zypper命令使用示例
zypper命令使用示例
linuxprobe16 发表于1年前
zypper命令使用示例
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摘要: Zypper是OpenSUSE和企业版SUSE中软件包管理器ZYpp的命令行接口。 主要用于:1.管理软件包:zypper可用来安装、删除、更新和查询本地或远程的软件包。2.管理仓库:zypper可用命令行添加、删除、启用或禁用库。
导读 Zypper是OpenSUSE和企业版SUSE中软件包管理器ZYpp的命令行接口。 主要用于:1.管理软件包:zypper可用来安装、删除、更新和查询本地或远程的软件包。2.管理仓库:zypper可用命令行添加、删除、启用或禁用库。

zypper命令使用示例zypper命令使用示例

I. 用zypper管理软件包

1. 安装包
语法: # zypper install 示例:安装Mozilla firefox

[root@linuxprobe ~]# zypper install MozillaFirefox
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...
The following NEW packages are going to be installed:
  MozillaFirefox MozillaFirefox-branding-SLED
The following packages are not supported by their vendor:
  MozillaFirefox MozillaFirefox-branding-SLED
2 new packages to install.
Overall download size: 964.0 KiB. After the operation, additional 3.4 MiB will be used.
Continue? [y/n/?] (y): y
Retrieving package MozillaFirefox-3.6.16-0.2.1.x86_64 (1/2), 949.0 KiB (3.4 MiB unpacked)
Retrieving: MozillaFirefox-3.6.16-0.2.1.x86_64.rpm [done]
Installing: MozillaFirefox-3.6.16-0.2.1 [done]
Retrieving package MozillaFirefox-branding-SLED-3.5-1.1.5.x86_64 (2/2), 15.0 KiB (34.0 KiB unpacked)
Retrieving: MozillaFirefox-branding-SLED-3.5-1.1.5.x86_64.rpm [done]
Installing: MozillaFirefox-branding-SLED-3.5-1.1.5 [done]

2. 安装源码包
语法:# zypper source-install 示例:从库中安装 apache

[root@linuxprobe ~]# zypper source-install apache2-mod_nss
Reading installed packages...
Loading repository data...
Resolving package dependencies...
Retrieving package mozilla-nss-devel-3.12.8-1.2.1.x86_64 (2/3), 473.0 KiB (2.6 MiB unpacked)
Retrieving: mozilla-nss-devel-3.12.8-1.2.1.x86_64.rpm [done]
Installing: mozilla-nss-devel-3.12.8-1.2.1 [done]
Retrieving: apache2-mod_nss-1.0.8-17.5.src.rpm [done]

3. 更新包

更新某一软件包: # zypper update 更新所有软件包: # zypper update
查看所有可用的更新列表:# zypper list-updates

4. 删除包

语法:# zypper remove 示例:移除Mozilla Firefox

[root@linuxprobe ~]# zypper remove MozillaFirefox
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...
The following packages are going to be REMOVED:
  MozillaFirefox MozillaFirefox-branding-SLED
2 packages to remove.
After the operation, 3.4 MiB will be freed.
Continue? [y/n/?] (y): y
Removing MozillaFirefox-branding-SLED-3.5-1.1.5 [done]
Removing MozillaFirefox-3.6.16-0.2.1 [done]

5. 查找包

语法:# zypper search 示例:查找所有usb开头的软件包

[root@linuxprobe ~]# zypper search usb*
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...

S | Name                | Summary                                                        | Type
--+---------------------+----------------------------------------------------------------+--------
  | usb_modeswitch      | A mode switching tool for controlling multiple-device USB gear | package
  | usb_modeswitch-data | A mode switching tool for controlling multiple-device USB gear | package
  | usbip-devel         | Headers and static libraries                                   | package
i | usbutils            | Tools and libraries for USB devices                            | package

6. 查看软件包详情

语法: zypper info 示例:查看usbutils的信息

[root@linuxprobe ~]# zypper info usbutils
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Information for package usbutils:
Repository: LINUXPROBE
Name: usbutils
Version: 0.73-38.19
Arch: x86_64
Vendor: SUSE LINUX Products GmbH, Nuernberg, Germany
Support Level: unknown
Installed: Yes
Status: up-to-date
Installed Size: 461.0 KiB
Summary: Tools and libraries for USB devices
Description:
This package contains a utility for inspecting devices connected to USB
ports.
It requires kernel version 2.3.99-pre7 or newer, or the USB backport
which was introduced in 2.2.18 (supporting the /proc/bus/usb
interface).

7. 打补丁

查看所有可打补丁: zypper patches
安装指定补丁:zypper patch

8. 锁住包

软件包被锁之后将不能被移除或升级,下面演示一下如何加锁
1)加al选项锁住包文件“usbutils”, al 是 add lock的缩写

[root@linuxprobe ~] # zypper al usbutils
Specified lock has been successfully added.

2) 加ll选项查看所有已被锁住的软件包, ll 是 List Locks的缩写

[root@linuxprobe ~] # zypper ll
# | Name            | Type    | Repository
--+-----------------+---------+-----------
1 | usbutils        | package | (any)

9. 解锁包

加rl选项解锁usbutils, rl 是 remove lock的缩写

[root@linuxprobe ~] #  zypper rl usbutils
1 lock has been successfully removed.
[root@linuxprobe ~]# zypper ll
There are no package locks defined.

