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一个月的时间让你的词汇量翻一翻

杨尚川
 杨尚川
发布于 2015/02/17 17:30
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superword是一个Java实现的英文单词分析软件,主要研究英语单词音近形似转化规律、前缀后缀规律、词之间的相似性规律等等。

一个月的时间让你的词汇量翻一翻

The 100 most common Latin and Greek roots figure in more than 5,000 English derivatives just beyond the average person’s vocabulary of 10,000 words. They are the ones in all CAPITAL letters. By memorizing these 100 CAPITALIZED Latin and Greek prefixes, suffixes and roots, you will have a short cut to sight read an additional 5,000 words. If you learn all of them (both the caps and non-caps roots), you can double this to 10,000 additional words. Most of these words are used in medicine, law, business, science and technology. These are all words you must know in order to excel on the PSAT, SAT I and GRE, to do well in college and to have a successful career. The most important of these derived words are in CAPITALIZED BOLD print. You must know their meanings. Look these words up in your dictionary to get all the definitions. Put them on your index cards; the word on the front and definitions on the back. Many will not have the same exact meaning as the original Latin or Greek words but they will be close. When you use your dictionary, pay close attention to the Latin or Greek words from which they are derived. The Romans also combined prefixes and roots to derive new words. Many were borrowed straight from the Greek language, but most were combined with Latin to make additional words with similar but distinctive meanings. Try to get a feel for the ETYMOLOGY of these words.

By breaking a word apart into root, prefix and suffix, you will be able to determine its literal meaning. Since you have encountered the word in context, you can then guess at its present meaning. For example, take the word "interposition." The prefix is ‘INTER-’, the suffix is ‘–ION’ and the root word is ‘POSIT’. Inter- means ‘between’, -ion is ‘the act of’ and ‘POSIT’ is from Latin meaning‘to place.’ Therefore, ‘interposition’ literally means ‘the act of placing between.’ Another example is the word "antipathy." The prefix is ‘ANTI-’, the Greek root word is ‘PATH’ and the suffix is ‘-Y.’ Anti- means ‘against’, the suffix,-y, is ‘the state of’ and PATH means ‘to feel.’ Antipathy therefore means ‘the state of feeling against’. Not all derived words have both a prefix and a suffix, many will have one or the other, some will use just the root word and others will combine two root words, as in ‘manuscript’ and ‘astronaut.’ Man- is the Latin root for ‘hand’ and script is the Latin root ‘to write.’ Astro is the Greek word for ‘star’ and ‘naut’ means sailor.

The secret to increasing your vocabulary is not by memorizing a lot of words. The secret is in knowing how combining different prefixes and suffixes with a root word makes new words. For example, let’s take the Latin word gressum which means ‘to walk, to step or move forward’ and by combining the prefixes, A(D)-, CON-, DI-, E-, PRO-, RE-, RETRO- and TRANS- with the combining word "-GRESS-", we get 8 more words. If we add the suffixes –ION, -IVE, and –OR in turn to each of these words we derive 24 additional words for a total of 32 words. By knowing the meaning of the root word, and the 8 prefixes and 3 suffixes you also know the meaning of the 32 derived words. I use this example of making words to show you how easy it is to take words apart and thereby learn their meaning. As an exercise, combine these prefixes and suffixes with the root word to form the 32 words, write them down and look up their meanings.

Since many Greek words were assimilated by the Romans and Latin words also come down to us through French, Italian and Spanish, the modern spelling of some of these words can be quite different from the original Latin or Greek.

The Latin and Greek prefixes, suffixes and root words are listed alphabetically.

1. Latin Prefixes

The prefixes listed below are from Latin prepositions. They are attached to nouns, adjectives and especially to verbs. When taking apart compound verbs and defining them, it is best to translate the prefix as adverbial rather than prepositional. For example, abduct divides into ab (away) and duct (lead) and so means ‘lead away’ and not ‘away from leading’. Some of these prefixes have different forms depending on the initial letter of the root word. This makes the derived word more pronounceable and is known as assimilation. A prime example is the prefix SUB- which also has SUC-,SUF-,SUG-,SUM-, SUP-, SUR-, and SUS- as different forms.

Prefix

Meaning

Examples

A-

not, without

amoral, APATHY, ANOMALY

AB-, ABS-

away from, off, apart

abrupt, ABSCOND, ABSTRACT

AD-, AC-, AN-, AS-

toward, against

advent, accurate, ANNOTATE, assent

AMBI-, AMB-

around, about, on both sides

AMBIGUOUS, AMBIVALENT

ANTE-

before, in front of, early

antecede, antedate, antebellum

ARCH-

main, chief

archangel, archbishop, archenemy

BI-

two

bifurcate, biannually

BENE-

well

BENEFACTOR, benefit, beneficial

CIRCUM-, CIRA-

around, about

circumflex, circumference, circa

CIS-

on this side of

cislunar, cisalpine

CON-

with, together

concur, concede, CONSCRIPT

COM-, COR-, COL-

together, with, very

COMPRISE, corrode, colleteral

CONTRA-

against

contradict, controversy, contravene

COUNTER-

against

counterfeit, counterclockwise

DE-

down, down from, off, utterly

deformed, defoliate, descend, depress

DEMI-

half, partly belongs to

demisemiquaver, demigod

DIS-, DI-, DIF-

apart, in different directions

DIGRESS, divorce, dispute, DISCERN

DU-, DUO-

two

duet, duplicate

EM-, EN-

in, into

embrace, enclose

EX-, E-, EF-, EC-

out, out of, from, away

EXTOL, event, expel, evade, ELUCIDATE

EXTRA-, EXTRO-

outside of, beyond

extraordinary, extrovert, EXTRAPOLATE

FORE-

before

forestall, forgo, forebear

IN-, I-, IL-, IM-, IR-

in, into, on, toward, put into

incision, impel, impulse, irrigate

 

not, lacking, without

illegal, ignominious, impure, immoral

 

(same as above)

immodest, indecent, INCOHERENT

INDU-, INDI-

a strengthened form of IN-

indigent

INFRA-

below, beneath, inferior to, after

infrared, infrasonic

INTER-, INTEL-

among, between, at intervals

intercede, intercept, intellect

INTRA-

in, within, inside of

intramural, intravenous

INTRO-

in, into, within

introduce, introspective

JUXTA-

near, beside

juxtapose, juxtaposition

MAL-, MALE-

evil, badly

malformed, malicious, malaise, maladroit

MEDI-, MEDIO-

middle

median, mediocre

MILLI-, MILLE-

thousand

millennium, millimeter

MONO-

one

MONARCH, MONOTONE

MULTI-, MULTUS-

much, many

multifaceted, multiply, multilevel

NE-

not

neuter, NEUTRAL

NON-

not (less emphatic than IN or UN)

nonresident, nonconformity

NUL-, NULL-

none, not any

nullify, nullification

OB-, OF-, OC-

toward, against, across, down, for

oblong, OBDURATE, offer, occasion, occur

OP-, O-

toward, against, across, down, for

oppose, opposite, omit, offer

OMNI-

all, everywhere

omniscient, omnivorous

PED-, PEDI-

foot

pedestrian, pedicure

PER-, PEL-

through, by, thoroughly, away

PERMEATE, perfidy, pellucid

POST-

behind, after (in time or place)

postpone, postnatal, postorbital

PRE-

before, early, toward

precedent, precept, preposition

PRO-, PUR-

before, for, forth

proceed, purport, pursue, PROLONG

QUADRI-, QUADR-

four times, four fold

quadriceps, quadrisect, quadrangle

RE-, RED-

back, again, against, behind

repel, RELEGATE, redeem, redemption

RETRO-

backwards, behind

retrogressive, retrofit, retrograde

SE-, SED-

aside, apart, away from

secure, seduce, seclude, sedition, select

SEMI-

half

semicircle, semiprivate

SINE-

without

sinecure

SUB-, SUC-, SUF-

under, beneath, inferior

suffer, SUBMISSIVE, succumb

SUG-, SUM-, SUP-

less than, in place of, secretly

suggest, subtract, suffuse, support

SUR-, SUS-

(same as above meanings)

suspend, surplus

SUBTER-

beneath, secretly

subterfuge

SUPER-, SUPRA-

over, above, excessively

SUPERFICIAL, SUPERCILIOUS

SUR-

over, above, excessively

surcharge, surtax, surplus, surrealism

TRANS-, TRA-

across, over, beyond, through

transoceanic, transgression, transit, transition

TRI-

three

triangle, triceps

ULTRA-

beyond, on other side

ultrasound, ultraconservative

UN-

no, not, without

unabashed, unashamed

 

2. Latin Suffixes

You will also find a few Old English suffixes here since they are used quite freely with Latin and Greek root words.

