https://code.google.com/p/memcached-session-manager/wiki/SetupAndConfiguration),下面截取一个片段:

The following example shows a configuration for non-sticky sessions. In this case there's no need for failoverNodes, as sessions are served by all tomcats round-robin and they're not bound to a single tomcat. For non-sticky sessions the configuration (for both/all tomcats) would look like this:

<Context>
  ...
  <Manager className="de.javakaffee.web.msm.MemcachedBackupSessionManager"
    memcachedNodes="n1:host1.yourdomain.com:11211,n2:host2.yourdomain.com:11211"
    sticky="false"
    sessionBackupAsync="false"
    lockingMode="uriPattern:/path1|/path2"
    requestUriIgnorePattern=".*\.(ico|png|gif|jpg|css|js)$"
    transcoderFactoryClass="de.javakaffee.web.msm.serializer.kryo.KryoTranscoderFactory"
    />
</Context>
分别启动tomcat-1和tomcat-2,如下所示:
shirdrn@dev:~/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached$ tomcat-1/bin/catalina.sh start
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /home/shirdrn/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached/tomcat-1
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /home/shirdrn/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached/tomcat-1
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR: /home/shirdrn/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached/tomcat-1/temp
Using JRE_HOME:        /home/hadoop/installation/jdk1.6.0_30
Using CLASSPATH:       /home/shirdrn/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached/tomcat-1/bin/bootstrap.jar:/home/shirdrn/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached/tomcat-1/bin/tomcat-juli.jar

