文档章节

MAC 下用 Common Lisp 调试 OpenGL 程序

FreeBlues
 FreeBlues
发布于 2016/06/05 23:21
字数 1915
阅读 222
收藏 1

MAC 下用 Common Lisp 调试 OpenGL 程序

环境搭建

  • 运行环境: OSX 10.11.3 EI Capitan
  • Common Lisp: SBCL

使用 SBCL, 首先要安装这几个库 quicklisp, cl-opengl, cl-glu, lispbuilder-sdl. 先安装好 quicklisp, 再用它来安装其他库.

安装过程如下.

安装 quicklisp

先安装 quicklisp

Air:~ admin$ cd code-staff/
Air:code-staff admin$ mkdir sbcl
Air:code-staff admin$ cd sbcl
Air:sbcl admin$ curl -O https://beta.quicklisp.org/quicklisp.lisp
  % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current
                                 Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed
100 57144  100 57144    0     0  12184      0  0:00:04  0:00:04 --:--:-- 12545
Air:sbcl admin$ ls
quicklisp.lisp
Air:sbcl admin$ sbcl --load quicklisp.lisp
This is SBCL 1.0.55, an implementation of ANSI Common Lisp.
More information about SBCL is available at <http://www.sbcl.org/>.

SBCL is free software, provided as is, with absolutely no warranty.
It is mostly in the public domain; some portions are provided under
BSD-style licenses.  See the CREDITS and COPYING files in the
distribution for more information.

  ==== quicklisp quickstart 2015-01-28 loaded ====

    To continue with installation, evaluate: (quicklisp-quickstart:install)

    For installation options, evaluate: (quicklisp-quickstart:help)

执行 (quicklisp-quickstart:install) 发现原来已经安装过了, 那就选择使用已经安装好的.

* (quicklisp-quickstart:install)

debugger invoked on a SIMPLE-ERROR in thread
#<THREAD "initial thread" RUNNING {10029A91C3}>:
  Quicklisp has already been installed. Load #P"/Users/admin/quicklisp/setup.lisp" instead.

Type HELP for debugger help, or (SB-EXT:QUIT) to exit from SBCL.

restarts (invokable by number or by possibly-abbreviated name):
  0: [LOAD-SETUP] Load #P"/Users/admin/quicklisp/setup.lisp"
  1: [ABORT     ] Exit debugger, returning to top level.

(QUICKLISP-QUICKSTART:INSTALL
 :PATH
 NIL
 :PROXY
 NIL
 :CLIENT-URL
 NIL
 :CLIENT-VERSION
 NIL
 :DIST-URL
 NIL
 :DIST-VERSION
 NIL)

0] 0

T

然后执行 (ql:add-to-init-file) 加载到 SBCL 的初始化文件中, 这样每次启动 SBCL 就会自动加载 quicklisp:

* (ql:add-to-init-file)

I will append the following lines to #P"/Users/admin/.sbclrc":

  ;;; The following lines added by ql:add-to-init-file:
  #-quicklisp
  (let ((quicklisp-init (merge-pathnames "quicklisp/setup.lisp"
                                         (user-homedir-pathname))))
    (when (probe-file quicklisp-init)
      (load quicklisp-init)))

Press Enter to continue.

#P"/Users/admin/.sbclrc"
*

安装好 quicklisp 之后, 剩下的就是用它来安装其他几个库, 具体来说就是这几条命令:

(ql:quickload 'cl-opengl)
(ql:quickload 'cl-glu)
(ql:quickload 'lispbuilder-sdl)

安装 cl-opengl

接下来就可以用 quicklispql:quickload 命令加载需要的库了, 先加载 cl-opengl

* (ql:quickload 'cl-opengl)
To load "cl-opengl":
  Load 2 ASDF systems:
    alexandria cffi
  Install 1 Quicklisp release:
    cl-opengl
; Fetching #<URL "http://beta.quicklisp.org/archive/cl-opengl/2013-03-12/cl-opengl-20130312-git.tgz">
; 356.91KB
==================================================
365,475 bytes in 1.52 seconds (235.43KB/sec)
; Loading "cl-opengl"
..................................................
[package cl-opengl-bindings]......................
..................................................
..................................................
[package cl-opengl]...............................
........
(CL-OPENGL)
* 

安装 cl-glu

再加载 cl-glu

* (ql:quickload 'cl-glu)
To load "cl-glu":
  Load 1 ASDF system:
    cl-glu
; Loading "cl-glu"
[package cl-glu].....
(CL-GLU)
* 