Suffix

Meaning

Examples

-ABLE, -ABLY

able to, capable of being

unalienable, insuperable

-ACY

state or quality of being

intricacy, democracy

-AGE

belonging to, related to

marriage, acreage, postage

-AL

pertaining to, act of

infinitesimal, EPHEMERAL

-ANA

sayings, writtings, facts of

Americana

-AN, -ANT, -ENT

one who is

charlatan, blatant, strident

-ANCE

act of, state of being, thing that

ABEYANCE

-ARY

belonging to, a relation to

hereditary, subsidiary

-ATE

having

alienate, incarnate, insensate

-ATION, -ITION

the act of, result of

alteration, compilation, nutrition

-AR

relating to, like; the nature of

singular, polar, vicar, scholar

-BULUM, -BLE

means, instrument, place

fable, stable

-CIDE, -CIDAL

killer; having power to kill

insecticide, suicidal

-CRAT, -CRACY

to govern

bureaucracy, plutocracy

-CULUM, -CLE

means, instrument, place

curriculum, fulcrum

-EN

to become, or cause to be

darken, weaken

-ENCE

act, fact, quality, state

conference, excellence, despondence

-ENCY

state of being

clemency, dependency

-ER, -OR

one who

interlocutor, volunteer

-ENT

has, shows, or does

circumvent, INADVERTENT

-ERY, -RY

a place to/for; occupation of

tannery, vinery, dentistry, jewelry

-ESCE

becoming

obsolescent, COALESCE

-FY

to make, cause to be, or become

CLARIFY, horrify

-HOOD

state, quality; group of

childhood, priesthood

-IAN

belonging to, a relation to

vulgarian, plebian

-IER

a person concerned with

soldier

-IBLE

able to be

susceptible, flexible

-IC

pertaining to

ASCETIC, PROSAIC, ENDEMIC

-ICE

state or quality of being

avarice

-IL, -ILE

having to do with

docil, missile, civil, fossil

-ION

the act or result of, one who

legion, opinion

-IUM, -Y, -CE, -GE

the act of

colloquium, colloquy, refuge

-CIUM, -TIUM, -GIUM

something connected with the act

consortium, compendium

-ISH

of, or belonging to; like

devilish, boyish, foolish, bookish

-IST

a person who does, makes, practices

ALTRUIST, artist

-ITIOUS

having the nature of

nutritious, seditious

-ITUDE, -TUDE

state of being

verisimilitude, aptitude

-ITY

state, character, condition

ANIMOSITY, stability

-IVE

one who, that which is

pensive, ELUSIVE, deductive

-LESS

(OE) without, lacking

relentless, tireless

-LIKE

characteristic of; suitable for

manlike, childlike, godlike

-LY

specified manner, extent, direction

harshly, hourly

-MEN

result, or means

acumen, specimen

-MENTUM, -MENT

result, or means of an act

armament, impediment, moment

-NESS

state, quality of being

greatness, sadness

-OON

one who

buffoon

-OR

act, or condition of

error, terror, PRECURSOR

-ORY

relating to, thing which, place where

AMBULATORY, laboratory

-OSE, -OUS

having, full of, characterized by

IMPERVIOUS, unctuous, perilous

-SHIP

quality, condition, state of

fellowship, friendship

-SOME

like, tending to be

tiresome, lonesome

-TION

state of that which

convocation, commotion

-TUDE

state of being

verisimilitude, aptitude

-ULUS, -ULOUS

tending to

CREDULOUS, pendulous

-URE

state or act of

CENSURE, tenure

-UUS, -UOUS

tending to

INNOCUOUS

-VOROUS, -VORE

eating, feeding on

omnivorous, herbivore

-WISE

direction, manner, in regard to

clockwise

-Y

state of being

nullity, APATHY

 

3. Latin Number Forms

Prefix

Meaning

Examples

UNI-

one

UNIFORM, unicorn, unilateral

PRIM-, PRIMO-

first

primary, primitive, primogenitor

DU-

two

duet, dual

BI-, BIN-

two, twice

bicycle, binoculars

SECOND-

second

secondary

TRI-

three

triangle, tricycle, trinity

TERTI-

third

tertiary

QUADR-, QUADRU-

four

quadrangle, quadruple

QUART-

fourth

quarter

QUINQUE-, QUINT-

five, fifth

quintet, quintessence

SEX-, SEXT-

six, sixth

sextet, sextant

SEPT-, SEPTEM-

seven

septet, September

OCT-

eight

octet, October

OCTAV-

eighth

octave, octagon

NOVEM-

nine

November

NON-

ninth

nonagon

DECEM-

ten

December

DECIM-

tenth

decimal, DECIMATE

CENT-

hundre

century, centennial

MILL-

thousand

millimeter, millennium

SESQUI-

one and a half times

sesquicentennial

SEMI-

half, partly

semiannual

 