shirdrn@dev:~/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached$ tomcat-2/bin/catalina.sh start
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /home/shirdrn/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached/tomcat-2
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /home/shirdrn/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached/tomcat-2
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR: /home/shirdrn/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached/tomcat-2/temp
Using JRE_HOME:        /home/hadoop/installation/jdk1.6.0_30
Using CLASSPATH:       /home/shirdrn/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached/tomcat-2/bin/bootstrap.jar:/home/shirdrn/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached/tomcat-2/bin/tomcat-juli.jar
可以查看两个tomcat的启动日志,对比一下:
  • tomcat-1的日志
shirdrn@dev:~/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached$ tail -100f tomcat-1/logs/catalina.out
Jan 26, 2013 12:03:25 AM org.apache.catalina.core.AprLifecycleListener init
INFO: The APR based Apache Tomcat Native library which allows optimal performance in production environments was not found on the java.library.path: /home/hadoop/installation/jdk1.6.0_30/jre/lib/i386/client:/home/hadoop/installation/jdk1.6.0_30/jre/lib/i386:/home/hadoop/installation/jdk1.6.0_30/jre/../lib/i386:/usr/java/packages/lib/i386:/lib:/usr/lib
Jan 26, 2013 12:03:26 AM org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol init
INFO: Initializing ProtocolHandler ["http-bio-8088"]
Jan 26, 2013 12:03:26 AM org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol init
INFO: Initializing ProtocolHandler ["ajp-bio-8089"]
Jan 26, 2013 12:03:26 AM org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina load
INFO: Initialization processed in 1743 ms
Jan 26, 2013 12:03:26 AM org.apache.catalina.core.StandardService startInternal
INFO: Starting service Catalina
Jan 26, 2013 12:03:26 AM org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngine startInternal
INFO: Starting Servlet Engine: Apache Tomcat/7.0.26
Jan 26, 2013 12:03:27 AM de.javakaffee.web.msm.MemcachedSessionService startInternal
INFO: MemcachedSessionService starts initialization... (configured nodes definition n1:192.168.1.104:11211,n2:192.168.1.104:11311, failover nodes n1)
2013-01-26 00:03:27.441 INFO net.spy.memcached.MemcachedConnection:  Added {QA sa=/192.168.1.104:11211, #Rops=0, #Wops=0, #iq=0, topRop=null, topWop=null, toWrite=0, interested=0} to connect queue
2013-01-26 00:03:27.442 INFO net.spy.memcached.MemcachedConnection:  Added {QA sa=/192.168.1.104:11311, #Rops=0, #Wops=0, #iq=0, topRop=null, topWop=null, toWrite=0, interested=0} to connect queue
Jan 26, 2013 12:03:27 AM de.javakaffee.web.msm.RequestTrackingHostValve <init>
INFO: Setting ignorePattern to .*\.(png|gif|jpg|css|js)$
2013-01-26 00:03:27.459 INFO net.spy.memcached.MemcachedConnection:  Connection state changed for sun.nio.ch.SelectionKeyImpl@5b0668
2013-01-26 00:03:27.460 INFO net.spy.memcached.MemcachedConnection:  Connection state changed for sun.nio.ch.SelectionKeyImpl@1d5a0
Jan 26, 2013 12:03:27 AM de.javakaffee.web.msm.MemcachedSessionService setLockingMode
INFO: Setting lockingMode to null
Jan 26, 2013 12:03:27 AM de.javakaffee.web.msm.MemcachedSessionService createTranscoderFactory
INFO: Creating transcoder factory de.javakaffee.web.msm.serializer.javolution.JavolutionTranscoderFactory
Jan 26, 2013 12:03:27 AM de.javakaffee.web.msm.MemcachedSessionService startInternal
INFO: MemcachedSessionService finished initialization, sticky true, operation timeout 1000, with node ids [n2] and failover node ids [n1]
Jan 26, 2013 12:03:27 AM org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig deployDirectory
INFO: Deploying web application directory /home/shirdrn/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached/tomcat-1/webapps/host-manager
Jan 26, 2013 12:03:27 AM org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig deployDirectory
INFO: Deploying web application directory /home/shirdrn/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached/tomcat-1/webapps/manager
Jan 26, 2013 12:03:27 AM org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig deployDirectory
INFO: Deploying web application directory /home/shirdrn/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached/tomcat-1/webapps/docs
Jan 26, 2013 12:03:27 AM org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig deployDirectory
INFO: Deploying web application directory /home/shirdrn/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached/tomcat-1/webapps/examples
Jan 26, 2013 12:03:28 AM org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig deployDirectory
INFO: Deploying web application directory /home/shirdrn/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached/tomcat-1/webapps/ROOT
Jan 26, 2013 12:03:28 AM org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol start
