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Linux 下安装Postgresql

Splace
 Splace
发布于 2016/06/13 19:53
字数 2059
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环境:Linux localhost.localdomain 2.6.32-431 GNU/Linux x86_64

Postgresql版本:postgresql.9.5.3

 

1.下载postgresql

    因bz2格式包格式比较小,故选择该格式下载。地址:https://www.postgresql.org/ftp/source/v9.5.3/

2.安装:

2.1 解压:

tar jxvf postgresql-9.5.3.tar.bz2

2.2 安装:

查看INSTALL文件说明安装过程。

[root@localhost postgresql-9.5.3]# less INSTALL
                  PostgreSQL Installation from Source Code

   This document describes the installation of PostgreSQL using the source
   code distribution. (If you are installing a pre-packaged distribution,
   such as an RPM or Debian package, ignore this document and read the
   packager's instructions instead.)
     __________________________________________________________________

                                Short Version

./configure
make
su
make install
adduser postgres
mkdir /usr/local/pgsql/data
chown postgres /usr/local/pgsql/data
su - postgres
/usr/local/pgsql/bin/initdb -D /usr/local/pgsql/data
/usr/local/pgsql/bin/postgres -D /usr/local/pgsql/data >logfile 2>&1 &
/usr/local/pgsql/bin/createdb test
/usr/local/pgsql/bin/psql test
...

2.2.1 编译

在编译过程中可以指定安装目录与wal日记大小等。编译过程过程中如遇其他问题(可能是依赖库的问题),解决以后重新编译即可。关于编译指定参数与编译过程中可能碰到的问题可参考该博文

[root@localhost postgresql-9.5.3]# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/pgsql9.5.3 --with-pgport=5432 --with-wal-blocksize=64
checking build system type... x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
checking host system type... x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
checking which template to use... linux
checking whether to build with 64-bit integer date/time support... yes
checking whether NLS is wanted... no
checking for default port number... 5432
checking for block size... 8kB
checking for segment size... 1GB
checking for WAL block size... 64kB
checking for WAL segment size... 16MB
checking for gcc... gcc
.......
checking whether gcc supports -Wl,--as-needed... yes
configure: using compiler=gcc (GCC) 4.4.7 20120313 (Red Hat 4.4.7-4)
configure: using CFLAGS=-Wall -Wmissing-prototypes -Wpointer-arith -Wdeclaration-after-statement -Wendif-labels -Wmissing-format-attribute -Wformat-security -fno-strict-aliasing -fwrapv -O2
configure: using CPPFLAGS= -D_GNU_SOURCE 
configure: using LDFLAGS=  -Wl,--as-needed
configure: creating ./config.status
config.status: creating GNUmakefile
config.status: creating src/Makefile.global
config.status: creating src/include/pg_config.h
config.status: creating src/include/pg_config_ext.h
config.status: creating src/interfaces/ecpg/include/ecpg_config.h
config.status: linking src/backend/port/tas/dummy.s to src/backend/port/tas.s
config.status: linking src/backend/port/dynloader/linux.c to src/backend/port/dynloader.c
config.status: linking src/backend/port/sysv_sema.c to src/backend/port/pg_sema.c
config.status: linking src/backend/port/sysv_shmem.c to src/backend/port/pg_shmem.c
config.status: linking src/backend/port/unix_latch.c to src/backend/port/pg_latch.c
config.status: linking src/backend/port/dynloader/linux.h to src/include/dynloader.h
config.status: linking src/include/port/linux.h to src/include/pg_config_os.h
config.status: linking src/makefiles/Makefile.linux to src/Makefile.port

2.2.2 安装:make & make install

[root@localhost postgresql-9.5.3]# make 
make -C src all
make[1]: Entering directory `/home/ceg/postgresql-9.5.3/src'
make -C common all
make[2]: Entering directory `/home/ceg/postgresql-9.5.3/src/common'
make -C ../backend submake-errcodes
make[3]: Entering directory `/home/ceg/postgresql-9.5.3/src/backend'
prereqdir=`cd 'utils/' >/dev/null && pwd` && \
          cd '../../src/include/utils/' && rm -f errcodes.h && \
          ln -s "$prereqdir/errcodes.h" .
make[3]: Leaving directory `/home/ceg/postgresql-9.5.3/src/backend'
...
lm  -o pg_regress
cp ../../../contrib/spi/refint.so refint.so
cp ../../../contrib/spi/autoinc.so autoinc.so
make[2]: Leaving directory `/home/ceg/postgresql-9.5.3/src/test/regress'
make[1]: Leaving directory `/home/ceg/postgresql-9.5.3/src'
make -C config all
make[1]: Entering directory `/home/ceg/postgresql-9.5.3/config'
make[1]: Nothing to be done for `all'.
make[1]: Leaving directory `/home/ceg/postgresql-9.5.3/config'
All of PostgreSQL successfully made. Ready to install.

