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Gradle Plugin User Guide


  1. Introduction
    1. 1.1 Why Gradle?
  2. Requirements
  3. Basic Project
    1. 3.1 Simple build files
    2. 3.2 Project Structure
      1. 3.2.1 Configuring the Structure
    3. 3.3 Build Tasks
      1. 3.3.1 General Tasks
      2. 3.3.2 Java project tasks
      3. 3.3.3 Android tasks
    4. 3.4 Basic Build Customization
      1. 3.4.1 Manifest entries
      2. 3.4.2 Build Types
      3. 3.4.3 Signing Configurations
      4. 3.4.4 Running ProGuard
      5. 3.4.5 Shrinking Resources
  4. Dependencies, Android Libraries and Multi-project setup
    1. 4.1 Dependencies on binary packages
      1. 4.1.1 Local packages
      2. 4.1.2 Remote artifacts
    2. 4.2 Multi project setup
    3. 4.3 Library projects
      1. 4.3.1 Creating a Library Project
      2. 4.3.2 Differences between a Project and a Library Project
      3. 4.3.3 Referencing a Library
      4. 4.3.4 Library Publication
  5. Testing
    1. 5.1 Unit Testing
    2. 5.2 For the experimental unit testing support added in 1.1, please see this page. The rest of this section describes "instrumentation tests" that can run on a real device (or an emulator) and require a separate, testing APK to be built.
    3. 5.3 Basics and Configuration
    4. 5.4 Running tests
    5. 5.5 Testing Android Libraries
    6. 5.6 Test reports
      1. 5.6.1 Single projects
      2. 5.6.2 Multi-projects reports
    7. 5.7 Lint support
  6. Build Variants
    1. 6.1 Product flavors
    2. 6.2 Build Type + Product Flavor = Build Variant
    3. 6.3 Product Flavor Configuration
    4. 6.4 Sourcesets and Dependencies
    5. 6.5 Building and Tasks
    6. 6.6 Testing
    7. 6.7 Multi-flavor variants
  7. Advanced Build Customization
    1. 7.1 Build options
      1. 7.1.1 Java Compilation options
      2. 7.1.2 aapt options
      3. 7.1.3 dex options
    2. 7.2 Manipulating tasks
    3. 7.3 BuildType and Product Flavor property reference
    4. 7.4 Using sourceCompatibility 1.7


Goals of the new Build System
The goals of the new build system are:
  • Make it easy to reuse code and resources
  • Make it easy to create several variants of an application, either for multi-apk distribution or for different flavors of an application
  • Make it easy to configure, extend and customize the build process
  • Good IDE integration

Why Gradle?

Gradle is an advanced build system as well as an advanced build toolkit allowing to create custom build logic through plugins.

Here are some of its features that made us choose Gradle:
  • Domain Specific Language (DSL) to describe and manipulate the build logic
  • Build files are Groovy based and allow mixing of declarative elements through the DSL and using code to manipulate the DSL elements to provide custom logic.
  • Built-in dependency management through Maven and/or Ivy.
  • Very flexible. Allows using best practices but doesn’t force its own way of doing things.
  • Plugins can expose their own DSL and their own API for build files to use.
  • Good Tooling API allowing IDE integration


  • Gradle 1.10 or 1.11 or 1.12 with the plugin 0.11.1
  • SDK with Build Tools 19.0.0. Some features may require a more recent version.

Basic Project

A Gradle project describes its build in a file called  build.gradle located in the root folder of the project.

Simple build files

The most simple Java-only project has the following  build.gradle:

apply plugin: 'java'

This applies the Java plugin, which is packaged with Gradle. The plugin provides everything to build and test Java applications.

The most simple Android project has the following build.gradle:

buildscript {
    repositories {

    dependencies {
        classpath ''

apply plugin: 'android'

android {
    compileSdkVersion 19
    buildToolsVersion "19.0.0"

There are 3 main areas to this Android build file:

buildscript { ... } configures the code driving the build.
In this case, this declares that it uses the Maven Central repository, and that there is a classpath dependency on a Maven artifact. This artifact is the library that contains the Android plugin for Gradle in version 0.11.1
Note: This only affects the code running the build, not the project. The project itself needs to declare its own repositories and dependencies. This will be covered later.

Then, the  android plugin is applied like the Java plugin earlier.

Finally,  android { ... } configures all the parameters for the android build. This is the entry point for the Android DSL.
By default, only the compilation target, and the version of the build-tools are needed. This is done with the  compileSdkVersion and  buildtoolsVersion  properties.
The compilation target is the same as the  target property in the file of the old build system. This new property can either be assigned a int (the api level) or a string with the same value as the previous  target property.

Important: You should only apply the  android plugin. Applying the  java plugin as well will result in a build error.

Note: You will also need a file to set the location of the SDK in the same way that the existing SDK requires, using the  sdk.dir property.
Alternatively, you can set an environment variable called  ANDROID_HOME. There is no differences between the two methods, you can use the one you prefer.

Project Structure

The basic build files above expect a default folder structure. Gradle follows the concept of convention over configuration, providing sensible default option values when possible.

The basic project starts with two components called “source sets”. The main source code and the test code. These live respectively in:
  • src/main/
  • src/androidTest/
Inside each of these folders exists folder for each source components.
For both the Java and Android plugin, the location of the Java source code and the Java resources:
  • java/
  • resources/
For the Android plugin, extra files and folders specific to Android:
  • AndroidManifest.xml
  • res/
  • assets/
  • aidl/
  • rs/
  • jni/
  • jniLibs/
Note:  src/ androidTest /AndroidManifest.xml is not needed as it is created automatically.

Configuring the Structure

When the default project structure isn’t adequate, it is possible to configure it. According to the Gradle documentation, r econfiguring the sourceSets for a Java project can be done with the following:

sourceSets {
    main {
          java {
                  srcDir 'src/java'
            resources {
                  srcDir 'src/resources'

Note:  srcDir will actually add the given folder to the existing list of source folders (this is not mentioned in the Gradle documentation but this is actually the behavior).