INFO: Starting ProtocolHandler ["http-bio-8088"]
Jan 26, 2013 12:03:28 AM org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol start
INFO: Starting ProtocolHandler ["ajp-bio-8089"]
Jan 26, 2013 12:03:28 AM org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina start
INFO: Server startup in 1487 ms
  • tomcat-2的日志
shirdrn@dev:~/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached$ tail -100f tomcat-2/logs/catalina.out
Jan 26, 2013 12:04:34 AM org.apache.catalina.core.AprLifecycleListener init
INFO: The APR based Apache Tomcat Native library which allows optimal performance in production environments was not found on the java.library.path: /home/hadoop/installation/jdk1.6.0_30/jre/lib/i386/client:/home/hadoop/installation/jdk1.6.0_30/jre/lib/i386:/home/hadoop/installation/jdk1.6.0_30/jre/../lib/i386:/usr/java/packages/lib/i386:/lib:/usr/lib
Jan 26, 2013 12:04:34 AM org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol init
INFO: Initializing ProtocolHandler ["http-bio-9088"]
Jan 26, 2013 12:04:34 AM org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol init
INFO: Initializing ProtocolHandler ["ajp-bio-9089"]
Jan 26, 2013 12:04:34 AM org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina load
INFO: Initialization processed in 742 ms
Jan 26, 2013 12:04:34 AM org.apache.catalina.core.StandardService startInternal
INFO: Starting service Catalina
Jan 26, 2013 12:04:34 AM org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngine startInternal
INFO: Starting Servlet Engine: Apache Tomcat/7.0.26
Jan 26, 2013 12:05:07 AM org.apache.catalina.util.SessionIdGenerator createSecureRandom
INFO: Creation of SecureRandom instance for session ID generation using [SHA1PRNG] took [33,094] milliseconds.
Jan 26, 2013 12:05:07 AM de.javakaffee.web.msm.MemcachedSessionService startInternal
INFO: MemcachedSessionService starts initialization... (configured nodes definition n1:192.168.1.104:11211,n2:192.168.1.104:11311, failover nodes n2)
2013-01-26 00:05:07.873 INFO net.spy.memcached.MemcachedConnection:  Added {QA sa=/192.168.1.104:11211, #Rops=0, #Wops=0, #iq=0, topRop=null, topWop=null, toWrite=0, interested=0} to connect queue
2013-01-26 00:05:07.876 INFO net.spy.memcached.MemcachedConnection:  Added {QA sa=/192.168.1.104:11311, #Rops=0, #Wops=0, #iq=0, topRop=null, topWop=null, toWrite=0, interested=0} to connect queue
Jan 26, 2013 12:05:07 AM de.javakaffee.web.msm.RequestTrackingHostValve <init>
INFO: Setting ignorePattern to .*\.(png|gif|jpg|css|js)$
2013-01-26 00:05:07.896 INFO net.spy.memcached.MemcachedConnection:  Connection state changed for sun.nio.ch.SelectionKeyImpl@701a27
2013-01-26 00:05:07.897 INFO net.spy.memcached.MemcachedConnection:  Connection state changed for sun.nio.ch.SelectionKeyImpl@1d5a0
Jan 26, 2013 12:05:07 AM de.javakaffee.web.msm.MemcachedSessionService setLockingMode
INFO: Setting lockingMode to null
Jan 26, 2013 12:05:07 AM de.javakaffee.web.msm.MemcachedSessionService createTranscoderFactory
INFO: Creating transcoder factory de.javakaffee.web.msm.serializer.javolution.JavolutionTranscoderFactory
Jan 26, 2013 12:05:07 AM de.javakaffee.web.msm.MemcachedSessionService startInternal
INFO: MemcachedSessionService finished initialization, sticky true, operation timeout 1000, with node ids [n1] and failover node ids [n2]
Jan 26, 2013 12:05:08 AM org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig deployDirectory
INFO: Deploying web application directory /home/shirdrn/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached/tomcat-2/webapps/host-manager
Jan 26, 2013 12:05:08 AM org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig deployDirectory
INFO: Deploying web application directory /home/shirdrn/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached/tomcat-2/webapps/manager
Jan 26, 2013 12:05:08 AM org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig deployDirectory
INFO: Deploying web application directory /home/shirdrn/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached/tomcat-2/webapps/docs
Jan 26, 2013 12:05:08 AM org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig deployDirectory
INFO: Deploying web application directory /home/shirdrn/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached/tomcat-2/webapps/examples
Jan 26, 2013 12:05:08 AM org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig deployDirectory
INFO: Deploying web application directory /home/shirdrn/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached/tomcat-2/webapps/ROOT
Jan 26, 2013 12:05:08 AM org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol start
INFO: Starting ProtocolHandler ["http-bio-9088"]
Jan 26, 2013 12:05:08 AM org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol start
INFO: Starting ProtocolHandler ["ajp-bio-9089"]
Jan 26, 2013 12:05:08 AM org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina start
INFO: Server startup in 34163 ms
已经成功启动了。