安装 lispbuilder-sdl

接下来加载 lispbuilder-sdl, 结果一开始出错, 报错信息如下:

* (ql:quickload 'lispbuilder-sdl)
To load "lispbuilder-sdl":
  Load 1 ASDF system:
    lispbuilder-sdl
; Loading "lispbuilder-sdl"

debugger invoked on a LOAD-FOREIGN-LIBRARY-ERROR in thread
#<THREAD "initial thread" RUNNING {10029A91C3}>:
  Unable to load any of the alternatives:
   ((:FRAMEWORK "cocoahelper") (:DEFAULT "cocoahelper"))

Type HELP for debugger help, or (SB-EXT:QUIT) to exit from SBCL.

restarts (invokable by number or by possibly-abbreviated name):
  0: [RETRY          ] Try loading the foreign library again.
  1: [USE-VALUE      ] Use another library instead.
  2: [TRY-RECOMPILING] Recompile cocoahelper and try loading it again
  3: [RETRY          ] Retry
                       loading FASL for #<CL-SOURCE-FILE "cocoahelper" "cocoahelper" "cocoahelper">.
  4: [ACCEPT         ] Continue, treating
                       loading FASL for #<CL-SOURCE-FILE "cocoahelper" "cocoahelper" "cocoahelper">
                       as having been successful.
  5: [ABORT          ] Give up on "lispbuilder-sdl"
  6:                   Exit debugger, returning to top level.

(CFFI::FL-ERROR
 "Unable to load any of the alternatives:~%   ~S"
 ((:FRAMEWORK "cocoahelper") (:DEFAULT "cocoahelper")))
0] 

仔细阅读这篇文档Using OpenGL with Common Lisp, 发现作者提到了这一点, 也说了解决办法, 就是进入对应的 cocoahelper 目录, 手动编译/安装, 实际上只要进到这个目录 /Users/admin/quicklisp/dists/quicklisp/software/lispbuilder-20130312-svn/lispbuilder-sdl/cocoahelper, 然后执行命令 make 就可以了.

另外开一个终端窗口, 编译 cocoahelper库, 在我的机器上操作记录如下:

