开发一个不走寻常路的贪吃蛇

原创
2020/02/24 15:22
阅读数 4K

学编程的小伙伴或多或少都写过贪吃蛇这个小游戏吧,核心的算法就是通过数组来维护蛇的移动和增长。具体实现方式:

地图:一个 M x N 的网格,每次移动的距离都是网格尺寸的 k 倍

移动:根据键盘按下的移动方向算出蛇头的位置,添加到数组顶部(unshift),同时移除数组的最后一个元素

进食:把食物的位置添加到数组顶部

碰撞:每次绘制前遍历数组,检测蛇头与身体每一块是否接触

原理很简单,实现起来也很简单,可以说是游戏领域的Hello World级的实例了。

那这篇博客的目的是把这个经典的算法再撸一遍?看过这个系列博客的筒子们都知道,这种网上随便一搜就是一堆的东西我是不屑于写的

说一下我本次贪吃蛇游戏的构想:

① 游戏能满帧运行,并且无视觉“卡顿”,而不是传统贪吃蛇的一格一格地往下走;

② 转动时尾巴逐渐收回,而不是突然消失;

③ 进食时身体逐渐增长,而不是突然变长;

④ 碰撞检测,没啥好说的;

⑤ 转动时蛇头也跟着旋转,回正时间与尾巴收回时长一致,而不是突然转过头;

⑥ 身体转折点圆弧过渡,碰撞检测时也检测圆弧;

⑦ 给身体,头、尾盖上贴图;

⑧ 将图片与骨骼绑定,做出蒙皮动画。

⑨ websocket实现多人联机

东西有些多,截止到目前(2020-02-24),我写这篇博客已经实现①②③④,其他的几个是未来将要完善的~~(又开始挖坑了。。

有人可能觉得第一点很简单,不就是把原来的大网格划分为1px * 1px 的小网格么,还是用经典的实现方式不就好了。这么想的人显然没有考虑过性能,先不说要逐像素来移动,光是要对所有像素点做碰撞检测就是极大的运算量(尽管可以算法的优化来过滤掉大部分,但是也不是一个好的解决方案,也不适合后面的贴图等扩展)。

老规矩,说下我的实现方式,首先还是定义一个对象数组,里面的每个对象的结构如下:

{
  direction: ???, // 每一截移动方向
  x: ???, y: ???, // 每一截的位置 
  width: ???, height: ??? // 每一截的尺寸 
}

然。。然后。。。然后我就把代码完整贴上来吧。。。。真不知道改怎么讲了,有疑问的可以评论区留言

<!doctype html>
<html>
<head>
  <meta charset="utf-8">
  <title>贪吃蛇小游戏</title>
  <style>
    * {
      margin: 0;
      padding: 0;
    }

    html, body {
      width: 100%;
      height: 100%;
    }

    body {
      position: relative;
      background: lightgrey;
    }

    canvas {
      display: block;
      border: 1px dashed grey;
      margin: 0 auto;
    }

    h1 {
      font-size: 30px;
      text-align: center;
    }

    h2 {
      font-size: 20px;
      text-align: center;
    }

    h3 {
      height: 30px;
      line-height: 30px;
      font-size: 16px;
      text-align: center;
      color: #d90000;
    }

    h1 sub {
      font-size: 20px;
      color: #333;
      vertical-align: bottom;
    }