Nginx安装、配置、启动

在Ubuntu系统下,如果没有安装Nginx,可以执行如下命令进行安装:
sudo apt-get install nginx
默认情况下,Nginx使用默认的配置文件/etc/nginx/nginx.conf,该配置文件直接包含了虚拟目录配置文件/etc/nginx/sites-available/default,修改该文件的内容为,如下所示:
# You may add here your
# server {
#     ...
# }
# statements for each of your virtual hosts to this file

##
# You should look at the following URL's in order to grasp a solid understanding
# of Nginx configuration files in order to fully unleash the power of Nginx.
# http://wiki.nginx.org/Pitfalls
# http://wiki.nginx.org/QuickStart
# http://wiki.nginx.org/Configuration
#
# Generally, you will want to move this file somewhere, and start with a clean
# file but keep this around for reference. Or just disable in sites-enabled.
#
# Please see /usr/share/doc/nginx-doc/examples/ for more detailed examples.
##



upstream dev.shirdrn.org {
     server 192.168.1.104:8088 weight=1;
     server 192.168.1.104:9088 weight=1;
}


server {
     #listen   80; ## listen for ipv4; this line is default and implied
     #listen   [::]:80 default ipv6only=on; ## listen for ipv6

     root /usr/share/nginx/www/session;  # session是我们配置的虚拟目录,实际直接指向Tomcat下名为session的web应用
     index index.html index.htm;

     # Make site accessible from http://localhost/
#######     server_name localhost;
     server_name dev.shirdrn.org; # Nginx服务所在主机
     charset utf-8;

     location / {
          proxy_pass     http://dev.shirdrn.org; #直接代理tomcat集群
          proxy_set_header  X-Real-IP  $remote_addr;
          client_max_body_size  100m;



          # First attempt to serve request as file, then
          # as directory, then fall back to index.html
#######          try_files $uri $uri/ /index.html;
          # Uncomment to enable naxsi on this location
          # include /etc/nginx/naxsi.rules
     }

     location ~ ^/(WEB-INF)/ { # 禁止访问Tomcat下web应用的WEB-INF目录下的资源
          deny all;
     }

     location /doc/ {
          alias /usr/share/doc/;
          autoindex on;
          allow 127.0.0.1;
          deny all;
     }

     # Only for nginx-naxsi : process denied requests
     #location /RequestDenied {
          # For example, return an error code
          #return 418;
     #}

     #error_page 404 /404.html;

     # redirect server error pages to the static page /50x.html
     #
     #error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
     #location = /50x.html {
     #     root /usr/share/nginx/www;
     #}

     # pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server listening on 127.0.0.1:9000
     #
     #location ~ \.php$ {
     #     fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+\.php)(/.+)$;
     #     # NOTE: You should have "cgi.fix_pathinfo = 0;" in php.ini
     #
     #     # With php5-cgi alone:
     #     fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
     #     # With php5-fpm:
     #     fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php5-fpm.sock;
     #     fastcgi_index index.php;
     #     include fastcgi_params;
     #}

     # deny access to .htaccess files, if Apache's document root
     # concurs with nginx's one
     #
     #location ~ /\.ht {
     #     deny all;
     #}
}


# another virtual host using mix of IP-, name-, and port-based configuration
#
#server {
#     listen 8000;
#     listen somename:8080;
#     server_name somename alias another.alias;
#     root html;
#     index index.html index.htm;
#
#     location / {
#          try_files $uri $uri/ /index.html;
#     }
#}


# HTTPS server
#
#server {
#     listen 443;
#     server_name localhost;
#
#     root html;
#     index index.html index.htm;
#
#     ssl on;
#     ssl_certificate cert.pem;
#     ssl_certificate_key cert.key;
#
#     ssl_session_timeout 5m;
#
#     ssl_protocols SSLv3 TLSv1;
#     ssl_ciphers ALL:!ADH:!EXPORT56:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv3:+EXP;
#     ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
#
#     location / {
#          try_files $uri $uri/ /index.html;
#     }
#}
上面配置中根目录为/usr/share/nginx/www,因为我们使用到了一个虚拟目录来对应Tomcat下部署的web应用的path,所以需要在/usr/share/nginx/www下面创建这个对应的虚拟目录:
shirdrn@dev:~/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached$ sudo mkdir /usr/share/nginx/www/session
最后,可以启动Nginx服务器,执行如下命令:
shirdrn@dev:~$ sudo /etc/init.d/nginx start
查询Nginx服务启动状态:
shirdrn@dev:~/servers/cluster/nginx_tomcat_memcached$ sudo ps -ef | grep nginx
root      3199     1  0 Jan25 ?        00:00:00 nginx: master process /usr/sbin/nginx
www-data  3200  3199  0 Jan25 ?        00:00:00 nginx: worker process
www-data  3201  3199  0 Jan25 ?        00:00:00 nginx: worker process
www-data  3202  3199  0 Jan25 ?        00:00:00 nginx: worker process
www-data  3203  3199  0 Jan25 ?        00:00:00 nginx: worker process
shirdrn   3327  3095  0 00:01 pts/5    00:00:00 grep --color=auto nginx
这是就可以通过Nginx访问(代理)Web应用首页了。