Air:cocoahelper admin$ pwd
/Users/admin/quicklisp/dists/quicklisp/software/lispbuilder-20130312-svn/lispbuilder-sdl/cocoahelper
Air:cocoahelper admin$ make
gcc -fPIC  -I/usr/local/include/SDL -D_GNU_SOURCE=1 -D_THREAD_SAFE -c cocoahelper.m -o cocoahelper.o
cocoahelper.m:90:52: warning: passing 'char [1024]' to parameter of type 'UInt8 *' (aka 'unsigned char *') converts between pointers to integer types with different sign
      [-Wpointer-sign]
                if (CFURLGetFileSystemRepresentation(url2, true, parentdir, MAXPATHLEN)) {
                                                                 ^~~~~~~~~
/Applications/Xcode.app/Contents/Developer/Platforms/MacOSX.platform/Developer/SDKs/MacOSX10.11.sdk/System/Library/Frameworks/CoreFoundation.framework/Headers/CFURL.h:113:91: note: 
      passing argument to parameter 'buffer' here
Boolean CFURLGetFileSystemRepresentation(CFURLRef url, Boolean resolveAgainstBase, UInt8 *buffer, CFIndex maxBufLen);
                                                                                          ^
cocoahelper.m:163:12: warning: instance method '-setAppleMenu:' not found (return type defaults to 'id') [-Wobjc-method-access]
    [NSApp setAppleMenu:appleMenu];
           ^~~~~~~~~~~~
/Applications/Xcode.app/Contents/Developer/Platforms/MacOSX.platform/Developer/SDKs/MacOSX10.11.sdk/System/Library/Frameworks/AppKit.framework/Headers/NSApplication.h:110:12: note: 
      receiver is instance of class declared here
@interface NSApplication : NSResponder <NSUserInterfaceValidations, NSAccessibilityElement, NSAccessibility>
           ^
cocoahelper.m:292:31: warning: incompatible pointer to integer conversion passing 'void *' to parameter of type 'int' [-Wint-conversion]
    CustomApplicationMain (0, NULL);
                              ^~~~
/Applications/Xcode.app/Contents/Developer/Toolchains/XcodeDefault.xctoolchain/usr/bin/../lib/clang/7.3.0/include/stddef.h:105:16: note: expanded from macro 'NULL'
#  define NULL ((void*)0)
               ^~~~~~~~~~
cocoahelper.m:293:5: warning: 'GetCurrentProcess' is deprecated: first deprecated in OS X 10.9 [-Wdeprecated-declarations]
    GetCurrentProcess(&processSerialNum);
    ^
/Applications/Xcode.app/Contents/Developer/Platforms/MacOSX.platform/Developer/SDKs/MacOSX10.11.sdk/System/Library/Frameworks/ApplicationServices.framework/Frameworks/HIServices.framework/Headers/Processes.h:415:1: note: 
      'GetCurrentProcess' has been explicitly marked deprecated here
MacGetCurrentProcess(ProcessSerialNumber * PSN)               AVAILABLE_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_0_AND_LATER_BUT_DEPRECATED_IN_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_9;
^
/Applications/Xcode.app/Contents/Developer/Platforms/MacOSX.platform/Developer/SDKs/MacOSX10.11.sdk/System/Library/Frameworks/ApplicationServices.framework/Frameworks/HIServices.framework/Headers/Processes.h:412:34: note: 
      expanded from macro 'MacGetCurrentProcess'
    #define MacGetCurrentProcess GetCurrentProcess
                                 ^
cocoahelper.m:294:5: warning: implicit declaration of function 'CPSEnableForegroundOperation' is invalid in C99 [-Wimplicit-function-declaration]
    CPSEnableForegroundOperation (&processSerialNum);
    ^
cocoahelper.m:295:5: warning: 'SetFrontProcess' is deprecated: first deprecated in OS X 10.9 [-Wdeprecated-declarations]
    SetFrontProcess(&processSerialNum);
    ^
/Applications/Xcode.app/Contents/Developer/Platforms/MacOSX.platform/Developer/SDKs/MacOSX10.11.sdk/System/Library/Frameworks/ApplicationServices.framework/Frameworks/HIServices.framework/Headers/Processes.h:603:1: note: 
      'SetFrontProcess' has been explicitly marked deprecated here
SetFrontProcess(const ProcessSerialNumber * PSN)              AVAILABLE_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_0_AND_LATER_BUT_DEPRECATED_IN_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_9;
^
6 warnings generated.
gcc -dynamiclib  -L/usr/local/lib -lSDLmain -lSDL -Wl,-framework,Cocoa -o cocoahelper.dylib cocoahelper.o
Air:cocoahelper admin$ 

回到刚才加载 lispbuilder-sdl 的窗口, 选择 0, 这样:

0] 0
[package lispbuilder-sdl-cffi]....................
..................................................
[package lispbuilder-sdl-base]....................
[package trivial-garbage].........................
[package lispbuilder-sdl].........................
..................................................
..............
(LISPBUILDER-SDL)
*

不太放心, 再重新来一次, 直接显示成功:

* (ql:quickload 'lispbuilder-sdl)
To load "lispbuilder-sdl":
  Load 1 ASDF system:
    lispbuilder-sdl
; Loading "lispbuilder-sdl"

(LISPBUILDER-SDL)
* 

别人写的例程

用 cl-glut 画的 Manderlbrot 图

这里有一段只用 cl-glut 库绘制的 manderlbrot 集的代码, 如下:

(ql:quickload "cl-glut")

(defparameter *width* 500)
(defparameter *height* 500)
(defparameter *magnification* 100.0)

(defun get-latice-points (width height reduction)
  (apply #'append (loop for x from (* -1 (/ width 2)) below (1+ (/ width 2))
                        collect (loop for y from (* -1 (/ height 2)) below (1+ (/ height 2))
                                 collect (complex (/ x reduction) (/ y reduction))))))

(defun calc-mandelbrot (c)
  (labels ((f (z c n)
    (cond ((= n 27) `(,c -1))
          ((< 2 (abs z)) `(,c ,n))
          (t (f (+ c (expt z 2)) c (1+ n))))))
    (f 0 c 0)))

(defun get-mandelbrot ()
  (mapcar #'calc-mandelbrot (get-latice-points  *width* *height* *magnification*)))

(defun set-mandelbrot-vertexes (latice-points)
  (mapcar #'(lambda (x)
	      (let ((latice-point (car x))
	       	    (n (cadr x)))
		(cond ((= n -1) (%gl:color-3f 0 0 0))
		      (t (%gl:color-3f (* n 0.2) 0 0)))
		(gl:vertex (* *magnification* (realpart latice-point)) (* *magnification* (imagpart latice-point)) 0)))
	  latice-points))