4. Latin Base Words

Latin word

Meaning

Examples

abstinere

to hold back

abstain, ABSTINENCE

accollare

to embrace

ACCOLADE

acerbus, AC, ACR

sharp, bitter, sour

acerbic, acrid, acumen, acrimony

actuare

to do, to move

ACTUATE

actus, ACT

drive, lead, to do, to act

active, activate, activism, react

acurer

to sharpen

ACUTE, acumen, acuity

adbaetere

witness, judge

ARBITER

adjacere

to lie near

adjacent

aemulus

trying to equal, excel

EMULATE

aequus

equal

EQUIVALENT

affecere, AFFE

a state of feeling, to feign

AFFECTATION, AFFECTED

ager, agri, agro, AGR

field

agronomy

agere, AG

drive, lead, to do, to act

agility, agitate, AGENDA

alacer

eager, quick, brisk

ALACRITY

albus

white

albino, albedo, albescent

alere, altum, AL, ALT

grow, nourish

altrical

alius

other, else

alias, ALIENATE

alienus, ALIEN

of another, other

alien, alienation, unalienable

alludere

to joke, jest

allude, ALLUSION

alter, ALTER

other, another

alternative, altercation, ADULTERATE

alter

other of two

ALTERNATIVE

altus

high, deep

alto, altimeter, exaltation

amare, AM, AMAT

to love, friend

AMIABLE, enamored, amorous

ambulare, AMB

to walk, to go

amble, preamble, AMBULATORY

amicus

friend

AMITY

amplus

large, spacious

ample

anecdota

unpublished

ANCEDOTE

angere, anxius

to give pain

ANXIOUS, ANXIETY

angulus

a corner

angle, ANGULAR

anima

breath, spirit, soul

ANIMOSITY, inanimate, unanimous

animus, ANIM

reason, mind, soul, life

ANIMATE, magnanimous

annus, ANNU, ENNI

year

annual, biennial, centennial, PERENNIAL

anomalia

inequality

ANOMALY

antiquus

old, ancient

antiquity, antique, ANTIQUATED

apertum, APERT

open, uncovered

aperture

apparere

to come forth

apparent, appearance, APPARITION

appellare, APPELL

address, entreat, call

appellation

apprehendere

to take hold of

apprehend, APPREHENSIVE

apprenare

to teach

APPRISE

aptare, aptus, APT, EPT

to fit, suitable

aptitude, adapt, INEPT

aqua

water

aqueous, aqueduct, aquifer, aquarium

arabilis

to plow

ARABLE

arbit

judge

ARBITRATION, arbitrary

arbor

tree

arboretum, arboreal

archein, ARCH

to rule

MONARCH

ardere ARD

be on fire, to burn

ardor, ARDUOUS

arere

to be dry

ARID

arguere

make clear

argument

arma

implements, weapons

arm, armament, ARMADA

arrogare

full of pride

ARROGANT, ARROGANCE

arsum, ARS

be on fire

arson

ars, artis, ART

skill, craft, method

art, artisan, artist

articulare

jointed; utter distinctly

ARTICULATE, inarticulate

artificium

art-craft + facere-to make

artifact, artifice, artificial

ascendere

to scale, climb

ascend, ASCENDANCY

aspergere

to sprinkle on

asperse, ASPERSION

assidere

to sit beside, assist

assess, assist

assiduitas

constant presence

assiduity, ASSIDUOUS

astus

crafty, cunning

ASTUTE

auctor

author, enlarger

AUTHORITY, authorize

audere, AUD

to dare, be bold

AUDACIOUS, AUDACITY

augere, augtum

to increase

augmentation, augur, august

audire, AUD

to hear

audible, audio

auditum, AUDIT

to hear

audition

augere, AUG, AUX

to increase

AUGMENT, auxiliary

auctum, AUCT

increase

auction

auris

ear

auricle, auriform

auspicium

good omen, approval

auspice, AUSPICIOUS

authentious

real, genuine

AUTHENTIC

avarus

greedy

AVARICE, avaricious

avertere

to turn away

avert

avis

bird

avian, aviary, aviation, avionics

beatus

happy, blessed

beatific, beatitude

bella, bellus

beautiful

EMBELLISH

bellum, BEL, BELL

to wage war

bellicose, rebellious, BELLIGERENT

bene, BEN

well, good

benevolence, BENEFICENT, BENIGN

bibere

to drink

bibulous, IMBIBE

blaterare

to babble, to roar

BLATANT

bonus, BON

good

bonanza, bonny, bon voyage, bonus

        melior

better

AMELIORATE

        optimus

best

optimum

brachium

an arm

EMBRACE

brevis, BRI, BREV

brief, short

BREVITY, abbreviate, abridge

burla

a jest

BURLESQUE

cadere, CAD

to fall, happen by chance

DECADENT, cadaver, cascade

cidere, CID

to fall, happen by chance

coincidence, RECIDIVISM

casum, CAS

to fall, happen by chance

cascade

caedere, cide

to cut, kill

incision, pesticide

calere, CAL

be warm, glow

caloric, calorie

callum

hard skin

callus

calx, CALC

pebble, to reckon

calculate, calculus

candere, CAND

glow, pure, sincere

incandescence, candor, CANDID

canere, CANT, CHANT

to sing

RECANT, chant, enchant

canis

dog

canine

capere, CAP, CAPT

to take, to seize

captive, capture, intercept, CAPTIOUS

capra

a she goat (impulsive)

CAPRICIOUS, caprice

capere, CIP, CEPT

to take, to seize

INCIPIENT, precept, susceptible

caput, CAP, CAPIT

head, headlong

cape, chapter, capital, principle

cardo, CARDIN

hinge

cardinal

caro, CARN

flesh

carnal, incarnate, carnivore

castigare

to purify, chastise

CASTIGATE

cauda

a tail

CODA

causa

cause, reason

causal, causation

cavare, cavus

to make hollow

CAVERNOUS, cavity, excavate

cedere, CED, CEED

to go, to yield

recede, precede, exceed, PREDECESSOR

cessum, CESS

to go, to yield

concession, access, recess

celeber, CELEBR

honored

celebrant, celebrity, celebrate

cella

storeroom

cell, cellar

censere, CENS

assess, rate, estimate

census, CENSURE

centrum, CENTR

center

concentric, concentrate, ECCENTRIC

centum, centi

hundred, tenth, ten

percent, centimeter, century

cernere, CERN, CERT

distinguish, separate, decide

discern, certitude, DISCERNMENT

cerebrum

brain

cerebral, cerebrate, cerebellum

cerratanus

seller of Papal indulgences

CHARLATAN

cessare

to cease

INCESSANT

ciere, citum, CI

move, stir, rouse, call

cite, citation

citum, CIT

move, stir, rouse, call

excite, incite, SOLICIT, solicitous

civis

citizen, community

civic, civility, civilian

clamere, CLAIM

to shout, claim, cry out

CLARIFY, ACCLAIM, RECLAIM

clamatum, CLAM

to shout, claim, cry out

CLAMOR, PROCLAIM, declaration

clarus

bright, clear, famous

clarion, clarity

clausum, CLU

to close, shut

recluse, exclude, include, conclusion, PRECLUDE

clavis

key

clavicle, clavier, ENCLAVE

clemens

mild, merciful

CLEMENCY

clinatum, CLI, CLIN

lean, slope

incline, inclination, CLINOMETER

coagulare

to curdle

COAGULATE

codex, CODIC

book, tree trun

code, codicil

coercere

to surrond, restrain

COERCE

cogitare, COG

to think

COGENT, cogitative

cogitatum, COGITAT

to think

COGITATE

cognoscere, cognitum

to know

INCOGNITO, cognition, ignorant COGNIZANT

cohaerere

co-together + haerere-stick

cohere, coherence, INCOHERENT

colare

to strain, filter

percolate, colander

color

to hide, conceal

coloration, COLOR

commodus

suitable

COMMODITY

complacere

to be pleased

complacency, COMPLAISANT

complere

to fill up

complete, comply, COMPLIANT

computare

to compute

count, DISCOUNT

comsentire (com + sentire)

to feel with

consent, CONSENSUS

concidere

to cut off

CONCISE

conciliare

bring together, win over

conciliate, CONCILIATORY, RECONCILE

conterere, contritio

ground to pieces, grief

CONTRITE, contrition

condensus

dense, compact

CONDENSE

condere

to put together, hide

RECONDITE

condescendere

to let oneself down

CONDESCEND

congruere

come together

CONGRUENT, INCONGRUOUS

contemnere

con-with + temnere-scorn

CONTEMPT

contendere

stretch out, strive after

CONTENTIOUS, contend, contention

copia

abundance

COPIOUS

cor, CORD, COUR

heart

courage, cordial, accord

corium

skin, hide

excoriate

cornu copia

(cornu) horn (copia) plenty

CORNUCOPIA

corona

crown

corona, coronary, coronation

corpus, CORPOR

body

corporeal, corporation

corroborare

to strengthen

CORROBORATE

corrumpere

destroy, spoil, bribe

CORRUPT

creare, CREA

create, grow

create, creative

crescere, CRESC

grow, increase

CRESCENDO, accretion

cretum, CRE, CRET

grow, increase

increase, increment

credere, CRED

to believe, to trust

credentials, incredible, credence

creditum, CREDIT

to believe, to trust

credit

cretum, CRET, CRIM

distinguish, separate, decide

secret, DISCRIMINATE, recrimination

crimen, CRIMIN

accusation, charge

incriminate, criminology

cruce

pot, jug

crucible

culminare

peak, summit

CULMINATE

culpa, CULP

fault, blame, guilt

culprit, CULPABLE, exculpate

cultus, CULT

to till, care

CULTIVATE, culture, cult

cumbere, CUB, CUMB

to lie down

incubate, recumbent, SUCCUMB

cura, CUR, CURAT

to care for

sinecure, secure

currere, CURR

to run

recur, current

cursum, CURS

to run

CURSORY, cursive

crux, CRUC

cross, to torture

crucial, crucify, excruciating, crusade

debere, DEB

to owe

debt, debtor

debitum, DEBIT

to owe

debit

debilitare

to weaken

DEBILITATE

decorus

fit; proper

DECORUM, DECOROUS, indecorous

deffere

to bring down, yield

defer, DEFFERENCE

delectar

to charm

delectable, DILETTANTE

deliberare

to consider, weigh well

DELIBERATE

delirare

(to plow crooked) to rave

DELIRIUM, DELIRIOUS

deminuere

to lessen from

DEMINISH, diminutive

dens, dentis

tooth

denture, dentifrice, endodontia

denuntiare

to announce, denounce

denunciation, DENOUNCE

depravare

to make crooked

deprave, DEPRAVITY

desiccare

to dry up completely

DESICCATE

determinare

to set bounds from

DETERMINED

deus, dei

god, godly

deify, deity, deism

devotus

to show reverence

devout, DEVOTION

dexter

right, right hand

dexterous, AMBIDEXTROUS

dicere, DIC

to say, to spea

indict, abdicate, PREDICAMENT

dictum, DICT

to say, to speak

dictate, verdict, edict, indict

dies

day

diurnal

difficilis

hard to do

difficult

diffidere

to distrust

diffidence, DIFFIDENT

dignari

to consider, worthy

deign, DISDAIN, INDIGNANT

dignus, DIGN

worthy

dignify, dignitary, INDIGNANT

dilatare

dis-apart + latus-wide

dilate, dilation

discordia

dis-apart + cor-heart

DISCORD, discordant

discurrere (dis + currere)