To replace the default source folders, you will want to use  srcDirs instead, which takes an array of path. This also shows a different way of using the objects involved:

sourceSets { = ['src/java']
    main.resources.srcDirs = ['src/resources']

For more information, see the Gradle documentation on the Java plugin  here .

The Android plugin uses a similar syntaxes, but because it uses its own  sourceSets, this is done within the  android object.
Here’s an example, using the old project structure for the main code and remapping the androidTest sourceSet to the  tests  folder:

android {
    sourceSets {
        main {
             manifest.srcFile 'AndroidManifest.xml'
              java.srcDirs = ['src']
              resources.srcDirs = ['src']
               aidl.srcDirs = ['src']
              renderscript.srcDirs = ['src']
              res.srcDirs = ['res']
               assets.srcDirs = ['assets']

          androidTest .setRoot('tests')

Note: because the old structure put all source files (java, aidl, renderscript, and java resources) in the same folder, we need to remap all those new components of the sourceSet to the same  src folder.
Note:  setRoot() moves the whole  sourceSet (and its sub folders) to a new folder. This moves  src/ androidTest /* to  tests/*
This is Android specific and will not work on Java  sourceSets.

The ‘migrated’ sample shows this.

Build Tasks

General Tasks

Applying a plugin to the build file automatically creates a set of build tasks to run. Both the Java plugin and the Android plugin do this.
The convention for tasks is the following:
  • assemble
    The task to assemble the output(s) of the project
  • check
    The task to run all the checks.
  • build
    This task does both assemble and check
  • clean
    This task cleans the output of the project
The tasks  assemble check  and  build  don’t actually do anything. They are anchor tasks for the plugins to add actual tasks that do the work.

This allows you to always call the same task(s) no matter what the type of project is, or what plugins are applied.
For instance, applying the  findbugs plugin will create a new task and make  check depend on it, making it be called whenever the  check task is called.

From the command line you can get the high level task running the following command:
gradle tasks

For a full list and seeing dependencies between the tasks run:
gradle tasks --all

Note: Gradle automatically monitor the declared inputs and outputs of a task.
Running the  build  twice without change will make Gradle report all tasks as UP-TO-DATE, meaning no work was required. This allows tasks to properly depend on each other without requiring unneeded build operations.

Java project tasks

The Java plugin creates mainly two tasks, that are dependencies of the main anchor tasks:
  • assemble
    • jar
      This task creates the output.
  • check
    • test
      This task runs the tests.
The  jar task itself will depend directly and indirectly on other tasks:  classes for instance will compile the Java code.
The tests are compiled with testClasses, but it is rarely useful to call this as  test  depends on it (as well as  classes ).

In general, you will probably only ever call  assemble or  check, and ignore the other tasks.

You can see the full set of tasks and their descriptions for the Java plugin  here.

Android tasks

The Android plugin use the same convention to stay compatible with other plugins, and adds an additional anchor task:
  • assemble
    The task to assemble the output(s) of the project
  • check
    The task to run all the checks.
  • connectedCheck
    Runs checks that requires a connected device or emulator. they will run on all connected devices in parallel.
  • deviceCheck
    Runs checks using APIs to connect to remote devices. This is used on CI servers.
  • build
    This task does both assemble and check
  • clean
    This task cleans the output of the project
The new anchor tasks are necessary in order to be able to run regular checks without needing a connected device.
Note that  build does not depend on  deviceCheck, or  connectedCheck.

An Android project has at least two outputs: a debug APK and a release APK. Each of these has its own anchor task to facilitate building them separately:
  • assemble
    • assembleDebug
    • assembleRelease
They both depend on other tasks that execute the multiple steps needed to build an APK. The  assemble task depends on both, so calling it will build both APKs.

Tip: Gradle support camel case shortcuts for task names on the command line. For instance:
gradle aR
is the same as typing
gradle assembleRelease
as long as no other task match ‘aR’

The check anchor tasks have their own dependencies:
  • check
    • lint
  • connectedCheck
    • connectedAndroidTest
    • connectedUiAutomatorTest (not implemented yet)
  • deviceCheck
    • This depends on tasks created when other plugins implement test extension points.
Finally, the plugin creates install/uninstall tasks for all build types ( debugreleasetest), as long as they can be installed (which requires signing).

Basic Build Customization

The Android plugin provides a broad DSL to customize most things directly from the build system.

Manifest entries

Through the DSL it is possible to configure the following manifest entries:
  • minSdkVersion
  • targetSdkVersion
  • versionCode
  • versionName
  • applicationId (the effective packageName -- see ApplicationId versus PackageName for more information)
  • Package Name for the test application
  • Instrumentation test runner

android {
    compileSdkVersion 19
    buildToolsVersion "19.0.0"

    defaultConfig {
           versionCode 12
           versionName "2.0"
          minSdkVersion 16
          targetSdkVersion 16

The  defaultConfig element inside the  android element is where all this configuration is defined.

Previous versions of the Android Plugin used packageName to configure the manifest 'packageName' attribute.
Starting in 0.11.0, you should use applicationId in the build.gradle to configure the manifest 'packageName' entry.
This was disambiguated to reduce confusion between the application's packageName (which is its ID) and 
java packages.

The power of describing it in the build file is that it can be dynamic.
For instance, one could be reading the version name from a file somewhere or using some custom logic:

def computeVersionName() {

android {
    compileSdkVersion 19
    buildToolsVersion "19.0.0"

    defaultConfig {
        versionCode 12
         versionName computeVersionName()
         minSdkVersion 16
         targetSdkVersion 16

Note: Do not use function names that could conflict with existing getters in the given scope. For instance instance defaultConfig { ...} calling getVersionName() will automatically use the getter of defaultConfig.getVersionName() instead of the custom method.