    form {
      margin: 10px auto 0;
      width: 700px;
      font-size: 0;
    }
    form .row {
      margin-top: 10px;
      height: 44px;
    }
    form .column {
      display: inline-block;
      vertical-align: top;
      width: 350px;
    }
    form label {
      font-size: 15px;
      display: inline-block;
      vertical-align: top;
      width: 160px;
      line-height: 44px;
      text-align: right;
    }
    form input {
      width: 160px;
      height: 30px;
      padding: 5px;
      vertical-align: top;
    }
    form .button-group {
      text-align: center;
    }
    form button {
      width: 100px;
      height: 30px;
      font-size: 15px;
    }
    #apply {
      margin-right: 30px;
    }
  </style>
</head>
<body>
<h1>贪吃蛇<sub>(WASD移动)</sub></h1>
<form>
  <div class="row">
    <div class="column"><label for="canvas-width">画布宽度(px):</label><input type="number" id="canvas-width" placeholder="画布宽度(px)" value="600"></div>
    <div class="column"><label for="canvas-height">画布高度(px):</label><input type="number" id="canvas-height" placeholder="画布高度(px)" value="600"></div>
  </div>
  <div class="row">
    <div class="column"><label for="length">起始长度(px):</label><input type="number" id="length" placeholder="起始长度(px)" value="200"></div>
    <div class="column"><label for="speed">起始速度(px/s):</label><input type="number" id="speed" placeholder="起始速度(px/s)" value="100"></div>
  </div>
  <div class="row">
    <div class="column"><label for="pos-y">起始位置-上(px):</label><input type="number" id="pos-y" placeholder="起始位置-上(px)" value="400"></div>
    <div class="column"><label for="pos-x">起始位置-左(px):</label><input type="number" id="pos-x" placeholder="起始位置-左(px)" value="200"></div>
  </div>
  <div class="row">
    <div class="column"><label for="fps">刷新率(fps):</label><input type="number" id="fps" placeholder="刷新率(fps)" value="60"></div>
  </div>
  <div class="row button-group">
    <button type="button" id="apply">应用</button>
    <button type="button" id="start">开始</button>
  </div>
</form>
<h2>score: <span id="score"></span></h2>
<h3 id="tips"></h3>
<script>

  const $canvasWidth = document.getElementById('canvas-width')
  const $canvasHeight = document.getElementById('canvas-height')
  const $length = document.getElementById('length')
  const $speed = document.getElementById('speed')
  const $posX = document.getElementById('pos-x')
  const $posY = document.getElementById('pos-y')
  const $fps = document.getElementById('fps')
  const $score = document.getElementById('score')
  const $tips = document.getElementById('tips')

  function checkCollision (box1, box2) {
    return !(box1.right <= box2.left || box1.left >= box2.right || box1.top >= box2.bottom || box1.bottom <= box2.top)
  }

  const DIR = {
    UP: 'up',
    LEFT: 'left',
    DOWN: 'down',
    RIGHT: 'right',
  }
  const KEY_CODE = {
    W: 87,
    A: 65,
    S: 83,
    D: 68,
  }

  const Snake = function (_config) {
    const config = {}
    let canvas
    let ctx
    this.score = 0
    this.msg = ''
    this.crashed = false // 撞上自己
    // config.headSize = { width: 20, height: 20 } // 头的宽/高
    // config.partSize = { width: 20, height: 20 } // 每一节宽/高
    let headPos
    let bodyLength
    let direction
    let speed
    let foodSize
    // this.headRadian = 0
    // this.displayHeadRadian = 0
    let bodyParts // 身体组成部分的数组
    let foodPos // 食物的位置
    let eating
    let headBox
    let foodBox

    this.init = function (_config) {
      Object.assign(config, _config)
      console.log(config)
      canvas = document.getElementById('snake-canvas')
      if (canvas) {
        canvas.width = config.canvasWidth
        canvas.height = config.canvasHeight
      }
      else {
        canvas = document.createElement('canvas')
        canvas.id = 'snake-canvas'
        canvas.width = config.canvasWidth
        canvas.height = config.canvasWidth
        document.body.appendChild(canvas)
      }
      ctx = canvas.getContext('2d')

      this.score = 0
      this.crashed = false // 撞上自己
      headPos = config.initHeadPos
      bodyLength = config.initBodyLength
      direction = config.initDirection
      speed = config.initSpeed
      foodSize = config.foodSize
      bodyParts = [
        { direction: DIR.RIGHT, x: headPos.x - bodyLength, y: headPos.y, width: bodyLength, height: config.partSize.height }
      ]
      // 食物的位置
      foodPos = { x: 0, y: 0 }
      eating = false
      headBox = {
        top: headPos.y,
        right: headPos.x + config.headSize.width,
        bottom: headPos.y + config.headSize.height,
        left: headPos.x,
      }
      foodBox = {
        top: foodPos.y,
        right: foodPos.x + foodSize.width,
        bottom: foodPos.y + foodSize.height,
        left: foodPos.x,
      }
      this.createFood()
      this.update()
      this.draw()
    }