to run to and fro

DISCOURSE

distare

to stand apart

DISTANT

distinguere

to separate

DISTINGUISHED

docere, DOC

teach

doctrine, document

doctum, DOCT

teach

doctor

dolere, DOL

be in pain, grieve

doleful, dolorous, INDOLENT

domitare

to tame

INDOMITABLE

dominus, dominium

a lord, right of ownership

domain, dominate, domineer

domus

house, home

domesticity, DOMESTICATE, domicile

donare, DON, DOT

give, forgive

CONDONE, donation, donor

dormire, dorm

to sleep

dormitory

dotare

to endow

ENDOW, ENDOWMENT

dubius, DUB

doubt

DUBIOUS, indubitable

ducere, DUC

to lead

seduce, induce, subduce, SUBDUE

ductum, DUCT

to lead

conduct, ductile

durare, durus, DUR

to harden, hard

duress, OBDURATE, DURABLE, ENDURANCE

ebullire

to boil up

EBULLIENT

effectu

bring to pass, accomplish

effective, EFFECTUAL

effluere

to flow out

EFFLUENCE, EFFLUVIUM

elicere

to draw out

ELICIT

emendare

to correct

EMEND, AMEND

emoliri

accomplish

emolument

enhaucere

to raise high

ENHANCE

equis, EQU, IQU

equal, even

equidistant, INIQUITY, equivalent

errare, ERR

wander, go astray

errant, error, err, ERRONEOUS

erraticus, ERRAT

wander, go astray

ERRATIC, ABERRATION

erudire

to instruct

ERUDITE

essentia

to be

ESSENCE, ESSENTIAL

ethicus

character, custom

ETHICAL

evitare

to shun, avoid

evitable, INEVITABLE

exemplum

a pattern, example

EXEMPLARY, EXEMPLIFY

exhaustus

to draw out, exhaust

EXHAUSTIVE

exhortari

ex-out + hortari-to urge

EXHORT, exortation

exigere, exigens

to drive out

exigency, EXIGENT

exoticus

foreign, strange

EXOTIC, exotica

exorbitare

to go out of the track

EXORBITANT

expeditus

hasen, dispatch

EXPEDITE, EXPEDIENT

exponere

to put forth

expound, expose, EXPOSITION

expungere

mark for omission, erase

EXPUNGE

extirpare

to root out

EXTIRPATE

extraneare

to treat as a stranger

ESTRANGE

extremus

last, outermost

EXTREME, extremity

extricatus

to disentangle

EXTRICATE

exuberare

to come forth in abundance

EXUBERANT, exuberance

fabula

story

fable, fabulous

facilis

easy, to make easy

facile, facility, FACILITATE

facere, factum, FAC, FIC

to do, to make

facsimile, EFFACE, fiction, SURFEIT

facetia

a jest, witty

facetiae, FACETIOUS

factum, FACT

to do, to make

manufacture, factory

fallere

to deceive, disappoint

FALLACIOUS, infallible

fama

fame, reputation

famous, INFAMOUS

fanaticus

enthusiastic

FANATIC

fanus, fanum

a temple

PROFANE, PROFANITY

fari, FAB, FAM

speak

fame, fable, AFFABLE, famous

fastidium

loathing, disgust

FASTIDIOUS

fatuus

silly

FATUOUS, fatuity

fecundus

fertile, fruitful

FECUND, fatuity

femina

woman

female, feminine, femininity

fendere, FEND

to resist, hit, strike

defend, offend, offense

ferre, FER

to carry, to bear

refer, transfer, conference, proffer

ferrum

iron

ferric, ferrous, ferrotype

fertilis

to bear fruit

FERTILE, fertility

fervere, FERV

boil, ferment

FERVOR, EFFERVESCENT, fervid

fetidus

to stink

FETID

fidere, fides, FID

faith, trust, rely on

fidelity, PERFIDY, perfidious, fiduciary

figare, fixus

to fasten, attach

fixative, crucifix, suffix

firmare, FIRM

to make firm, strengthen

AFFIRM, confirm, firmament

fingere

to touch, handle

feint, FEIGN

finire, finis, FIN

to end, limit

final, finite, infinity, confinement

fissum, FISS

split, burst

fissure

fictum, FICT

form, shape, mold

fiction, fictitious

finis, FIN

end, limit

final, definite

flagrare, FLAG, FLAM

to burn, flame, blaze

flammable, FLAGRANT, conflagration

flare, flatus

blow

deflate, inflation

flectere, FLECT

bend, turn

deflection, inflection, reflect

flexum, FLEX

bend, turn

flexible

fligere, FLICT

to strike, drive, dash

afflict, inflict, conflict, PROFLIGATE

florere, FLOR

thrive, to flower

FLOURISH, florid

fluitas, (superfluere)

to overflow

SUPERFLUOUS, SUPERFLUITY

fluere, FLU

flow

confluence, fluid, flume, influence

fluxum, FLUX

flow

influx

foris

out of doors, beyond

FORFEIT, FORFEITURE

forma, FORM

shape, beauty, constant

UNIFORM, REFORM, FORMAL

fortis, FORT

strong, brave

fortify, force, forte, comfort, FORTITUDE

fortuna, FORT

chance, luck

fortunate, FORTUITOUS

fundare, FOUND, FUND

bottom

foundation, fundamental, PROFOUND

frangere, FRANG

to break

frangible, fragment

frangere, FRAG

to break

fragment, fragile

fractrum, FRACT

to break

fraction, fracture

frater, FRATR

brother

fraternal, fraternize

fraus, FRAUD

deceit, trickery

fraud, FRAUDULENT

frivolus

fragile, silly

FRIVOLOUS, frivolity

fructus, FRUIT, FRUG

fruit, produce

fruitful, fruition

frugalis

proper, worthy

FRUGAL

fugere, FUG

flee, escape

fugacious

fugitum, FUGIT

flee, escape

fugitive

fulmen

lightning, thunderbolt

FULMINATE

fumus

smoke

fumitory, fumarole

fundere, FUND

to pour out, shed, scatter

refund, FUSILLADE

fungi, FUNG

perform, do, discharge

function

functum, FUNCT

perform, do, discharge

functionary

funus, FUNER

death, funeral

funeral, funereal

furere, FUR

rave, rage

fury, furious, infuriate

furtum

theft, stealthy

FURTIVE

fusum, FUS

pour, shed, scatter

diffuse, PROFUSE, effusive

futilis

worthless, untrustworthy

FUTILE, futility

garrire

chatter

GARRULOUS

genialis

of birth, generation

GENIAL, congenital, CONGENIAL

genus, GEN, GENER

birth, race, kind

GENRE, generic, generous, generation

gestum, GEST

carry, wear, wage

gestation, gesture

gladius

sword

gladiator, gladiate

globus

ball, sphere

globe, global

glutire

to devour

GLUTTON, gluttonous

gradior, GRAD, GRADI

walk, step; move foreward

gradual, retrograde, gradient

gressum, GRESS

walk, step; move foreward

progress, aggressive, REGRESS

grandis, GRAND

great

grandeur, grandiose, grandiloquent, AGGRANDIZE

gratia

favor, grace

grace

gratus, GRAT

pleasing, favorable

gratitude, congratulate, INGRATIATE

gravis, GRAV, GRIEV

heavy, serious

grave, grievance, AGGRAVATE, gravid, grief, AGGRIEVE, GRAVITY

grex, GREG

flock, herd

congregate, segregate, GREGARIOUS

habere, HAB

to have, hold, keep

habit, inhabit

habeo, HABIT

to have, hold, keep

habitual, habituate

haerere, HER, HES

to cling, stick

adhesive, cohesive, adherent, INHERENT

haeresis

school of thought, sect

heretic, HERESY

harmonicus

fitting, agreement

HARMONY, harmonic

heres, HERED

heir

hereditary, heredity

herba

grass, herb

herbivorous, herbaceous

hilarare, hilaris

to gladden, merry

hilarious, exhilarate

histrio

actor

HISTRIONICS

homo, HOMIN

man, human being

homicidal, hominize

horrere, HORR

shudder, stand stiff

horrendous, abhor

hostis

enemy

hostile

humanus

mankind

humanity

humere, HUM

be moist, damp

humid

humilis

lowly

HUMILITY, humiliate

id

one’s own

IDIOM, idiosyncrasy

ignis

fire

ignite, ignition, igneous

ignorare

to have no knowledge of

ignore, ignorant

imbuere

to wet, soak

IMBUE

imitari, IMIT

to copy

imitative

imitatum, IMITAT

to copy

imitate, imitation

immunis

tax exempt

IMMUNE

impedire (im + pes)

to hold the feet, entangle

IMPEDE

imponere

to place upon

IMPOSE

inanis

empty, vacant

INANE

incidere

occur, to fall upon, likely

incident, INCIDENTAL

incisio, incisivus, CIS

to cut

excise, incision, INCISIVE, incisor

inchoare

to begin

INCHOATE

incurrere

to run into, attack

incur, INCURSION

indulgere

be kind to, yield to

indulge, INDULGENT

iners (in + ars)