(defclass my-window (glut:window)
  ()
  (:default-initargs :title "mandelbrot" :width *width* :height *height*
		     :mode '(:single :rgb :depth)))

(defmethod glut:display-window :before ((w my-window))
  (gl:clear-color 1 1 1 0)
  (gl:matrix-mode :projection)
  (gl:load-identity)
  (gl:ortho 0 *width* *height* 0 -1 1))

(defmethod glut:display ((window my-window))
  (gl:clear :color-buffer-bit)
  (%gl:color-3f 0 0 0)
  (gl:push-matrix)
  (gl:translate (/ *width* 2) (/ *height* 2) 0)
  (gl:begin :points)
  (set-mandelbrot-vertexes *mandelbrot*)
  (gl:end)
  (gl:pop-matrix)
  (gl:flush))

(defparameter *mandelbrot* (get-mandelbrot))
(defun draw-mandelbrot ()
  (glut:display-window (make-instance 'my-window)))

加载命令:

sbcl --load mandelbrot.lisp

然后执行:

* (draw-mandelbrot)

运行截图:

fractal

立方体绘制代码

具体就是绘制一个立方体, 代码如下:

(require 'cl-opengl)
(require 'cl-glu)
(require 'lispbuilder-sdl)

(defconstant +window-width+  600)
(defconstant +window-height+ 600)

(defconstant +cube-vertices+
  #(#(0 0 0)
    #(0 1 0)
    #(1 1 0)
    #(1 0 0)
    #(0 0 1)
    #(0 1 1)
    #(1 1 1)
    #(1 0 1)))

(defconstant +cube-faces+
  '((#(4 7 6 5) #(0 0 1))
    (#(5 6 2 1) #(0 1 0))
    (#(1 2 3 0) #(0 0 -1))
    (#(0 3 7 4) #(0 -1 0))
    (#(4 5 1 0) #(-1 0 0))
    (#(3 2 6 7) #(1 0 0))))

(defun draw-figure (verts faces)
  (labels ((set-normal (n)
             (gl:normal (aref n 0) (aref n 1) (aref n 2)))
           (set-vertex (index)
             (let ((v (aref verts index)))
               (gl:vertex (aref v 0) (aref v 1) (aref v 2))))
           (draw-face (vertex-indices normal)
             (set-normal normal)
             (gl:begin :quads)
             (map 'nil #'set-vertex vertex-indices)
             (gl:end)))

    (map 'nil #'(lambda (x) (draw-face (first x) (second x))) faces)))

(defun draw-frame (rotx roty rotz)
  (gl:matrix-mode :modelview)
  (gl:push-matrix)
  (gl:translate 0.5 0.5 0.5)
  (gl:rotate rotx 1 0 0)
  (gl:rotate roty 0 1 0)
  (gl:rotate rotz 0 0 1)
  (gl:translate -0.5 -0.5 -0.5)
  (draw-figure +cube-vertices+ +cube-faces+)
  (gl:pop-matrix))

(defun start ()
  (let ((rotx 0)
        (roty 0)
        (rotz 0))
    (sdl:with-init ()
      (sdl:window +window-width+ +window-height+ 
                  :opengl t
                  :opengl-attributes '((:sdl-gl-depth-size   16)
                                       (:sdl-gl-doublebuffer 1)))
      (setf (sdl:frame-rate) 10)

      (gl:viewport 0 0 +window-width+ +window-height+)
      (gl:matrix-mode :projection)
      (gl:load-identity)
      (glu:perspective 50 (/ +window-height+ +window-width+) 1.0 10.0)
      (glu:look-at -2 2 4 
                    0.5 0.5 0.5 
                    0 1 0)

      (gl:matrix-mode :modelview)
      (gl:load-identity)

      (gl:clear-color 0 0 0 0)
      (gl:shade-model :flat)
      (gl:cull-face :back)
      (gl:polygon-mode :front :fill)
      (gl:draw-buffer :back)
      (gl:material :front :ambient-and-diffuse #(0.7 0.7 0.7 0.4))
      (gl:light :light0 :position #(0 0 1 0))
      (gl:light :light0 :diffuse #(1 0 0 0))
      (gl:light :light1 :position #(-1 2 -0.5 0))
      (gl:light :light1 :diffuse #(0 1 0 0))
      (gl:enable :cull-face :depth-test
                 :lighting :light0 :light1)