II. 用zypper管理仓库

10. 用zypper添加库

语法:# zypper addrepo

[root@linuxprobe ~] # zypper addrepo --check --refresh --name "Mozilla-repo" http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/mozilla/SLE_11/ "Mozillarepo"
Adding repository 'Mozilla-repo' [done]
Repository 'Mozilla-repo' successfully added
Enabled: Yes
Autorefresh: Yes
URI: http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/mozilla/SLE_11/

11. 创建本地库

我们可以使用zypper从本地目录中创建一个包含所有rpm文件的本地库
语法: # zypper addrepo

示例:创建一个名为Linuxprobe_Repo的本地目录,包含所有rpm文件

[root@linuxprobe ~] # zypper addrepo /var/stormgt/dsminst Linuxprobe_Repo
Adding repository 'Linuxprobe_Repo' [done]
Repository 'Linuxprobe_Repo' successfully added
Enabled: Yes
Autorefresh: No
URI: dir:///var/stormgt/dsminst
[root@linuxprobe ~] # zypper search --repo Linuxprobe_Repo
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
S | Name        | Summary                                 | Type
--+-------------+-----------------------------------------+--------
i | TIVsm-API   | the API                                 | package
i | TIVsm-API64 | the API                                 | package
i | TIVsm-BA    | the Backup Archive Client               | package
i | gskcrypt32  | IBM GSKit Cryptography Runtime          | package
i | gskcrypt64  | IBM GSKit Cryptography Runtime          | package
i | gskssl32    | IBM GSKit SSL Runtime With Acme Toolkit | package
i | gskssl64    | IBM GSKit SSL Runtime With Acme Toolkit | package

注:你也可以通过此命令添加NFS或FTP路径

12. 查看库

[root@linuxprobe ~] # zypper lr
# | Alias                                            | Name                                             | Enabled | Refresh
--+--------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------+---------+--------
1 | Mozillarepo                                      | Mozilla-repo                                     | Yes     | Yes
2 | SUSE-Linux-Enterprise-Server-11-SP1 11.1.1-1.152 | SUSE-Linux-Enterprise-Server-11-SP1 11.1.1-1.152 | Yes     | Yes

查看repo完整的URI:

[root@linuxprobe ~] # zypper lr --uri
# | Alias                                            | Name                                             | Enabled | Refresh | URI
--+--------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------+---------+---------+----------------------------------------------------------
1 | Mozillarepo                                      | Mozilla-repo                                     | Yes     | Yes     | http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/mozilla/SLE_11/
2 | SUSE-Linux-Enterprise-Server-11-SP1 11.1.1-1.152 | SUSE-Linux-Enterprise-Server-11-SP1 11.1.1-1.152 | Yes     | Yes     | http://19.106.65.64/FUSELinux/600RC0

13. 在库中搜索包
列出指定库Mozillarepo的所有软件包

[root@linuxprobe ~] # zypper search --repo Mozillarepo
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...

S | Name                                 | Summary                                                                 | Type
--+--------------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------
i | MozillaFirefox                       | Mozilla Firefox Web Browser                                             | package
i | MozillaFirefox-branding-SLED         | SLED branding of MozillaFirefox                                         | package  
  | MozillaFirefox-branding-openSUSE     | openSUSE branding of MozillaFirefox                                     | package
  | MozillaFirefox-branding-openSUSE     | openSUSE branding of MozillaFirefox                                     | srcpackage

14. 库重命名

重命名库可以用 renamerepo 选项
示例:将库"Linuxprobe_Repo"的名字改成"MyLinuxRepo"

[root@linuxprobe ~] # zypper renamerepo Linuxprobe_Repo MyLinuxRepo
Repository 'Linuxprobe_Repo' renamed to 'MyLinuxRepo'.

15. 删除库

用removerepo选项来移除库

[root@linuxprobe ~] # zypper removerepo MyLinuxRepo
Removing repository 'MyLinuxRepo' [done]
Repository 'MyLinuxRepo has been removed.

16. 备份库

用export选项可以备份一系列库文件

[root@linuxprobe ~] # zypper lr --export /var/tmp/backup.repo
Repositories have been successfully exported to /var/tmp/backup.repo.

17. 从备份文件中添加库

[root@linuxprobe ~] # zypper addrepo /var/tmp/backup.rep

18. 禁用/使用库

示例: 用 modifyrepo 选项的 -d 参数来禁用Mozilla库

[root@linuxprobe ~] # zypper modifyrepo -d Mozillarepo
Repository 'Mozillarepo' has been successfully disabled.

示例: 用 modifyrepo选项 -e 参数来允许使用Mozilla库

[root@linuxprobe ~] # zypper modifyrepo -e Mozillarepo
Repository 'Mozillarepo' has been successfully enabled.

19. 刷新库

示例: 刷新Mozilla库

[root@linuxprobe ~] # zypper refresh Mozillarepo
Repository 'Mozilla-repo' is up to date.
Specified repositories have been refreshed.

示例: 自动刷新指定库

[root@linuxprobe ~] # zypper modifyrepo --refresh Linuxprobe_Repo
Autorefresh has been enabled for repository 'Linuxprobe_Repo'.

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