without skill or art

inertia, INERT

infere (in + ferre)

to carry in

INFER

ingenerare

to beset

ENGENDER

ingenuus

native, inborn, frank

INGENUOUS

inhibere

hold back, restrain

INHIBIT

inimicus

hostile

INIMICAL

iniquus

uneaqual

INIQUITY, INIQUITIOUS

innovare

to renew

INNOVATE

inquirere

to seek

inquire, INQUISITIVE

instigare

to incite, stimulate

INSTIGATE

insula, isola

island, to isolate

isolate, insulate, INSULAR

integritas

whole, entire

INTEGRITY

intendere

aim at, stretch for

intend, intense, INTENSIFY

intricare

to entangle, PERPLEX

INTRICATE, intricacy

intus

within

INTIMATE

iratus

to be angry

IRATE, IRASCIBLE

ire, itum, IT

to go

initiate, transit

iter, ITINER

journey, walk

ITINERANT

jacere, JAC

to throw, cast down

ejaculate, adjacent

jactum, JECT

to throw, cast down

eject, reject, trajectory, ejecta, object, OBJECTIVE

jejunus

hungry or meager

jejune

jocus

joke

jocund, jocular, jocose, jocosity

Jovis

Roman god Jupiter

JOVIAL

judex, JUDIC

judge, judgement

JUDICIOUS, judicial, adjudicate

jugum

a yoke

SUBJUGATE

jungere, JUNG

to join, to meet

conjugal, conjugate, CONJOIN

junctum, JUNCT

to join, to meet

junction, injunction

jus, JUR, JUST

right, law, take an oath

abjure, PERJURY, CONJURE, jurisprudence

juvenile

oung

juvenile, REJUVENATE

labi, LAB

slide, slip, fall

labile

laborare

to work

collaborate, ELABORATE

lapsum, LAPS

slide, slip, fall

lapse

labor

work, exertion

labor, laboratory, laborious

lacrima

a tear

lachrymal, lachrymouse

lamentium

a mourning, wailing

LAMENT

languere

to be faint, listless

languid, LANGUISH, languor

lassus

faint, weary

LASSITUDE

latus, LATER

wide, sideways

LATITUDE, lateral, UNILATERAL

latere

to lie, hidden

LATENT

latum, -LAT

to bear, to carry

relate, translate

laudare

to praise, glory

LAUDABLE

lavere, LUT, LUG, LAV

to wash

dilute, DELUGE, lavatory

laxus

to be loose

LAX, laxity

legare

to send

RELEGATE, delegate

legere, LEG

gather, choose, read

legend, elegant, ELEGANCE

lectum, LECT

gather, choose, read

dialect, election, collect, select

lethargia

idle

lethargic, LETHARGY

lex, LEGIS

law

legislature, illegitimate, legal

levare, LEV

light, to lift, rise

LEVITY, elevate, ALLEVIATE, RELIEVE

liber

free

liberate, libertine, deliberate

liber, LIBR

book

library, libel

licere, lictum, LICT

leave, quit, permitted

license, licet

ligare

to bind

allegiance, oblige, ligature

ligne, LIGN

line, cord

align

lignum

wood

LIGNEOUS

linqua

tongue, language

linguistics, lingual

linquere, LINQU

leave, quit

relinquish

liquere, LIQU

to flow, be fluid, clear

liquid, PROLIX

litigare

to dispute

LITIGATE, LITIGANT

littera

letter of the alphabet

literature, obliterate, literal, literati

livere

be black and blue

livid

locus

place

dislocate, ALLOCATE

longus

long

PROLONG

loquax, LOQUAC

talkative

LOQUACIOUS

loqui, LOQU

speak, talk

eloquent, soliloquy

locutum, LOCUT

speak, talk

elocution, CIRCUMLOCUTION

lucere, LUC, LUM, LUS

shine, be light

LUMINOUS, translucent, LUCID, luster

lucidus

light, clear

ELUCIDATE

ludere, LUD

to play, to mock

interlude, delude, ludicrous, elude, prelude

lugere, lugubris

to mourn

lugubrious

lusum, LUS

to play, to mock

illusion, COLLUSION

lumen

bright light

luminance, luminary, LUMEN

luna

moon

lunatic, lunate, lunation

lupus

wolf

lupine

lympha

water

lymph, lymphatic

macer

lean, thin

MEAGER

macerare

make soft, or tender

MACERATE

magister, MAGISTR

teacher, master

magistrate

magnus, MAGNA

big, great, large

magnitude, magnify, MAGNANIMOUS

major, MAJ

greater, bigger, larger

major, majestic

maximus, MAX

greatest, biggest, largest

maximum, maxim

manere, MAN

remain, dwell

manse, manor

mansum, MANS

remain, dwell

mansion

malleare

to beat with a hammer

MALLEABLE

malus, MAL

bad, evil, wrong

maladjusted, MALICE, malignant

malus, pejor

worse

PEJORATIVE

malus pessimus

worst

pessimist, pessimism, PESSIMISTIC

mandare (manus + dare)

to order, command

mandate, commandment, MANDATORY

manus, MAN, MANI

hand

manual, MANIFEST, manumit, manipulate

mare

sea

mariner, aquamarine

margo

boarderland

margin, MARGINAL

Martialis

of Mars (the god of war)