      (gl:clear :color-buffer :depth-buffer)
      (draw-frame rotx roty rotz)
      (sdl:update-display)

      (sdl:with-events ()
        (:quit-event () t)
        (:video-expose-event () (sdl:update-display))
        (:idle
          (setq rotx (mod (+ rotx 2.5) 360.0))
          (setq roty (mod (+ roty 0.7) 360.0))
          (setq rotz (mod (+ rotz 4.4) 360.0))
          (gl:clear :color-buffer :depth-buffer)
          (draw-frame rotx roty rotz)
          (sdl:update-display))))))

运行截图如下:

3D

这是一个非常好的开始, 以后就可以在这个基础上用 Common Lisp 来调试 OpenGL 程序了.

参考

Using OpenGL with Common Lisp
Common Lisp 3D/2D Graphics Engine for OpenGL
Common Lisp library for creative coding

© 著作权归作者所有

FreeBlues
粉丝 98
博文 280
码字总数 493678
作品 0
其它
程序员
私信 提问
Mac OS X下如何使用OpenGL

作为3D的工业标准,OpenGL在苹果上可以说无处不在,用起来也是分外的舒服。 一般OpenGL需要搭配一些窗口库来做,比如Qt、MFC等,或者用跨平台的GLUT。 好在GLUT是Mac OS X自带的,所以直接用...

Jian-Yong
2013/01/17
0
3
Raspberry Pi 树莓派获得 OpenGL 支持

Raspberry Pi 基金会继续推进开发版的计算限制,其 Raspbian OS 增加了对 OpenGL 的体验支持。 OpenGL 是被大多数应用所使用的高级图形 API,广泛用于游戏、CAD、Web 浏览器等多种场景。而且...

oschina
2016/02/20
4.5K
4
跨平台图像引擎 - Octoon

Octoon 是一个免费和开源的跨平台图形引擎,采用MIT协议。 用户可以使用一组统一的API轻松创建图形应用程序。 应用程序可以导出到许多平台,包括Linux,Mac OSX,Windows,Android和HTML5。 ...

匿名
2018/05/27
0
0
Xcode 调试OpenGL shader 步骤详解

iOS Xcode 调试OpenGL shader 步骤详解 注意Apple的官方文档详细的描述了要使用GPU Frame Capture功能,必须使用EAGLContext作为上下文,而且要使用CAEAGLLayer或者GLKView,同时还要保证使用...

HeroHY
2018/10/03
0
0
英特尔开源Linux OpenGL驱动快于苹果OS X驱动

英特尔的开源Linux OpenGL驱动已经比苹果自己开发的OS X OpenGL驱动更快。Phoronix在硬件规格基本相同的 Mac Mini(双核Intel Core i5,2GB内存,OS X 10.8.3)和运行Ubuntu 13.04的PC(四核...

oschina
2013/05/23
4.6K
29

没有更多内容

加载失败,请刷新页面

加载更多

非递归实现后序遍历二叉树

问题描述 从键盘接受输入先序序列,以二叉链表作为存储结构,建立二叉树(以先序来建立)并对其进行后序遍历,然后将遍历结果打印输出。要求采用非递归方法实现。 解题思路 Push根结点到第一...

niithub
35分钟前
3
0
IDEA 自动删除类中无用的import包

1.手动快捷键 Ctrl + Alt + O 2.配置自动清理 Ctrl + Alt + S 打开设置 然后,进行如下操作:

时刻在奔跑
38分钟前
2
0
cwRsync提示password file must be owned by root when running as root的解决方法

cwRsync提示password file must be owned by root when running as root的解决方法 更新时间:2015年08月30日 23:05:52 投稿:mdxy-dxy 我要评论 今天在配置服务器的时候,用了rsync4.10版本...

rootliu
42分钟前
1
0
Java 交换两个参数

目前有一个小需求: 定义一个函数,交换两个值。于是,有人就写了这样一个函数。 public class exchange_01 { public static void main(String[] args) { // TODO Auto-gen...

hellation_
52分钟前
2
0
ExoPlayer简单使用

一、介绍 ExoPlayer是google开源的应用级媒体播放器项目,该开源项目包含ExoPlayer库和演示demo,github地址:https://github.com/google/ExoPlayer。 二、概述 ExoPlayer库的核心是ExoPlay...

零点B5
今天
1
0

没有更多内容

加载失败,请刷新页面

加载更多

返回顶部
顶部