[root@localhost postgresql-9.5.3]# make install
make -C src install
make[1]: Entering directory `/home/ceg/postgresql-9.5.3/src'
make -C common install
make[2]: Entering directory `/home/ceg/postgresql-9.5.3/src/common'
make -C ../backend submake-errcodes
make[3]: Entering directory `/home/ceg/postgresql-9.5.3/src/backend'
make[3]: Nothing to be done for `submake-errcodes'.
make[3]: Leaving directory `/home/ceg/postgresql-9.5.3/src/backend'
.....
/bin/mkdir -p '/usr/local/pgsql9.5.3--with-pgport=5432/lib/pgxs/config'
/usr/bin/install -c -m 755 ./install-sh '/usr/local/pgsql9.5.3--with-pgport=5432/lib/pgxs/config/install-sh'
/usr/bin/install -c -m 755 ./missing '/usr/local/pgsql9.5.3--with-pgport=5432/lib/pgxs/config/missing'
make[1]: Leaving directory `/home/ceg/postgresql-9.5.3/config'
PostgreSQL installation complete.

3.创建数据库集群

 3.1创建用户,用以配置环境变量与初始化数据库等。

[root@localhost pgsql9.5.3]# useradd postgres
[root@localhost pgsql9.5.3]# su - postgres
[postgres@localhost ~]$ 

 3.2 创建数据库集群

   3.2.1 创建数据目录,并给postgres用户以权限

[root@localhost pgsql9.5.3]# mkdir data
[root@localhost pgsql9.5.3]# ll
总用量 20
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 4096 6月  13 11:17 bin
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 4096 6月  13 14:38 data
drwxr-xr-x. 6 root root 4096 6月  13 11:17 include
drwxr-xr-x. 4 root root 4096 6月  13 11:17 lib
drwxr-xr-x. 6 root root 4096 6月  13 11:17 share
[root@localhost pgsql9.5.3]# pwd
/usr/local/pgsql9.5.3
[root@localhost pgsql9.5.3]# chown -R postgres:postgres /usr/local/pgsql9.5.3/data

    3.2.2 配置环境变量

     在postgresql用户下配置环境变量只对postgres用户有效,如要对所有用户有效,配置profile。

[root@localhost ~]# su - postgres
[postgres@localhost ~]$ less ~/.bash_profile
# .bash_profile

...

export PATH=/usr/local/pgsql9.5.3/bin:$PATH
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/local/pgsql9.5.3/lib
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
export PGDATA=/usr/local/pgsql9.5.3/data
....

[postgres@localhost ~]$ source ~/.bash_profile
[postgres@localhost ~]$ 

    3.2.3 初始化

[root@localhost ~]# su - postgres
[postgres@localhost ~]$ echo $PGDATA
/usr/local/pgsql9.5.3/data
[postgres@localhost ~]$ pwd
/home/postgres
[postgres@localhost ~]$ /usr/local/pgsql9.5.3/bin/initdb -E UTF8 -D $PGDATA  --locale=C -U postgres -W 
The files belonging to this database system will be owned by user "postgres".
This user must also own the server process.

The database cluster will be initialized with locale "C".
The default text search configuration will be set to "english".

Data page checksums are disabled.

fixing permissions on existing directory /usr/local/pgsql9.5.3/data ... ok
creating subdirectories ... ok
selecting default max_connections ... 100
selecting default shared_buffers ... 128MB
selecting dynamic shared memory implementation ... posix
creating configuration files ... ok
creating template1 database in /usr/local/pgsql9.5.3/data/base/1 ... ok
initializing pg_authid ... ok
Enter new superuser password:         --note:postgres
Enter it again: 
setting password ... ok
initializing dependencies ... ok
creating system views ... ok
loading system objects' descriptions ... ok
creating collations ... ok
creating conversions ... ok
creating dictionaries ... ok
setting privileges on built-in objects ... ok
creating information schema ... ok
loading PL/pgSQL server-side language ... ok
vacuuming database template1 ... ok
copying template1 to template0 ... ok
copying template1 to postgres ... ok
syncing data to disk ... ok

WARNING: enabling "trust" authentication for local connections
You can change this by editing pg_hba.conf or using the option -A, or
--auth-local and --auth-host, the next time you run initdb.

Success. You can now start the database server using:

    /usr/local/pgsql9.5.3/bin/pg_ctl -D /usr/local/pgsql9.5.3/data -l logfile start

4. 启动数据库

    4.1 配置postgresql.conf 和 pg_hba.conf。

    4.2 启动数据库

[root@localhost ~]# su - postgres
[postgres@localhost data]$ pg_ctl start -D $PGDATA
server starting
[postgres@localhost data]$ LOG:  redirecting log output to logging collector process
HINT:  Future log output will appear in directory "pg_log".