MARTIAL

matea

a hoe, club

MACE

mater, MATR

mother, women

maternity, MATRIARCH

materia

matter

MATERIAL, materialism, materialize

mecari

to trade, buy

merchant, market

medius, mediocris

middle

intermediary, medieval, MEDIOCRE

melior

better

meliorate, AMELIORATE, melioration

mellifer

honey

MELLIFLUOUS

memoria, MEMIN

remember

memoir, memorable, memorandum

mendax, MENDAC

lying, false

mendacious, MENDACITY

mens

mind

mention

mensurare

to measure

measure, COMMENSURATE

merces

pay, wages

mercenary

mergere

to dip, sink

merge, MERGER

merx, MERC

goods, wares

merchant, merchandise

metus, meticulosus

fear, fearful

METICULOUS

migrare, MIGR

move, change places

emigrant

migratum, MIGRAT

move, change places

MIGRATORY, migration

militare, MILIT

to serve as soldiers

militia, military, demilitarize

ministre, MINISTR

attendant, servant, helper

minister, ministration

min

small

minute, miniature, diminish

minor

smaller, less

minor, minority

mimimus

smallest, least

minimal, minimize

minure

to lessen

DIMINISH

mirare

to look at, wonder at

mirage, miracle, admiral

miscere, MISC

to mix

admixture, miscellaneous, PROMISCUOUS

miser

wretched, unhappy

MISER, miserable, miserly

miserari

to pity

misery, COMMISERATE

mitigare

to make mild, soft, tender

MITIGATE

mittere, MIT, MITT

send, let, go

emissary, remit, admittance, transmit

missum, MIS, MISS

send, let, go

missive, remission, demise, SURMISE

modestus

keeping due measure

MODEST, modesty

modus, MOD

measure, manner, means

mode, modal, modify

moles

mass, bulk, pile

moleculr, molecular

monere, MON

to warn, advise, remind

monument, summons, remonstrate

monitum, MONIT

to warn, advise, remind

monitor, admonition, ADMONISH

monotonus

one tone

monotone, monotony, MONOTONUS

mons, MONT

mountain

montage, monticule

morbus

disease

morbid

mordere, MORD

bite

REMORSE, mordacious

morsum, MORS

bite

morsel

morsus

peevish, fretful

MOROSE

mors, MORT

death, to die

immortal, morgue, MORBID, moribund

mos, MOR

manner, custom

MORALITY, mores

movere, MOV

to move

locomotive, MOTIVE, MOTILITY

motum, MOT

to move

motion, motor, MOTIF

multus, MULTI

many

multitude, multiply, multimedia

munificus

bountiful

MUNIFICENT

murmure

to murmur, roar

MURMUR

murus

wall

mural, intramural

mus, MUR

mouse

murid, murine

musivus

artistic, of a muse

MOSAIC

mutare, mutatum, MUT

to change

mutation, mutant, permutation, MUTABLE, IMMUTABLE

nasci, NAT, NAS, NAI

to bear, be born

native, prenatal, natural, INNATE, RENAISSANCE

nativus

natural, native

NAÏVE, naivete

navis

ship

navy, navigate

negare

to deny

negation, abnegate

nemus, NEMOR

wood, grove

nemophila

nervous

tendon, sinew

nervous, nervy, nerve

neuter

ne-not + uter-neither

neuter, NEUTRAL, neutrality

nihil, NIHIL

none, nothing, not any

ANNIHILATE, nihilism, nil

nocere, NEC, NOC, NOX

to harm, injure

internecine, INNOCUOUS, obnoxious

momen, NOM, NYM

name

nominate, misnomer, nomenclature

norma

rule

normative

noster

ours

NOSTRUM

notare

to mark, note

notation, connotation, annotation

notum, NOT

know

notable, notation

novus, NOV, NOU

new, fresh

renovate, NOVICE, NOVEL

nox, NOCT

night

nocturnal, equinox

nullus, NUL, NULL

not any, none

null, annul, NULLIFY

numerou

number

enumerate, numerable, INNUMERABLE

numisma

a coin

numismatic, NUMISMATIST

nuntiare

to announce

DENOUNCE

nutrire

nourish

nutriment

nutiare, NOUNC, NUNC

to report, tell

announce, RENOUNCE, pronounce

nucella, nux, NUC

nut

nucellus, nuclear

obliterare

to blot out

OBLITERATE

obscurus

covered over

OBSCURE

obstare

to stand against, oppose

OBSTINATE

obviare

to prevent

OBVIATE

oculus

eye

monocle, binocular, ocular

odium

hatred

odium, ODIOUS

officius

to do work

office, OFFICIOUS

ominosus

evil omen

OMINOUS

omnis, OMNI

all

omnipotent, omniscient

onus, ONER

burden

onerous, EXONERATE

opacus

shady dark

OPAQUE, APACITY

opponere, oppositus

against

opposite, OPPOSITION

optare

choose

option, opinion

optimus, OPTIM

best

optimum, OPTIMISM

opus, OPER

work

operative, opus, opera, operate

ordo, ORDIN

rank, row, order

ordinal

oriri, ORI

rise

origin, original

os, OSS

bone

ossicle, OSSIFY

oscillare

to swing

OSCILLATE

ostendere

to show against

ostensible, OSTENTATION

palatum

to the palate

PALATABLE

palpare

to feel, stroke

palpable, PALPITATE

pallere, PALL

be pale, yellow, or faded

PALLID, PALOR

palliare

to conceal, cloak

PALLIATE, palliative

par, parare

equal, to make equal

par, DISPARATE

paradigma

to show, example

PARADIGM

parage

rank

PEER

parcere

to spare

PARSIMONY

parens, parere

to appear

apparent, TRANSPARENT

parere, PAR

prepare, get ready, equal

DISPARATE, parity, preparedness

pars, PART

part

particle, PARTISAN, BIPARTISIAN

passus, pati, passum

suffer, endure

patient, PASSIVE, passion

pater, PATR

father

paternal, patronize, EXPATRIATE

pauci, PAU

few

PAUCITY, pauper

pauper, PO, POV, PU

poor person, poor

poverty, IMPOVERISH, pauper

pax, PAC, PEAC

peace

pacify, APPEASE, pact

pecunia

money

pecuniary, impecunious

pejor

worst

PEJORATIVE

pellere, PELL

driven, to push

compel, expel, propellant

pelsum, PULS

to push

pulsate, IMPULSIVE

pendere, PEND

to hang, weigh, play

impending, appendage, suspend, pending, PENCHANT

penser, pensum, PENS

to hang, weight, play

expense, dispense, pensive, indispensable

penuria

want, scarcity

PENURY, PENURIOUS

perfidia

faithlessness, to deceive

perfidy, perfidious

perfungi

get rid of, discharge

PERFUNCTORY

peroratus

to pray, speak, orate

PERORATE

perquisitum

something required

PERQUISETE

pervadere (per + vadere)

to go through

PERVADE, pervasive

pervius

per (through) via (way)

