医学研究的流行病学指标及统计方法速查表（英文版）

2020/03/14 07:33

1. DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES

 Situation Epidemiologic results Statistical methods Time description Scatter plotsScatter plots with trend linesScatter plots with spline smoothing Seasonality index Place description Spot maps Clustering methods like k-means Person description Bar chartsPie chartsHistogramsBox plotsBox and whisker plotsStem and leaf diagramsHierarchical treesScatter plots MeanProportionStandard deviationStandard errorsMedianPercentilesMode
1. CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES

 Situation Epidemiologic results Statistical methods Group comparison Risk reduction with 95% confidence intervals Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals chi square test of association Fisher’s exact test Φ coefficient Cramer’s V chi square test for linear trend Student’s T test (unpaired) Mann-Whitney U test Mantel-Haenszel chi square test Unconditional multiple logistic regression Generalized linear models Bonferroni’s corrections
1. CASE-CONTROL STUDIES

4. COHORT STUDIES

 Situation Epidemiologic results Statistical methods Outcome is number of events in the exposed and unexposed groups where the event can occur only once in a single individual Relative risk with 95% confidence interval Excess fraction (also called as risk reduction) Etiologic fraction (also called attributable risk) Population attributable risk Population attributable risk proportion chi square test of association Fisher’s exact test Φ coefficient chi square test of linear trend for multiple ordered categorical variables Unconditional multiple logistic regression Generalized linear models Outcome is number of events in the exposed and unexposed groups where the event can occur multiple times in a single individual Relative hazards and their 95% confidence interval Kaplan-Meier survival curves Log-rank test OR Wilcoxon test based on the violation of proportional hazards assumption Cox proportional hazards model Poisson’s multiple regression Outcome is time to events in the exposed and unexposed groups Relative hazards and their 95% confidence intervals Kaplan-Meier survival curves Log-rank test OR Wilcoxon test based on the violation of proportional hazards assumption Cox proportional hazards model Outcome is a continuous variable for the exposed and unexposed groups Relative risks and their 95% confidence intervals using clinically meaningful cut-offs chi square test of association Fisher’s exact test Φ coefficient chi square test of linear trend for multiple ordered categorical variables Unconditional multiple logistic regression Generalized linear models Time series analyses

5. CLINICAL AND PREVENTIVE TRIALS

 Situation Epidemiologic results Statistical methods Outcome is number of events in the exposed and unexposed groups where the event can occur only once in a single individual Relative risk with 95% confidence interval Excess fraction (also called as risk reduction) Etiologic fraction (also called attributable risk) Number needed to treat (NNT) Vaccine efficacy with its 95% confidence interval chi square test of association Fisher’s exact test Φ coefficient chi square test of linear trend for multiple ordered categorical variables Unconditional multiple logistic regression Generalized linear models Outcome is number of events in the exposed and unexposed groups where the event can occur multiple times in a single individual Relative hazards and their 95% confidence interval Vaccine efficacy with 95% confidence interval Kaplan-Meier survival curves Log-rank test OR Wilcoxon test based on the violation of proportional hazards assumption Cox proportional hazards model Poisson’s multiple regression Sequential trial with interim analyses using the alpha-spending function Generalized linear models Outcome is time to events in the exposed and unexposed groups Relative hazards and their 95% confidence intervals Vaccine efficacy and its 95% confidence interval Kaplan-Meier survival curves Log-rank test OR Wilcoxon test based on the violation of proportional hazards assumption Cox proportional hazards model Outcome is a continuous variable for the exposed and unexposed groups Relative risks and their 95% confidence intervals using clinically meaningful cut-offs chi square test of association Fisher’s exact test Φ coefficient chi square test of linear trend for multiple ordered categorical variables Unconditional multiple logistic regression Generalized linear models Time series analyses
1. SCREENING TEST PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

 Situation Epidemiologic results Statistical methods Dichotomous (Positive/Negative) result compared with a reference standard Sensitivity Specificity Positive predictivity Negative predictivity Accuracy Likelihood ratio of a positive test Likelihood ratio of a negative test Cohen’s kappa Entropy Bias index chi square test of association Fisher’s exact test Φ coefficient Multiple categorical test outcome compared with a reference standard Likelihood ratios for each categorical test outcome Receiver-operating characteristic curve chi square test of association Fisher’s exact test Φ coefficient chi square test of linear trend Area under the ROC curve and its 95% confidence interval by Wilcoxon’s method Continuous test outcome compared with a reference standard Likelihood ratios for pre-defined categories of the outcome Receiver operating characteristic curve Area under the ROC curve and its 95% confidence interval Optimum operating point (OOP) choosing Cost-of-error comparisons

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