    this.turn = function (keyCode) {
      if ((direction === DIR.DOWN && keyCode === KEY_CODE.S) || (direction === DIR.DOWN && keyCode === KEY_CODE.W)
        || (direction === DIR.RIGHT && keyCode === KEY_CODE.D) || (direction === DIR.RIGHT && keyCode === KEY_CODE.A)
        || (direction === DIR.UP && keyCode === KEY_CODE.W) || (direction === DIR.UP && keyCode === KEY_CODE.S)
        || (direction === DIR.LEFT && keyCode === KEY_CODE.A) || (direction === DIR.LEFT && keyCode === KEY_CODE.D)) {
        return false
      }
      const bodyPart = { x: headPos.x, y: headPos.y, width: config.partSize.width, height: config.partSize.height }
      switch (keyCode) {
        case KEY_CODE.W: // 上 W
          direction = DIR.UP
          headPos.y -= 1
          bodyPart.direction = DIR.UP
          bodyPart.y = headPos.y + config.headSize.height
          bodyPart.height = 1
          break
        case KEY_CODE.A: // 左 A
          direction = DIR.LEFT
          headPos.x -= 1
          bodyPart.direction = DIR.LEFT
          bodyPart.x = headPos.x + config.headSize.width
          bodyPart.width = 1
          break
        case KEY_CODE.S: // 下 S
          direction = DIR.DOWN
          headPos.y += 1
          bodyPart.direction = DIR.DOWN
          bodyPart.y = headPos.y - 1
          bodyPart.height = 1
          break
        case KEY_CODE.D: // 右 D
          direction = DIR.RIGHT
          headPos.x += 1
          bodyPart.direction = DIR.RIGHT
          bodyPart.x = headPos.x - 1
          bodyPart.width = 1
          break
      }
      bodyParts.unshift(bodyPart)
    }