pervious, IMPERVIOUS

pes, PED, POD

foot

pedal, PEDESTRIAN, expedition, podiatrist

pessimus

worst

pessimist, pessimism, pessimistic

pestis

plague

pestilence, pestiferous, PESTILENT

petere, PET, PIT

aim at, seek, attack

impetuous, PETULANT, propitious

petitum, PETIT

aim at, seek, attack

petition

pictum, PICT

paint, tattoo

picture, pictorial

pius

devoted to duty, godly

PIOUS, piosity

placere, PLAC

please, be agreeable

PLACATE, placebo, IMPLACABLE

placitum, PLACIT

please, be agreeable

PLACID, COMPLACENT

planus

flat, even

plane

plaudere, PLAUD

beat, clap, approve

applaud, plaudit, implode

plausum, PLAUS

beat, clap, approve, true

PLAUSIBLE

plexum, PLEX, PLIC

weave, plait, fold, tangle

complicate, IMPLICATE, complex

plenus

full

plenty, replenish, PLETHORA

plicare, PLIC, PLICAT

to fold, bend

complicate, EXPLICIT, IMPLICIT

plere, PLE, PLET, PLEN

to fill, full

complete, IMPLEMENT, DEPLETE, replete

plus, pluris, PLU

more, further

surplus, plurality, NONPLUS

poenalis, PEN, PUN

to pay, compensate

penalty, punitive, penance

pompa

SOLEMN procession

pomp, POMPOUS, POMPOSITY

ponderare

to weigh

PONDER, PONDEROUS

ponere, PON

to place, put

component

positum, POS, POUND

to place, put

position, opposite, EXPOUND

populus

people

populace, popularity

portere, PORT

carry

portable, portage, export, import

portio

share, portion

apportion, proportion

posterus

next, following

PREPOSTEROUS

potens

powerful, able

potentate, potent, potential

praecedere

to precede

precedence, UNPRECEDENTED

praecipitare

before, ahead

precipice, PRECIPITATE

praedicare

to proclaim, declare

PREACH

precarius, PREC

to request, beg, prayer

precarious, imprecate

prediligere

to prefer

PREDILECTION

prehendere, PREHEND

seize, grasp

apprehend, comprehend

prehensum, PREHENS

seize, grasp

REPREHENSIBLE, COMPREHENSIVE

PRISE

seize, grasp

comprise, REPRISAL

pressare

to press, squeeze

press, pressure, REPRESS

pressum, PRESS

squeeze

depress, oppress, impress, SUPPRESS

pretiare, PREC

to value

precious, depreciation

primus, PRIMO

first

primordial, primary, PRIME

pristinus

former

PRISTINE

privare

separate, peculiar

privilege, deprive

probare, PROB

to prove, test

probation, prove, PROBITY

prodigere

wasteful

PRODIGAL

prodigiosus

marvelous

PRODIGIOUS, PRODIGY

profanus

before a temple

PROFANE, PROFANITY

progresse

to step, to go forward

progress, PROGRESSIVE

proles

offspring

prolific, PROLIFERATE

prolongare

lengthen, extend in time

prolong

promere

to bring forth

PROMPT

promittere

to promise

COMPROMISE

prope

near

approach, REPROACH

propendere

to hang or lean foreward

propend, PROPENSITY

propinquus

near

PROPINQUITY

proprius

ones’ own, peculiar

property, proprietary, PROPRIETY

prosa

direct speech

PROSE, PROSAIC

prosperare

succeed, thrive, grow

prosper, PROSPEROUS

providere, providens

to see before, cautious

provide, PRUDENT, providence, IMPROVIDENT

provincia

territory outside of Rome

province, PROVINCIAL

proximus

nearest

proximity, approximate

pudere, pudens

to feel shame, modest

IMPUDENT

pugnare, PUG

to fight, boxer

pugilist, REPUGNANT

pugnare, PUGN

to fight, boxer

pugnacious, IMPUGN, REPUGNANT

pungere, PUNG

prick, sting

PUNGENT, EXPUNGE

punctum, PUNC

prick, sting

punctual, puncture, compunction

pungere, POIGN, POINT

prick, sting

poignant, pointed

pulcher, PULCHR

beautiful

pulchritude

purgare

to clean

purge, purgatory

putare, PUT

to think, reckon, consider

computer, compute

putatum, PUTAT

to think, reckon, consider

reputation, COMPUTATION

putris

rotten

putrid, PUTRIFY

quaerere, QUE

ask, seek

conquer, quest, acquire, query

quaesitum, QUIS

ask, seek

INQUISITIVE, exquisite, acquisition

qualis

of what sort, kind

QUALITY, QUALIFY

quantus, quande

how great, how much

QUANDARY

quattuor

four

quarterly, quatrain, quaternary

queri

complain

QUERULOUS

quies, QUI

quite

tranquil, ACQUIESCE, QUIESCENT

quotus

how many

QUORUM, quotient

rabies

madness

RABID

radius

ray, beam, rod

radian, radiation

radix, RADIC

root

radicle, radical, ERADICATE

rancere, RANC

be stinking

rancid

rapere, RAP

to seize, snatch

rape, rapacious, rapine

raptum, RAPT

to seize, snatch

rapture, rapt

ratio, RATION

reckoning, account

reason, ration

ratum, RAT

think, suppose, consider

rational, IRRATIONAL

ratus

to reckon

RATIFY

raucus

to mutter, give hoarse cries

RAUCOUS

recalcitrare

to kick back

RECALCITRANT

reciprocus

returning

reciprocate, RECIPROCAL

rectificare

to correct

RECTIFY

recipere

to take back

receive, receipt, RECEPTIVE

rectum, RECT

direct, in a straight line

rectitude

redundare

to overflow

REDUNDANT

refere, relatus

to bring back

refer, relate, CORRELATE

reformare

to make better

REFORM

refutare

to repel

REFUTE

regere, rectus

right, to make straight

erect, RECTITUDE

regere, rex, regis

to rule, king, direct

regimen, direct, regular, regency

regnum

to reign

INTERREGNUM

removere

to remove

REMOTE

renda

to tear apart

rend

renuntiare

to tell back

RENOUNCE

repletus

to fill again

REPLETE, REPLETION

repellere

to repel, reject

repulse, repellent, repel

repressus

to hold back

REPRESS

reprobare

rebuke, censure

REPROVE

repudiare

to put away, divorce

REPUDIATE

rescindere

to cut off

RESCIND

residere

remainding

residue, RESIDUAL

resilire

(salire) to jump, (re-) back

resile, RESILIENT

respectus

to look at, look back on

respect, RESPITE

resplendere

shining brightly

RESPLENDENT

retrahere

to draw back

RETRACT

revelatio, revelare

disclose, reveal

REVELATION

rex, REG

king

regal

ridere, risum, RID, RIS

to laugh at

DERISION, ridicule, risible, DERIDE

rigere, RIG

to be stiff, numb

rigor, RIGOROUS, rigid, RIGIDTY

rogare, ROG

ask, stretch out the hand

arrogance

rogatum, ROGAT

ask, stretch out the hand

INTERROGATE, rogation, abrogate

rotare, rotatus, rota

to turn, wheel, turned

rotation, rotary, rotor, ROTUND

ruffelen

to scratch

ruffle

rumpere, RUMP

to break, destroy

abrupt, rupture

ruptum, RUPT

to break, destroy

interrupt, CORRUPT, corruptive

rus, RUR

country

rural

saccharum

sugar

SACCHARINE

sacrare, SANCT, SECR

holy

DESECRATE, CONSECRATE, sanctify

sacrare, SACR

holy

sacred, sacrament

sagax, sagacis, sapare

wise, to know, to taste

sage, SAGACIOUS, sapient

sal

salt

saline

salire, SAL, SIL

to leap, jump

sally, salutatory, salient, RESILIENT

saltum, SAULT, SULT

to leap, jump

assault, desultory, somersault

salus, SALUT

health, safety

salute, SALUTARY, SALUBRIOUS

salvare

to save

salvation, salvage, save

sanctus, SANCT

holy

sanctify, SANCTION, sanctuary

sanguis, SANGUIN

blood (cheerful)

SANGUINE, consanguinity

sanitas, sanatorius

health, healthy

sanitation, sanitary

sanus

sound

sanity

sapor, sapere

to taste

SAVOR, INSIPID

satis, satiare, SAT

enough, to fill, full

sated, INSATIABLE, satisfy, satiate

satura

a satire, poetic medley

satire, SATIRIC

saquire

perceive clearly

SAGACIOUS

scala

stairs, ladder

SCALE

scandere, SCAND

climb

ascend, ascension, descendant

scire, SCI

to know, knowing

OMNISCIENT, science, conscious

scribere, SCRIB

write, incise, scratch

scribe, describe, TRANSCRIBE

scriptum, SCRIPT

write, incise, scratch

subscription, script, manuscript

scrupus

sharp stone

scruple, SCRUPULOUS

scrutari

to search into carefully

scrutiny, SCRUTINIZE

secare, SEC

to cut

section, sectional, sector

sectum, SECT

to cut

intersection

securus

free from care

secure, security

sedere, SED

to sit

sediment, preside, RESIDE

semen, SEMIN

to sow, seed

seminal, DISSEMINATE, SEMINARY

senex, SEN

old man

senate

sensus, SENSU

feeling

sensual

sentiere, SENT

to feel, perceive, think

SENTIENT, sentiment, consent, DISSENT

sensum, SENS

to feel, perceive, think

sensation, sensible, sensory, dissension

sepsis

poison, rotting

septic, ANTISEPTIC, aseptic

sequi, SEQ

to follow, following

SEQUENTIAL, sequence

secutum, SEC, SECUT

to follow

second, prosecute

sera

a saw

serrate, SERRATED, serration

serenus

dry, clear, calm

SERENE, SERENITY

servere, SERV

save, protect, keep, hold

servant, reserve, RESERVED

servus

slave

SERVITUDE, service

sessum, SESS, SED, SID

to sit, plan, plot

session, preside, residual, subsidy

severitas

harsh, strict

severity, SEVERE

sidere

to settle

SUBSIDE

signare, SIGN

to sign, to mark out

signature, CONSIGN, RESIGNATION

simplex, SIMPLIC

single, simple

simple, simplex, SIMPLICITY

similare, similis

to make like

similar, facsimile, simulation, assimilate

sinister

lefthanded, unlucky

SINISTER

sinus

a bend

SINUOUS

sobrius

sober, moderate

SOBER, SOBRIETY

socius, sociare

companion, follower

society, social, association

sol

sun

solar, solstice

solare, solus, SOL

to make lonely, alone

solo, SOLITARY, SULLEN

sollicitus

anxious, worried

SOLICIT, solicitous

soloecismus

speaking incorrectly

SOLECISM

solutum, SOL

loosen, release, undo

dissolute, soluble, RESOLUTE

solvere, SOLV

loosen, release, undo

solvent, resolve, INSOLVENT

somnus

sleep

somnolent, sopor, soporific

sonus, sonare

to sound

DISSONANCE, unison, sonorous

sonus, sonare

to sound

RESOUND, SONATA, DISSONANT

sors, sortis

lot, a share

sort, consortium

spatiosus

large area

SPACIOUS

specere, SPEC, SPIC

see, look at

specimen, CONSPICUOUS, specific

spectum, SPECT

see, look at

inspect, spectacle, RETROSPECT

spirere, SPIR

to breathe, breath

aspire, INSPIRE

spiratum, SPIRAT

breath

respiration, inspiration

spondere, sponsus

to pledge, promise

sponsor, respond, RESPONSIVE

spontaneus

of free will

SPONTANEOUS, SPONTANEITY

sporadicus

to scatter

SPORADIC

spurius

false, illegitimate

SPURIOUS

squalere, SQUAL

be rough, foul, or filithy

SQUALID, squalor

squandere

to scatter

SQUANDER

stagnare

pool, swamp

stagnate, STAGNATION

stare, stet, STA

to stand

stable, stagnant, contrast

statum, STAT

to stand

status, statue, STATIC, STANZA

stellare, stella

to shine, star

stellar, constellation

sterilis

barren

STERILE

stinguere, STINGU

to prick, to quench

DISTINGUISH, EXTINGUISH

stinctum, STINCT

to prick, to quench

distinct, distinction, distinctive

stolidus

firm, slow, stupid

STOLID

strategema

act of a general

strategy, STRATAGEM

stratum, STRAT

layer, spread

STRATIFY, STRATUM

striare

groove, channel, lined

STRIATED

stringere, STRING

draw tight, bind

astringent, STRINGENT

strictum, STRICT

draw tight, bind

strict, constriction

stridere

rasp

STRIDENT

struere, STRU

build, construct, spread

structure, MISCONSTRUE, instrument

structum, STRUCT

build, construct, spread

instruct

studere, STUD

diligent, zealous, study

student, studious

stupere, STUP

be stunned

STUPOR

suavis, SUA

sweet, smooth

suave, ASSUAGE, persuade

substare (sub + stare)