集群验证

上面配置完成,服务都已经启动成功,可以直接请求链接 http://dev.shirdrn.org/session,就会直接访问部署在Tomcat服务器上的Java Web应用,看到登录页面。
使用前面准备的Web应用session中账号数据进行模拟登录,就可以查看Memcached缓存的数据:
  • telnet 192.168.1.104 11211
telnet到memcached服务端口,查看缓存统计数据。
shirdrn@dev:~$ telnet 192.168.1.104 11211
Trying 192.168.1.104...
Connected to 192.168.1.104.
Escape character is '^]'.

ERROR
stats
STAT pid 3300
STAT uptime 2148
STAT time 1359131741
STAT version 1.4.13
STAT libevent 2.0.16-stable
STAT pointer_size 32
STAT rusage_user 0.052003
STAT rusage_system 0.084005
STAT curr_connections 7
STAT total_connections 9
STAT connection_structures 8
STAT reserved_fds 20
STAT cmd_get 23
STAT cmd_set 6
STAT cmd_flush 0
STAT cmd_touch 0
STAT get_hits 2
STAT get_misses 21
STAT delete_misses 0
STAT delete_hits 0
STAT incr_misses 0
STAT incr_hits 0
STAT decr_misses 0
STAT decr_hits 0
STAT cas_misses 0
STAT cas_hits 0
STAT cas_badval 0
STAT touch_hits 0
STAT touch_misses 0
STAT auth_cmds 0
STAT auth_errors 0
STAT bytes_read 2675
STAT bytes_written 2835
STAT limit_maxbytes 67108864
STAT accepting_conns 1
STAT listen_disabled_num 0
STAT threads 4
STAT conn_yields 0
STAT hash_power_level 16
STAT hash_bytes 262144
STAT hash_is_expanding 0
STAT expired_unfetched 0
STAT evicted_unfetched 0
STAT bytes 858
STAT curr_items 2
STAT total_items 6
STAT evictions 0
STAT reclaimed 0
END
  • telnet 192.168.1.104 11311
shirdrn@dev:~$ telnet 192.168.1.104 11311
Trying 192.168.1.104...
Connected to 192.168.1.104.
Escape character is '^]'.
stats
STAT pid 3308
STAT uptime 2398
STAT time 1359132000
STAT version 1.4.13
STAT libevent 2.0.16-stable
STAT pointer_size 32
STAT rusage_user 0.004000
STAT rusage_system 0.128008
STAT curr_connections 7
STAT total_connections 9
STAT connection_structures 8
STAT reserved_fds 20
STAT cmd_get 1
STAT cmd_set 2
STAT cmd_flush 0
STAT cmd_touch 0
STAT get_hits 0
STAT get_misses 1
STAT delete_misses 1
STAT delete_hits 0
STAT incr_misses 0
STAT incr_hits 0
STAT decr_misses 0
STAT decr_hits 0
STAT cas_misses 0
STAT cas_hits 0
STAT cas_badval 0
STAT touch_hits 0
STAT touch_misses 0
STAT auth_cmds 0
STAT auth_errors 0
STAT bytes_read 644
STAT bytes_written 2109
STAT limit_maxbytes 67108864
STAT accepting_conns 1
STAT listen_disabled_num 0
STAT threads 4
STAT conn_yields 0
STAT hash_power_level 16
STAT hash_bytes 262144
STAT hash_is_expanding 0
STAT expired_unfetched 1
STAT evicted_unfetched 0
STAT bytes 0
STAT curr_items 0
STAT total_items 2
STAT evictions 0
STAT reclaimed 1
END

我们可以停掉某个Tomcat服务,然后观察Session会话数据的复制过程,能够保证当前集群中的会话数据不丢失,另一个结点仍然能提供基于该存在Session的服务。


本文转载自:http://blog.csdn.net/shirdrn/article/details/9731215

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