    this.move = function (delta) {
      // 身体
      const newBodyParts = []
      let nextHeadPos = Object.assign({}, headPos)
      const distance = delta / 1000 * speed
      const nextHeadBox = {
        top: nextHeadPos.y,
        right: nextHeadPos.x + config.headSize.width,
        bottom: nextHeadPos.y + config.headSize.height,
        left: nextHeadPos.x,
      }
      switch (direction) {
        case DIR.UP: // 上
          nextHeadPos.y -= distance
          nextHeadBox.top = nextHeadPos.y
          nextHeadBox.bottom = nextHeadBox.top + 1
          break
        case DIR.LEFT: // 左
          nextHeadPos.x -= distance
          nextHeadBox.left = nextHeadPos.x
          nextHeadBox.right = nextHeadBox.left + 1
          break
        case DIR.RIGHT: // 右
          nextHeadPos.x += distance
          nextHeadBox.left = nextHeadBox.right - 1
          nextHeadBox.right = nextHeadBox.left + 1
          break
        case DIR.DOWN: // 下
          nextHeadPos.y += distance
          nextHeadBox.top = nextHeadBox.bottom - 1
          nextHeadBox.bottom = nextHeadBox.top + 1
          break
      }
      let addedLength = 0
      if (bodyParts.length > 0) {
        let curPart
        let curPartBox
        let delta = 0
        // 临时长度(加上转角增加的部分)
        const bodyPartLength = bodyLength
        // const bodyPartLength = bodyLength + bodyParts.length * config.partSize.width
        let end = false
        for (let i = 0; !end && i < bodyParts.length; i++) {
          curPart = bodyParts[i]
          // 该部分方向向右
          if (curPart.direction === DIR.RIGHT) {
            if (i === 0) { curPart.width += distance }
            delta = addedLength + curPart.width - bodyPartLength
            // 若超过了总长度则截取
            if (delta >= 0) {
              curPart.x += delta
              curPart.width -= delta
              newBodyParts.push(curPart)
              end = true
            }
            else {
              addedLength += curPart.width
              newBodyParts.push(curPart)
            }
          }
          // 该部分方向向下
          else if (curPart.direction === DIR.DOWN) {
            if (i === 0) {
              curPart.height += distance
            }
            delta = addedLength + curPart.height - bodyPartLength
            // 若超过了总长度则截取
            if (delta >= 0) {
              curPart.y += delta
              curPart.height -= delta
              newBodyParts.push(curPart)
              end = true
            }
            else {
              addedLength += curPart.height
              newBodyParts.push(curPart)
            }
          }
          // 该部分方向向左
          else if (curPart.direction === DIR.LEFT) {
            if (i === 0) {
              curPart.x -= distance
              curPart.width += distance
            }
            delta = addedLength + curPart.width - bodyPartLength
            // 若超过了总长度则截取
            if (delta >= 0) {
              curPart.width -= delta
              newBodyParts.push(curPart)
              end = true
            }
            else {
              addedLength += curPart.width
              newBodyParts.push(curPart)
            }
          }
          // 该部分方向向上
          else if (curPart.direction === DIR.UP) {
            if (i === 0) {
              curPart.y -= distance
              curPart.height += distance
            }
            delta = addedLength + curPart.height - bodyPartLength
            // 若超过了总长度则截取
            if (delta >= 0) {
              curPart.height -= delta
              newBodyParts.push(curPart)
              end = true
            }
            else {
              addedLength += curPart.height
              newBodyParts.push(curPart)
            }
          }
          curPartBox = {
            top: curPart.y,
            right: curPart.x + curPart.width,
            bottom: curPart.y + curPart.height,
            left: curPart.x,
          }
          // if (i > 1) {
          //   console.log(i, checkCollision(nextHeadBox, curPartBox), nextHeadBox, curPartBox)
          // }
          // 不可能和第一、二截尾巴撞上
          if (i > 1 && !this.crashed && checkCollision(nextHeadBox, curPartBox)) {
            this.msg = `和第${i + 1}截尾巴撞上了`
            console.log('score:', this.score)
            this.crashed = true
          }
        }
      }
      headPos = nextHeadPos
      bodyParts = newBodyParts
      headBox = nextHeadBox
    }

    // 和eat拆分开来是因为willEat必须每次循环调用,eat每帧调用,也许会穿过food
    this.willEat = function () {
      if (!eating && checkCollision(headBox, foodBox)) {
        eating = true
      }
    }

    this.eat = function () {
      if (eating) {
        bodyLength += foodSize.width
        this.createFood()
        speed *= 1.05
        eating = false
        this.score += 1
      }
    }

    this.createFood = function () {
      const newFoodPos = {
        x: Math.random() * (config.canvasWidth - foodSize.width),
        y: Math.random() * (config.canvasHeight - foodSize.height),
      }
      const newFoodBox = {
        top: newFoodPos.y,
        right: newFoodPos.x + foodSize.width,
        bottom: newFoodPos.y + foodSize.height,
        left: newFoodPos.x,
      }
      // 头部是否碰撞
      if (checkCollision(headBox, newFoodBox)) {
        this.createFood()
      }
      else {
        // 循环遍历蛇身体,如果有碰撞则重新计算
        // for (let i = 0; i < bodyParts.length; i++) {
        //   ?? this.createFood()
        // }
        foodPos = newFoodPos
        foodBox = newFoodBox
      }
    }

    this.draw = function () {
      ctx.clearRect(0, 0, config.canvasWidth, config.canvasHeight)
      // 蛇头
      ctx.fillStyle = 'rgba(0,10,10,0.5)'
      ctx.fillRect(headPos.x, headPos.y, config.headSize.width, config.headSize.height)
      // 蛇身
      ctx.fillStyle = 'rgba(0,80,80,0.5)'
      if (bodyParts.length > 0) {
        for (let i = 0; i < bodyParts.length; i++) {
          ctx.fillRect(bodyParts[i].x, bodyParts[i].y, bodyParts[i].width, bodyParts[i].height)
        }
      }