If a property is not set through the DSL, some default value will be used. Here’s a table of how this is processed.
 Property Name  Default value in DSL object  Default value
 versionCode  -1  value from manifest if present
 versionName  null  value from manifest if present
 minSdkVersion  -1  value from manifest if present
 targetSdkVersion  -1  value from manifest if present
 applicationId  null  value from manifest if present
 testApplicationId  null  applicationId + “.test”
 testInstrumentationRunner  null  android.test.InstrumentationTestRunner
 signingConfig  null  null
 proguardFile  N/A (set only)  N/A (set only)
 proguardFiles  N/A (set only)  N/A (set only) 

The value of the 2nd column is important if you use custom logic in the build script that queries these properties. For instance, you could write:
if (android.defaultConfig.testInstrumentationRunner == null) {
    // assign a better default...

If the value remains null, then it is replaced at build time by the actual default from column 3, but the DSL element does not contain this default value so you can't query against it.
This is to prevent parsing the manifest of the application unless it’s really needed. 

Build Types

By default, the Android plugin automatically sets up the project to build both a debug and a release version of the application.
These differ mostly around the ability to debug the application on a secure (non dev) devices, and how the APK is signed.

The debug version is signed with a key/certificate that is created automatically with a known name/password (to prevent required prompt during the build). The release is not signed during the build, this needs to happen after.

This configuration is done through an object called a  BuildType. By default, 2 instances are created, a  debug and a  release one.

The Android plugin allows customizing those two instances as well as creating other  Build Types. This is done with the  buildTypes DSL container:

android {
    buildTypes {
          debug {
              applicationId Suffix ".debug"

        j nidebug.initWith(buildTypes.debug)
        jnidebug {
            packageNameSuffix ".jnidebug"
            jniDebuggable true

The above snippet achieves the following:
  • Configures the default debug Build Type:
    • set its package to be <app appliationId>.debug to be able to install both debug and release apk on the same device
  • Creates a new BuildType called jnidebug and configure it to be a copy of the debug build type.
  • Keep configuring the jnidebug, by enabling debug build of the JNI component, and add a different package suffix.
Creating new  Build Types is as easy as using a new element under the  buildTypes container, either to call  initWith() or to configure it with a closure.

The possible properties and their default values are:

 Property name  Default values for debug  Default values for release / other
 debuggable  true  false
 jniDebuggable  false  false
 renderscriptDebuggable  false  false
 renderscriptOptimLevel  3  3
 applicationIdSuffix  null  null
 versionNameSuffix  null  null
 signingConfig  android.signingConfigs.debug  null
 zipAlignEnabled  false  true
 minifyEnabled  false  false
 proguardFile  N/A (set only)  N/A (set only)
 proguardFiles  N/A (set only)  N/A (set only)

In addition to these properties,  Build Types can contribute to the build with code and resources.
For each Build Type, a new matching  sourceSet is created, with a default location of
This means the  Build Type names cannot be  main or  androidTest (this is enforced by the plugin), and that they have to be unique to each other.

Like any other source sets, the location of the build type source set can be relocated:
android {
Additionally, for each  Build Type, a new  assemble<BuildTypeName> task is created.

The  assembleDebug and  assembleRelease tasks have already been mentioned, and this is where they come from. When the  debug and  release  Build Types are pre-created, their tasks are automatically created as well.

The  build.gradle snippet above would then also generate an  assembleJnidebug task, and  assemble would be made to depend on it the same way it depends on the assembleDebug and  assembleRelease tasks.

Tip: remember that you can type  gradle aJ to run the  assembleJnidebug task.

Possible use case:
  • Permissions in debug mode only, but not in release mode
  • Custom implementation for debugging
  • Different resources for debug mode (for instance when a resource value is tied to the signing certificate).
The code/resources of the  BuildType are used in the following way:
  • The manifest is merged into the app manifest
  • The code acts as just another source folder
  • The resources are overlayed over the main resources, replacing existing values.

Signing Configurations

Signing an application requires the following:
  • A keystore
  • A keystore password
  • A key alias name
  • A key password
  • The store type
The location, as well as the key name, both passwords and store type form together a Signing Configuration (type  SigningConfig)

By default, there is a  debug configuration that is setup to use a debug keystore, with a known password and a default key with a known password.
The debug keystore is located in  $HOME/.android/debug.keystore, and is created if not present.

The  debug  Build Type is set to use this  debug  SigningConfig automatically.

It is possible to create other configurations or customize the default built-in one. This is done through the  signingConfigs DSL container:
android {
    signingConfigs {
        debug {
            storeFile file("debug.keystore")

        myConfig {
            storeFile file("other.keystore")
            storePassword "android"
            keyAlias "androiddebugkey"
            keyPassword "android"

    buildTypes {
        foo {
            debuggable true
            jniDebuggable true
            signingConfig signingConfigs.myConfig
The above snippet changes the location of the debug keystore to be at the root of the project. This automatically impacts any  Build Types that are set to using it, in this case the  debug  Build Type.

It also creates a new  Signing Config and a new  Build Type that uses the new configuration.

Note: Only debug keystores located in the default location will be automatically created. Changing the location of the debug keystore will not create it on-demand. Creating a SigningConfig with a different name that uses the default debug keystore location will create it automatically. In other words, it’s tied to the location of the keystore, not the name of the configuration.

Note: Location of keystores are usually relative to the root of the project, but could be absolute paths, thought it is not recommended (except for the debug one since it is automatically created).

Note:  If you are checking these files into version control, you may not want the password in the file. The following Stack Overflow post shows ways to read the values from the console, or from environment variables.
We'll update this guide with more detailed information later.

Running ProGuard

ProGuard is supported through the Gradle plugin for ProGuard version 4.10. The ProGuard plugin is applied automatically, and the tasks are created automatically if the  Build Type is configured to run ProGuard through the  minifyEnabled property.

android {
    buildTypes {
        release {
            minifyEnabled true
            proguardFile getDefaultProguardFile('proguard-android.txt')

    productFlavors {
        flavor1 {
        flavor2 {
            proguardFile 'some-other-rules.txt'

Variants use all the rules files declared in their build type, and product flavors.