[postgres@localhost data]$ 
[postgres@localhost data]$ ps -ef|grep post
root     10092   367  0 15:32 pts/5    00:00:00 su - postgres
postgres 10093 10092  0 15:32 pts/5    00:00:00 -bash
postgres 11277     1  0 15:37 pts/5    00:00:00 /usr/local/pgsql9.5.3/bin/postgres -D /usr/local/pgsql9.5.3/data
postgres 11278 11277  0 15:37 ?        00:00:00 postgres: logger process                                        
postgres 11280 11277  0 15:37 ?        00:00:00 postgres: checkpointer process                                  
postgres 11281 11277  0 15:37 ?        00:00:00 postgres: writer process                                        
postgres 11282 11277  0 15:37 ?        00:00:00 postgres: wal writer process                                    
postgres 11283 11277  0 15:37 ?        00:00:00 postgres: autovacuum launcher process                           
postgres 11284 11277  0 15:37 ?        00:00:00 postgres: stats collector process 

    4.3 登录数据库  

[root@localhost pgsql9.5.3]# su - postgres
[postgres@localhost ~]$ psql
psql (9.5.3)
Type "help" for help.

postgres=# \d
No relations found.
postgres=# \l
                             List of databases
   Name    |  Owner   | Encoding | Collate | Ctype |   Access privileges   
-----------+----------+----------+---------+-------+-----------------------
 postgres  | postgres | UTF8     | C       | C     | 
 template0 | postgres | UTF8     | C       | C     | =c/postgres          +
           |          |          |         |       | postgres=CTc/postgres
 template1 | postgres | UTF8     | C       | C     | =c/postgres          +
           |          |          |         |       | postgres=CTc/postgres
(3 rows)

postgres=# \du
                                   List of roles
 Role name |                         Attributes                         | Member of 
-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+-----------
 postgres  | Superuser, Create role, Create DB, Replication, Bypass RLS | {}

至此安装完毕。

    4.4 设置开启自启

服务正常或者异常产生的重启都需要重启postgres,可通过设置linux启动项设置自启动, PostgreSQL的开机自启动脚本位于PostgreSQL源码目录的contrib/start-scripts路径下 ,

[root@localhost contrib]# ll |grep start-scripts
drwxrwxrwx. 3 1107 1107  4096 5月  10 05:05 start-scripts
[root@localhost contrib]# cd start-scripts
[root@localhost start-scripts]# ll
总用量 12
-rw-r--r--. 1 1107 1107 1529 5月  10 04:50 freebsd
-rw-r--r--. 1 1107 1107 3642 5月  10 04:50 linux
drwxrwxrwx. 2 1107 1107 4096 5月  10 05:05 osx

linux即为开机启动脚本文件,文件包含设置说明:

[root@localhost start-scripts]# less linux 
#! /bin/sh

# chkconfig: 2345 98 02
# description: PostgreSQL RDBMS

# This is an example of a start/stop script for SysV-style init, such
# as is used on Linux systems.  You should edit some of the variables
# and maybe the 'echo' commands.
#
# Place this file at /etc/init.d/postgresql (or
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/postgresql) and make symlinks to
#   /etc/rc.d/rc0.d/K02postgresql
#   /etc/rc.d/rc1.d/K02postgresql
#   /etc/rc.d/rc2.d/K02postgresql
#   /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/S98postgresql
#   /etc/rc.d/rc4.d/S98postgresql
#   /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/S98postgresql
# Or, if you have chkconfig, simply:
# chkconfig --add postgresql
#
# Proper init scripts on Linux systems normally require setting lock
# and pid files under /var/run as well as reacting to network
# settings, so you should treat this with care.

# Original author:  Ryan Kirkpatrick <pgsql@rkirkpat.net>

# contrib/start-scripts/linux
....

    4.4.1 修改linux文件属性,添加X属性

[root@localhost start-scripts]# chmod a+x linux 

    4.4.2 复制linux文件到/etc/init.d目录下,更名为postgresql

[root@localhost start-scripts]# cp linux  /etc/init.d/postgresql

   4.4.3  修改/etc/init.d/postgresql文件的两个变量

prefix设置为postgresql的安装路径,PGDATA设置为postgresql的数据目录路径:

     29 ## EDIT FROM HERE
     30 
     31 # Installation prefix
     32 #prefix=/usr/local/pgsql
     33 prefix=/usr/local/pgsql9.5.3
     34 
     35 # Data directory
     36 PGDATA="/usr/local/pgsql9.5.3/data"

    4.4.4 重启数据库服务

[root@localhost init.d]# service postgresql stop
Stopping PostgreSQL: ok
[root@localhost init.d]# service postgresql start
Starting PostgreSQL: ok

    4.4.5 添加到启动项

[root@localhost init.d]# chkconfig --add postgresql
[root@localhost init.d]# chkconfig --list|grep postgres
postgresql      0:关闭  1:关闭  2:启用  3:启用  4:启用  5:启用  6:关闭

本文是源码安装过程,该种安装方式可以在安装过程中配置一些参数。其他还有rmp等方式可参考博文1。原安装包中的各文件以及安装过程中的参数说明等可参考博文2

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