      // 食物
      ctx.fillStyle = 'rgba(0,2,127,1)'
      ctx.fillRect(foodPos.x, foodPos.y, foodSize.width, foodSize.height)
    }

    this.update = function (delta) {
      this.eat()
      delta && this.move(delta)
    }

    this.init(_config)

  }

  const snake = new Snake(getConf())

  function getConf () {
    const opts = {
      canvasWidth: 600,
      canvasHeight: 600,
      headSize: { width: 20, height: 20 }, // 头的宽/高
      partSize: { width: 20, height: 20 }, // 每一节宽/高
      initHeadPos: { x: 0, y: 0 }, // 头部的初始位置
      initBodyLength: 200, // 初始身体长度
      initDirection: DIR.RIGHT, // 初始方向
      initSpeed: 100, // 初始速度
      foodSize: { width: 20, height: 20 }, // 食物的尺寸
    }
    const canvasWidth = parseFloat($canvasWidth.value)
    const canvasHeight = parseFloat($canvasHeight.value)
    const length = parseFloat($length.value)
    const speed = parseFloat($speed.value)
    const posX = parseFloat($posX.value)
    const posY = parseFloat($posY.value)
    canvasWidth && (opts.canvasWidth = canvasWidth)
    canvasHeight && (opts.canvasHeight = canvasHeight)
    length && (opts.initBodyLength = length)
    speed && (opts.initSpeed = speed)
    posX && (opts.initHeadPos.x = posX)
    posY && (opts.initHeadPos.y = posY)
    return opts
  }

  let fps = 60  // 每秒帧数
  let lockFps = true // 锁定帧率
  let interval = 1000 / fps  // 连续帧之间间隔(理论)
  let stop = true  // 停止动画
  let lastUpdateTime = performance.now()  // 上一次更新的时间
  let lastDrawTime = lastUpdateTime  // 上一次渲染的时间
  let delta = 0  // 连续帧之间间隔(实际)

  let distance = 0
  const tick = function (timestamp) {
    if (stop) return false
    snake.willEat()
    delta = timestamp - lastUpdateTime
    snake.update(delta)
    if (lockFps) {
      if (timestamp - lastDrawTime > interval) {
        snake.draw()
        $score.innerHTML = snake.score
        lastDrawTime = timestamp
      }
    }
    else {
      snake.draw()
    }
    lastUpdateTime = timestamp

    if (snake.crashed) {
      snake.draw()
      $tips.innerHTML = snake.msg
    }
    else {
      requestAnimationFrame(tick)
    }
  }

  const pause = function () {
    stop = true
  }

  const play = function () {
    stop = false
    lastUpdateTime = performance.now()
    requestAnimationFrame(tick)
  }

  const reset = function () {
    fps = parseFloat($fps.value) || 60
    interval = 1000 / fps
    pause()
    snake.init(getConf())
  }

  document.getElementById('apply').onclick = reset

  document.getElementById('start').onclick = function () {
    reset()
    play()
  }

  window.addEventListener('keydown', function (e) {
    const keyCode = e.keyCode
    if (keyCode === 32) {
      return stop ? play() : pause()
    }
    [KEY_CODE.W, KEY_CODE.A, KEY_CODE.S, KEY_CODE.D].indexOf(keyCode) !== -1 && snake.turn(keyCode)
  })

</script>

</body>
</html>

WASD控制方式,space暂停,当时为了调试用的,懒得去了2333

有几个缺陷:

  • 蛇头撞墙检测
  • 生成食物时禁止生成在身体上

就酱,后面补吧~23333

 完整代码戳这里

在线演示1在线演示2

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实习的时候跟着老师写过,面向对象的经典案例
03/01 17:04
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KaySama博主
应该还是有稍许不同的,你说的那个估计是把画布分成网格,然后维护一个贪吃蛇身体的数组。 我这边的实现是逐像素的移动,而不是逐格的移动。
03/01 17:09
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说这些有什么用?产生业务价值升职加薪了吗?
03/01 17:30
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KaySama博主
啊这,破防了 (ಥ﹏ಥ)
03/01 17:31
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