There are 2 default rules files
  • proguard-android.txt
  • proguard-android-optimize.txt
They are located in the SDK. Using getDefaultProguardFile() will return the full path to the files. They are identical except for enabling optimizations.

Shrinking Resources

You can also remove unused resources, automatically, at build time. For more information, see the  Resource Shrinking document.

Dependencies, Android Libraries and Multi-project setup

Gradle projects can have dependencies on other components. These components can be external binary packages, or other Gradle projects.

Dependencies on binary packages

Local packages

To configure a dependency on an external library jar, you need to add a dependency on the  compile configuration.

dependencies {
    compile files('libs/foo.jar')

android {

Note: the  dependencies DSL element is part of the standard Gradle API and does not belong inside the  android element.

The  compile configuration is used to compile the main application. Everything in it is added to the compilation classpath  and also packaged in the final APK.
There are other possible configurations to add dependencies to:
  • compile: main application
  • androidTestCompile: test application
  • debugCompile: debug Build Type
  • releaseCompile: release Build Type.
Because it’s not possible to build an APK that does not have an associated  Build Type, the APK is always configured with two (or more) configurations:  compile and <buildtype>Compile.
Creating a new  Build Type  automatically creates a new configuration based on its name.

This can be useful if the debug version needs to use a custom library (to report crashes for instance), while the release doesn’t, or if they rely on different versions of the same library.

Remote artifacts

Gradle supports pulling artifacts from Maven and Ivy repositories.

First the repository must be added to the list, and then the dependency must be declared in a way that Maven or Ivy declare their artifacts.

repositories {

dependencies {
    compile ''

android {

Note:  mavenCentral() is a shortcut to specifying the URL of the repository. Gradle supports both remote and local repositories.
Note: Gradle will follow all dependencies transitively. This means that if a dependency has dependencies of its own, those are pulled in as well.

For more information about setting up dependencies, read the Gradle user guide  here, and DSL documentation  here.

Multi project setup

Gradle projects can also depend on other gradle projects by using a multi-project setup.

A multi-project setup usually works by having all the projects as sub folders of a given root project.

For instance, given to following structure:
 + app/
 + libraries/
    + lib1/
    + lib2/

We can identify 3 projects. Gradle will reference them with the following name:

Each projects will have its own build.gradle declaring how it gets built.
Additionally, there will be a file called  settings.gradle at the root declaring the projects.
This gives the following structure:
 | settings.gradle
 + app/
    | build.gradle
 + libraries/
    + lib1/
       | build.gradle
    + lib2/
       | build.gradle

The content of settings.gradle is very simple:
include ':app', ':libraries:lib1', ':libraries:lib2'
This defines which folder is actually a Gradle project.

The  :app project is likely to depend on the libraries, and this is done by declaring the following dependencies:

dependencies {
    compile project(':libraries:lib1')

More general information about multi-project setup  here.

Library projects

In the above multi-project setup,  :libraries:lib1 and  :libraries:lib2 can be Java projects, and the  :app  Android project will use their jar output.

However, if you want to share code that accesses Android APIs or uses Android-style resources, these libraries cannot be regular Java project, they have to be Android Library Projects.

Creating a Library Project

A Library project is very similar to a regular Android project with a few differences.

Since building libraries is different than building applications, a different plugin is used. Internally both plugins share most of the same code and they are both provided by the same jar.

buildscript {
    repositories {

    dependencies {
        classpath ''

apply plugin: 'android-library'

android {
    compileSdkVersion 15

This creates a library project that uses API 15 to compile.  SourceSets, and dependencies are handled the same as they are in an application project and can be customized the same way.

Differences between a Project and a Library Project

A Library project's main output is an  .aar package (which stands for Android archive). It is a combination of compile code (as a jar file and/or native .so files) and resources (manifest, res, assets).
A library project can also generate a test apk to test the library independently from an application.

The same anchor tasks are used for this ( assembleDebugassembleRelease) so there’s no difference in commands to build such a project.

For the rest, libraries behave the same as application projects. They have build types and product flavors, and can potentially generate more than one version of the aar.
Note that most of the configuration of the  Build Type  do not apply to library projects. However you can use the custom  sourceSet  to change the content of the library depending on whether it’s used by a project or being tested.

Referencing a Library

Referencing a library is done the same way any other project is referenced:

dependencies {
    compile project(':libraries:lib1')
    compile project(':libraries:lib2')

Note: if you have more than one library, then the order will be important. This is similar to the old build system where the order of the dependencies in the file was important.

Library Publication

By default a library only publishes its  release variant. This variant will be used by all projects referencing the library, no matter which variant they build themselves. This is a temporary limitation due to Gradle limitations that we are working towards removing.

You can control which variant gets published with 
android {
    defaultPublishConfig "debug"

Note that this publishing configuration name references the full variant name.  Release and  debug are only applicable when there are no flavors. If you wanted to change the default published variant while using flavors, you would write:
android {
    defaultPublishConfig "flavor1Debug"

It is also possible to publish all variants of a library. We are planning to allow this while using a normal project-to-project dependency (like shown above), but this is not possible right now due to limitations in Gradle (we are working toward fixing those as well).
Publishing of all variants are not enabled by default. To enable them:
android {
    publishNonDefault true

It is important to realize that publishing multiple variants means publishing multiple aar files, instead of a single aar containing multiple variants. Each aar packaging contains a single variant.
Publishing an variant means making this aar available as an output artifact of the Gradle project. This can then be used either when publishing to a maven repository, or when another project creates a dependency on the library project.

Gradle has a concept of default" artifact. This is the one that is used when writing:
compile project(':libraries:lib2')

To create a dependency on another published artifact, you need to specify which one to use:
dependencies {
    flavor1Compile project(path: ':lib1', configuration: 'flavor1Release')
    flavor2Compile project(path: ':lib1', configuration: 'flavor2Release')

Important: Note that the published configuration is a full variant, including the build type, and needs to be referenced as such. 
Important:  When enabling publishing of non default, the Maven publishing plugin will publish these additional variants as extra packages (with classifier). This means that this is not really compatible with publishing to a maven repository. You should either publish a single variant to a repository OR enable all config publishing for inter-project dependencies.


Building a test application is integrated into the application project. There is no need for a separate test project anymore.

Unit Testing

For the experimental unit testing support added in 1.1, please see this page. The rest of this section describes "instrumentation tests" that can run on a real device (or an emulator) and require a separate, testing APK to be built.

Basics and Configuration

As mentioned previously, next to the  main  sourceSet is the  androidTest  sourceSet, located by default in  src/ androidTest /
From this  sourceSet  is built a test apk that can be deployed to a device to test the application using the Android testing framework. This can contain unit tests, instrumentation tests, and later uiautomator tests.

The  <instrumentation> node of the manifest for the test app is generated but you can create a  src/androidTest/AndroidManifest.xml file to add other component to the test manifest.

There are a few values that can be configured for the test app, in order to configure the  <instrumentation> node.
  • testPackageName
  • testInstrumentationRunner
  • testHandleProfiling

  • testFunctionalTest

As seen previously, those are configured in the  defaultConfig object:
android {
    defaultConfig {
        testPackageName ""
        testInstrumentationRunner "android.test.InstrumentationTestRunner"
        testHandleProfiling true
        testFunctionalTest true

The value of the  targetPackage attribute of the  instrumentation node in the test application manifest is automatically filled with the package name of the tested app, even if it is customized through the  defaultConfig and/or the  Build Type objects. This is one of the reason this part of the manifest is generated automatically.

Additionally, the  sourceSet can be configured to have its own dependencies.
By default, the application and its own dependencies are added to the test app classpath, but this can be extended with 
dependencies {
     androidTest Compile ''

The test app is built by the task  assembleTest. It is not a dependency of the main  assemble task, and is instead called automatically when the tests are set to run.

Currently only one  Build Type is tested. By default it is the  debug  Build Type, but this can be reconfigured with:
android {
    testBuildType "staging"

Running tests

As mentioned previously, checks requiring a connected device are launched with the anchor task called  connectedCheck .
This depends on the task  androidTest  and therefore will run it. This task does the following:
  • Ensure the app and the test app are built (depending on assembleDebug and assembleTest)
  • Install both apps
  • Run the tests
  • Uninstall both apps.
If more than one device is connected, all tests are run in parallel on all connected devices.  If one of the test fails, on any device, the build will fail.

All test results are stored as XML files under
(This is similar to regular jUnit results that are stored under build/test-results)

This can be configured with

android {

    testOptions {
        resultsDir = "$project.buildDir/foo/results"

The value of  android.testOptions.resultsDir is evaluated with  Project.file(String)

Testing Android Libraries

Testing Android Library project is done exactly the same way as application projects.

The only difference is that the whole library (and its dependencies) is automatically added as a Library dependency to the test app. The result is that the test APK includes not only its own code, but also the library itself and all its dependencies.
The manifest of the Library is merged into the manifest of the test app (as is the case for any project referencing this Library).

The  androidTest task is changed to only install (and uninstall) the test APK (since there are no other APK to install.)

Everything else is identical.

Test reports

When running unit tests, Gradle outputs an HTML report to easily look at the results.
The Android plugins build on this and extends the HTML report to aggregate the results from all connected devices.

Single projects

The project is automatically generated upon running the tests. Its default location is
build/reports/ androidTest s

This is similar to the jUnit report location, which is  build/reports/tests, or other reports usually located in  build/reports/<plugin>/

The location can be customized with

android {

    testOptions {
        reportDir = "$project.buildDir/foo/report"
The report will aggregate tests that ran on different devices.

Multi-projects reports

In a multi project setup with application(s) and library(ies) projects, when running all tests at the same time, it might be useful to generate a single reports for all tests.

To do this, a different plugin is available in the same artifact. It can be applied with:
buildscript {
    repositories {

    dependencies {
        classpath ''

apply plugin: 'android-reporting'

This should be applied to the root project, ie in  build.gradle next to  settings.gradle

Then from the root folder, the following command line will run all the tests and aggregate the reports:
gradle deviceCheck mergeAndroidReports --continue

Note: the  --continue option ensure that all tests, from all sub-projects will be run even if one of them fails. Without it the first failing test will interrupt the run and not all projects may have their tests run.

Lint support

As of version 0.7.0, you can run lint for a specific variant, or for all variants, in which case it produces a report which describes which specific variants a given issue applies to.

You can configure lint by adding a lintOptions section like following. You typically only specify a few of these; this section shows all the available options.

android {
    lintOptions {
        // set to true to turn off analysis progress reporting by lint
        quiet true
        // if true, stop the gradle build if errors are found
        abortOnError false
        // if true, only report errors
        ignoreWarnings true
        // if true, emit full/absolute paths to files with errors (true by default)
        //absolutePaths true
        // if true, check all issues, including those that are off by default
        checkAllWarnings true
        // if true, treat all warnings as errors
        warningsAsErrors true
        // turn off checking the given issue id's
        disable 'TypographyFractions','TypographyQuotes'
        // turn on the given issue id's
        enable 'RtlHardcoded','RtlCompat', 'RtlEnabled'
        // check *only* the given issue id's
        check 'NewApi', 'InlinedApi'
        // if true, don't include source code lines in the error output
        noLines true
        // if true, show all locations for an error, do not truncate lists, etc.
        showAll true
        // Fallback lint configuration (default severities, etc.)
        lintConfig file("default-lint.xml")
        // if true, generate a text report of issues (false by default)
        textReport true
        // location to write the output; can be a file or 'stdout'
        textOutput 'stdout'
        // if true, generate an XML report for use by for example Jenkins
        xmlReport false
        // file to write report to (if not specified, defaults to lint-results.xml)
        xmlOutput file("lint-report.xml")
        // if true, generate an HTML report (with issue explanations, sourcecode, etc)
        htmlReport true
        // optional path to report (default will be lint-results.html in the builddir)
        htmlOutput file("lint-report.html")

   // set to true to have all release builds run lint on issues with severity=fatal
   // and abort the build (controlled by abortOnError above) if fatal issues are found
   checkReleaseBuilds true
        // Set the severity of the given issues to fatal (which means they will be
        // checked during release builds (even if the lint target is not included)
        fatal 'NewApi', 'InlineApi'
        // Set the severity of the given issues to error
        error 'Wakelock', 'TextViewEdits'
        // Set the severity of the given issues to warning
        warning 'ResourceAsColor'
        // Set the severity of the given issues to ignore (same as disabling the check)
        ignore 'TypographyQuotes'

Build Variants

One goal of the new build system is to enable creating different versions of the same application.

There are two main use cases:
  1. Different versions of the same application
    For instance, a free/demo version vs the “pro” paid application.
  2. Same application packaged differently for multi-apk in Google Play Store.
    See for more information.
  3. A combination of 1. and 2. 
The goal was to be able to generate these different APKs from the same project, as opposed to using a single Library Projects and 2+ Application Projects.

Product flavors

A product flavor defines a customized version of the application build by the project. A single project can have different flavors which change the generated application.

This new concept is designed to help when the differences are very minimum. If the answer to “Is this the same application?” is yes, then this is probably the way to go over Library Projects.

Product flavors are declared using a  productFlavors DSL container:

android {

    productFlavors {
        flavor1 {

        flavor2 {

This creates two flavors, called  flavor1 and  flavor2.
Note: The name of the flavors cannot collide with existing  Build Type names, or with the  androidTest  sourceSet.

Build Type + Product Flavor = Build Variant

As we have seen before, each  Build Type generates a new APK.

Product Flavors do the same: the output of the project becomes all possible combinations of  Build Types and, if applicable,  Product Flavors.

Each ( Build TypeProduct Flavor) combination is called a  Build Variant.

For instance, with the default  debug and  release  Build Types, the above example generates four  Build Variants:
  • Flavor1 - debug
  • Flavor1 - release
  • Flavor2 - debug
  • Flavor2 - release
Projects with no flavors still have  Build Variants, but the single  default flavor/config is used, nameless, making the list of variants similar to the list of  Build Types.

Product Flavor Configuration

Each flavors is configured with a closure:

android {

    defaultConfig {
        minSdkVersion 8
        versionCode 10

    productFlavors {
        flavor1 {
            packageName "com.example.flavor1"
            versionCode 20

        flavor2 {
            packageName "com.example.flavor2"
             minSdkVersion 14

Note that the  android.productFlavors.* objects are of type  ProductFlavor which is the same type as the  android.defaultConfig object. This means they share the same properties.

defaultConfig provides the base configuration for all flavors and each flavor can override any value. In the example above, the configurations end up being:

  • flavor1
    • packageName: com.example.flavor1
    • minSdkVersion: 8
    • versionCode: 20
  • flavor2
    • packageName: com.example.flavor2
    • minSdkVersion: 14
    • versionCode: 10
Usually, the  Build Type configuration is an overlay over the other configuration. For instance, the  Build Type's  packageNameSuffix is appended to the  Product Flavor's  packageName.

There are cases where a setting is settable on both the  Build Type and the  Product Flavor. In this case, it’s is on a case by case basis.

For instance,  signingConfig is one of these properties.
This enables either having all release packages share the same S igningConfig, by setting  android.buildTypes.release.signingConfig, or have each release package use their own S igningConfig by setting each  android.productFlavors.*.signingConfig objects separately.

Sourcesets and Dependencies

Similar to  Build TypesProduct Flavors also contribute code and resources through their own  sourceSets.

The above example creates four  sourceSets:
  • android.sourceSets.flavor1
    Location src/flavor1/
  • android.sourceSets.flavor2
    Location src/flavor2/
  • android.sourceSets.androidTestFlavor1
    Location src/androidTestFlavor1/
  • android.sourceSets.androidTestFlavor2
    Location src/androidTestFlavor2/
Those  sourceSets are used to build the APK, alongside  android.sourceSets.main and the  Build Type sourceSet.

The following rules are used when dealing with all the sourcesets used to build a single APK:
  • All source code (src/*/java) are used together as multiple folders generating a single output.
  • Manifests are all merged together into a single manifest. This allows Product Flavors to have different components and/or permissions, similarly to Build Types.
  • All resources (Android res and assets) are used using overlay priority where the Build Type overrides the Product Flavor, which overrides the main sourceSet.
  • Each Build Variant generates its own R class (or other generated source code) from the resources. Nothing is shared between variants.

Finally, like  Build TypesProduct Flavors can have their own dependencies. For instance, if the flavors are used to generate a ads-based app and a paid app, one of the flavors could have a dependency on an Ads SDK, while the other does not.

dependencies {
    flavor1Compile "..."
In this particular case, the file  src/flavor1/AndroidManifest.xml would probably need to include the internet permission.

Additional sourcesets are also created for each variants:
  • android.sourceSets.flavor1Debug
    Location src/flavor1Debug/
  • android.sourceSets.flavor1Release
    Location src/flavor1Release/
  • android.sourceSets.flavor2Debug
    Location src/flavor2Debug/
  • android.sourceSets.flavor2Release
    Location src/flavor2Release/
These have higher priority than the build type sourcesets, and allow customization at the variant level.

Building and Tasks

We previously saw that each  Build Type creates its own  assemble<name> task, but that  Build Variants are a combination of  Build Type and  Product Flavor.

When  Product Flavors are used, more assemble-type tasks are created. These are:
  1. assemble<Variant Name>
  2. assemble<Build Type Name>
  3. assemble<Product Flavor Name>
#1 allows directly building a single variant. For instance  assembleFlavor1Debug.

#2 allows building all APKs for a given Build Type. For instance  assembleDebug will build both  Flavor1Debug and  Flavor2Debug variants.

#3 allows building all APKs for a given flavor. For instance  assembleFlavor1 will build both  Flavor1Debug and  Flavor1Release variants.

The task  assemble will build all possible variants.


Testing multi-flavors project is very similar to simpler projects.

The  androidTest sourceset is used for common tests across all flavors, while each flavor can also have its own tests.

As mentioned above,  sourceSets to test each flavor are created:
  • android.sourceSets.androidTestFlavor1
    Location src/androidTestFlavor1/
  • android.sourceSets.androidTestFlavor2
    Location src/androidTestFlavor2/

Similarly, those can have their own dependencies:
dependencies {
     androidTest Flavor1Compile "..."

Running the tests can be done through the main  deviceCheck anchor task, or the main  androidTest tasks which acts as an anchor task when flavors are used.

Each flavor has its own task to run tests:  androidTest <VariantName>. For instance:
  • androidTestFlavor1Debug
  • androidTestFlavor2Debug
Similarly, test APK building tasks and install/uninstall tasks are per variant:
  • assembleFlavor1Test
  • installFlavor1Debug
  • installFlavor1Test
  • uninstallFlavor1Debug
  • ...
Finally the HTML report generation supports aggregation by flavor.
The location of the test results and reports is as follows, first for the per flavor version, and then for the aggregated one:
  • build/androidTest-results/flavors/<FlavorName>
  • build/androidTest-results/all/
  • build/reports/androidTests/flavors<FlavorName>
  • build/reports/androidTests/all/
Customizing either path, will only change the root folder and still create sub folders per-flavor and aggregated results/reports.

Multi-flavor variants

In some case, one may want to create several versions of the same apps based on more than one criteria.
For instance, multi-apk support in Google Play supports 4 different filters. Creating different APKs split on each filter requires being able to use more than one dimension of Product Flavors.

Consider the example of a game that has a demo and a paid version and wants to use the ABI filter in the multi-apk support. With 3 ABIs and two versions of the application, 6 APKs needs to be generated (not counting the variants introduced by the different  Build Types).
However, the code of the paid version is the same for all three ABIs, so creating simply 6 flavors is not the way to go.
Instead, there are two dimensions of flavors, and variants should automatically build all possible combinations.

This feature is implemented using Flavor Dimensions. Flavors are assigned to a specific dimension
android {

    flavorDimensions "abi", "version"

    productFlavors {
        freeapp {
            flavorDimension "version"

        x86 {
             flavorDimension  "abi"

The  android.flavorDimensions array defines the possible dimensions, as well as the order. Each defined  Product Flavor is assigned to a dimension.

From the following dimensioned  Product Flavors [freeapp, paidapp] and [x86, arm, mips] and the [debug, release]  Build Types, the following build variants will be created:
  • x86-freeapp-debug
  • x86-freeapp-release
  • arm-freeapp-debug
  • arm-freeapp-release
  • mips-freeapp-debug
  • mips-freeapp-release
  • x86-paidapp-debug
  • x86-paidapp-release
  • arm-paidapp-debug
  • arm-paidapp-release
  • mips-paidapp-debug
  • mips-paidapp-release
The order of the dimension as defined by  android.flavorDimensions is very important.

Each variant is configured by several  Product Flavor objects:
  • android.defaultConfig
  • One from the abi dimension
  • One from the version dimension
The order of the dimension drives which flavor override the other, which is important for resources when a value in a flavor replaces a value defined in a lower priority flavor.
The flavor dimension is defined with higher priority first. So in this case:
abi > version > defaultConfig

Multi-flavors projects also have additional sourcesets, similar to the variant sourcesets but without the build type:

  • android.sourceSets.x86Freeapp
    Location src/x86Freeapp/
  • android.sourceSets.armPaidapp
    Location src/armPaidapp/
  • etc...
These allow customization at the flavor-combination level. They have higher priority than the basic flavor sourcesets, but lower priority than the build type sourcesets.

Advanced Build Customization

Build options

Java Compilation options

android {
    compileOptions {
        sourceCompatibility = "1.6"
        targetCompatibility = "1.6"
Default value is “1.6”. This affect all tasks compiling Java source code.

aapt options

android {
    aaptOptions {
        noCompress 'foo', 'bar'
        ignoreAssetsPattern "!.svn:!.git:!.ds_store:!*.scc:.*:<dir>_*:!CVS:!thumbs.db:!picasa.ini:!*~"

This affects all tasks using  aapt.

dex options

android {
    dexOptions {
        incremental false
        preDexLibraries = false
        jumboMode = false
        javaMaxHeapSize "2048M"
This affects all tasks using dex.

Manipulating tasks

Basic Java projects have a finite set of tasks that all work together to create an output.
The  classes task is the one that compile the Java source code.
It’s easy to access from  build.gradle by simply using  classes in a script. This is a shortcut for  project.tasks.classes.

In Android projects, this is a bit more complicated because there could be a large number of the same task and their name is generated based on the  Build Types and  Product Flavors.

In order to fix this, the  android object has two properties:
  • applicationVariants (only for the app plugin)
  • libraryVariants (only for the library plugin)
  • testVariants (for both plugins)
All three return a  DomainObjectCollection of  ApplicationVariantLibraryVariant, and  TestVariant objects respectively.

Note that accessing any of these collections will trigger the creations of all the tasks. This means no (re)configuration should take place after accessing the collections.

The  DomainObjectCollection gives access to all the objects directly, or through filters which can be convenient.

android.applicationVariants.all { variant ->

All three variant classes share the following properties:

 Property Name  Property Type  Description
 name  String  The name of the variant. Guaranteed to be unique.
 description  String  Human readable description of the variant.
 dirName  String  subfolder name for the variant. Guaranteed to be unique. Maybe more than one folder, ie “debug/flavor1”
 baseName  String  Base name of the output(s) of the variant. Guaranteed to be unique.
 outputFile  File  The output of the variant. This is a read/write property
 processManifest  ProcessManifest  The task that processes the manifest.
 aidlCompile  AidlCompile  The task that compiles the AIDL files.
 renderscriptCompile  RenderscriptCompile  The task that compiles the Renderscript files.
 mergeResources  MergeResources  The task that merges the resources.
 mergeAssets  MergeAssets  The task that merges the assets.
 processResources  ProcessAndroidResources  The task that processes and compile the Resources.
 generateBuildConfig  GenerateBuildConfig  The task that generates the BuildConfig class.
 javaCompile  JavaCompile  The task that compiles the Java code.
 processJavaResources  Copy  The task that process the Java resources.
 assemble  DefaultTask  The assemble anchor task for this variant.

The  ApplicationVariant class adds the following:

 Property Name  Property Type  Description
 buildType  BuildType  The BuildType of the variant.
 productFlavors  List<ProductFlavor>  The ProductFlavors of the variant. Always non Null but could be empty.
 mergedFlavor  ProductFlavor  The merging of android.defaultConfig and variant.productFlavors
 signingConfig  SigningConfig  The SigningConfig object used by this variant
 isSigningReady  boolean  true if the variant has all the information needed to be signed.
 testVariant  BuildVariant  The TestVariant that will test this variant.
 dex  Dex  The task that dex the code. Can be null if the variant is a library.
 packageApplication  PackageApplication  The task that makes the final APK. Can be null if the variant is a library.
 zipAlign  ZipAlign  The task that zipaligns the apk. Can be null if the variant is a library or if the APK cannot be signed.
 install  DefaultTask  The installation task. Can be null.
 uninstall  DefaultTask  The uninstallation task.

The  LibraryVariant class adds the following:

 Property Name  Property Type  Description
 buildType  BuildType  The BuildType of the variant.
 mergedFlavor  ProductFlavor  The defaultConfig values
 testVariant  BuildVariant  The Build Variant that will test this variant.
 packageLibrary  Zip  The task that packages the Library AAR archive. Null if not a library.

The  TestVariant class adds the following:

 Property Name  Property Type  Description
 buildType  BuildType  The BuildType of the variant.
 productFlavors  List<ProductFlavor>  The ProductFlavors of the variant. Always non Null but could be empty.
 mergedFlavor  ProductFlavor  The merging of android.defaultConfig and variant.productFlavors
 signingConfig  SigningConfig  The SigningConfig object used by this variant
 isSigningReady  boolean  true if the variant has all the information needed to be signed.
 testedVariant  BaseVariant  The BaseVariant that is tested by this TestVariant.
 dex  Dex  The task that dex the code. Can be null if the variant is a library.
 packageApplication  PackageApplication  The task that makes the final APK. Can be null if the variant is a library.
 zipAlign  ZipAlign  The task that zipaligns the apk. Can be null if the variant is a library or if the APK cannot be signed.
 install  DefaultTask  The installation task. Can be null.
 uninstall  DefaultTask  The uninstallation task.
 connectedAndroidTest  DefaultTask  The task that runs the android tests on connected devices.
 providerAndroidTest  DefaultTask  The task that runs the android tests using the extension API.

API for Android specific task types.
  • ProcessManifest
    • File manifestOutputFile
  • AidlCompile
    • File sourceOutputDir
  • RenderscriptCompile
    • File sourceOutputDir
    • File resOutputDir
  • MergeResources
    • File outputDir
  • MergeAssets
    • File outputDir
  • ProcessAndroidResources
    • File manifestFile
    • File resDir
    • File assetsDir
    • File sourceOutputDir
    • File textSymbolOutputDir
    • File packageOutputFile
    • File proguardOutputFile
  • GenerateBuildConfig
    • File sourceOutputDir
  • Dex
    • File outputFolder
  • PackageApplication
    • File resourceFile
    • File dexFile
    • File javaResourceDir
    • File jniDir
    • File outputFile
      • To change the final output file use "outputFile" on the variant object directly.
  • ZipAlign
    • File inputFile
    • File outputFile
      • To change the final output file use "outputFile" on the variant object directly.

The API for each task type is limited due to both how Gradle works and how the Android plugin sets them up.
First, Gradle is meant to have the tasks be only configured for input/output location and possible optional flags. So here, the tasks only define (some of) the inputs/outputs.

Second, the input for most of those tasks is non-trivial, often coming from mixing values from the  sourceSets, the  Build Types, and the  Product Flavors. To keep build files simple to read and understand, the goal is to let developers modify the build by tweak these objects through the DSL, rather than diving deep in the inputs and options of the tasks and changing them.

Also note, that except for the ZipAlign task type, all other types require setting up private data to make them work. This means it’s not possible to manually create new tasks of these types.

This API is subject to change. In general the current API is around giving access to the outputs and inputs (when possible) of the tasks to add extra processing when required). Feedback is appreciated, especially around needs that may not have been foreseen.

For Gradle tasks (DefaultTask, JavaCompile, Copy, Zip), refer to the Gradle documentation.

BuildType and Product Flavor property reference

coming soon.
For Gradle tasks (DefaultTask, JavaCompile, Copy, Zip), refer to the Gradle documentation.

Using sourceCompatibility 1.7

With Android KitKat (buildToolsVersion 19) you can use the diamond operator, multi-catch, strings in switches, try with resources, etc. To do this, add the following to your build file:

android {
    compileSdkVersion 19
    buildToolsVersion "19.0.0"

    defaultConfig {
        minSdkVersion 7
        targetSdkVersion 19

    compileOptions {
        sourceCompatibility JavaVersion.VERSION_1_7
        targetCompatibility JavaVersion.VERSION_1_7

Note that you can use  minSdkVersion with a value earlier than 19, for all language features except try with resources. If you want to use try with resources, you will need to also use a  minSdkVersion of 19.

You also need to make sure that Gradle is using version 1.7 or later of the JDK. (And version 0.6.1 or later of the Android Gradle plugin.)

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