to stand under, present

substance, SUBSTANTIVE

subtilis

fine, thin, precise

SUBTLE, subtlety

succedere

to go under, follow after

succeed, succession, SUCCESSIVE

succinctus

short, contracted

SUCCINCT

summonere

to remind privily

SUMMONS, summon

summus

highest

summit

sumptus

expense, cost

SUMPTUOUS

superlatus

excessive

SUPERLATIVE

supplantare

to trip up

SUPPLANT

supponere

to suppose, assume

SUPPOSITION

surgere, surrection

to rise, risen

insurgency, INSURRECTION, resurrection

surrepticius

to take away secretly

SURREPTITIOUS

sycophania

informer, toady

SYCOPHANT

symbolus

token, pledge

SYMBOLISM

tabula

board, tablet

tablet, tabloid, table

tacere, TAC, TIC

to be silent

TACIT, TACITURN, RETICENT

taedet

to disgust, offend

tedium, TEDIOUS

taliare

to cut, split, prune

TAILOR

talio

punishment in kind

retaliate, RETALIATION

tangere, tactus, TANG

to touch

tangent, TANGIBLE, TANGENTIAL

tactum, TACT

to touch

TACTILE, tactual

tardus

to make slow

TARDY, RETARD

tegere, TEG

cover, hide, defend

integument

tectum, TECT

cover, hide, defend

detection, protect

temere, temeritas

rashly, blindly

TEMERITY

temetum

strong drink

ABSTEMIOUS

temnere

to scorn

contemn, CONTEMPT

temperare

to temper, mix, regulate

TEMPERATE, temperance, TEMPERAMENT

tempus, TEMPOR

time

temporal, contemporize, temporize

tendere, TEND

stretch, spread, aim

contend, tend, EXTEND, DISTEND

tentum, TENT, TEN

stretch, spread, aim

PRETENTIOUS, EXTENSIVE

tensum, TENS

stretch, spread, aim

tension, tensor

tendere

to stretch, extend, tend

tendency, TENDENTIOUS

tenere, TEN, TAIN

hold, keep

TENACIOUS, contain, detain, tenure

tentare, tent

to touch, try

TENTATIVE

tenuis, TEND, TENS

thin, stretched

extend, tenuous, tendency, tendon

tenuis, TENT, TENU

thin, stretched

tentative, contend, TENUOUS, extenuating

tepere

be lukewarm

tepid

tergere

to wipe

TERSE

terminus

boundry, end

terminator, terminal, DETERMINE

terere, TER, TRIT

rub away, tread, wear out

detriment

terra

land, earth

terrace, terra firma

terrere, TERR

frighten

terror, DETER, terrorism

testis

witness

testament, testify, testimony

texere, textum, TEXT

weave, build

text, texture, textual, texturized

theoria

a looking at, speculation

theory, THEORETICAL

timere, TIM

fear

timid, TIMOROUS

tingere, TING

dip, soak, moisten, dye

tinge

tinctum, TINCT

dip, soak, moisten, dye

tincture

tirare

to draw fire

TIRADE

tirer

to draw

retire, RETIRING

tonsum, TONS

shear, clip, shave

tonsorial, tonsure

torpere, TORP

be stiff, numb

torpid, TORPOR

torquere, TORQU

to twist, turn

torque

tortum, TORT

to twist, turn

contortionist, extort, torture, TORTUOUS

torrere, TORR

parch, scorch

torrid

toxicare, toxicum

to smear with poison

toxic, toxin, toxicant

tradere

to deliver

EXTRADITE, tradition

traducere

exhibit, disgrace

TRADUCE

trahere, TRA

to draw, drag

TRAIT, TRACE

tractum, TRACT

to draw, drag, pull

subtract, TRACTABLE, PROTRACT

tradere

to give, deliver over

TRADITION, treason

tragicus

suffer

TRAGIC, tragedy

transcendere

trans + scandere- to climb

transcend, transcendent

transigere

to come to a settlement

transact, INTRANSIGENT

transire (trans + ire)

to go across

transit, TRANSITORY

tremere, TREM

quake, quiver

tremble, tremendous, tremor

trepidare

to tremble

tremulous, TREPIDATION

tribuere, tributus, tribus

to assign, allot, pay

tribute, distribute, attribute

trivialis

commonplace, unimportant

TRIVIAL, trivia, trivialize

trudere

to thrust

ABSTRUSE

truncus

stem, trunk

TRUNK, truncate, truncheon

trux, TRUC

wild, rough, fierce

TRUCULENT

trudere, TRUD, TRUS

to push, thrust

protrude, intrusion, UNOBTRUSIVE

tumere, TUM

swell, be swollen

tumescence, tumult, TUMOR

turba, TURB

uproar, disturbance

perturb, turbulence, turbid

turpis

base, vile

TURPITUDE

ubique

(ubi) where, (qua) any

UBIQUITOUS, ubiquity

ultimus, ULTI

last

ultimate

umber (sub+umbrare)

shade, (under the shade)

SOMBER, ADUMBRATE

universus

all together

universal, universality, university

unda, UND

wave

undulate, abundant

uniformis

one form, unchanging

UNIFORM, uniformity

unus, UNI

one

unicorn, unicycle

urbs, URB

city

urban, exurb

usum, US

to use

usage, abuse, usurp

uter

neither

neuter, NEUTRAL

utor, UTI

to use

utility, utilization, UTILIZE

vacare, vacuus

empty

VACUOUS, evacuate

vacillare

to stagger

VACILLATE

vadere, vasun, VAD

to go, make ones way

vademecum, EVADE, EVASIVE

vagari, vagus

to wander

vagrant, vagaries, VAGUE

vanescere

to vanish

EVANESCENT

vanus

vain, boastful

vaunted

vasum, -VAS

a vessel, dish

vascular, vasectomy

valere, validum, VAL

to be strong, be well

valor, valid, evaluate, validity

varicar

to straddle, walk crookedly

PREVARICATE

varius

colored, DIVERSE

variable, variant, vary, VARIEGATED

vehemens

eager

VEHEMENT

vehere

carry

vehicle, vehicular

velle, volens

to wish, willing

VOLITION, BENEVOLENT

vena

blood vessel

vein, venous

vendere, VEND

sell

vend, vendor, venal

venenum

poison

venom, venomous

veneratus

to worship

VENERATE, veneration

venire, VENI, VEN

come, move toward

intervene, convention, CONTRAVENE

ventum, VENT, VENU

come, move toward

adventure, venue, invention

ventus

wind

VENT, VENTILATE

venter, VENTR

stomach

ventral, ventricle

verbum, VERB

word

VERBATIM, proverb, adverb, verb

vereri

to feel awe

REVERE

vergere

to turn, bend

CONVERGE, DIVERGENT

vermis

worm

vermin, verminous

verus, VER

true

VERIFY, aver, verdict, VERACITY

versum, VERS

to turn, change

versatile, AVERSION, DIVERSE

vestire, VEST

to dress, garment

vestment, vest, divest, investiture

vestigium

track, footprint

VESTIGIAL, VESTIGE

vertere, VERT, VER

to turn, change

revert, introvert, subvert, introversion, diverse, DIVERT

verticalis

the top, turning point

VERTICAL, VERTEX

vexare, VEX

shake, toss, trouble

VEX

vexatum, VEXAT

shake, trouble, distress

vexation

via

way, road

via, viaduct

videre, VID

to see

evident, provide, PROVIDENT

visum, VIS, VIEW

to see

visual, visible, review, supervise, VISIONARY

vigere, VIG

thrive, flourish

vigorous, VIGOR, vigorish

vilis

cheep, base

vile, VILIFY

vincere, VINC

conquer, win

invincible, convince, CONVICTION

vindicta

revenge, to claim, avenge

VINDICTIVE, VINDICATE

violare, violatus

to use force

violate, INVIOLATE, violence

victum, VICT

conquer, win

victor, victory, victorous

vino, vinum, vinosus

wine

vinous, vintage, viticulture

vir, virtus

man, manliness, worth

virtue, VIRTUOUS, triumvirate

virus

slime, poison

virus, VIRULENT, virulence

vitium

fault, flaw, offence

vitiate

vivere, vita, VIV, VI

to live, life, lively

REVIVE, convivial, VITAL, VIVID

victum, VIC, VICT

to live, life, lively

vicarious, VIABLE, VITALITY

vocere, VOC, VOK

to call, voice

vocal, invoke, revoke, PROVOCATIVE

vocatum, VOCAT

to call, voice

vocation, convocation, vocative, ADVOCATE

vociforatus

to cry out

VOCIFEROUS, vociferate

vocitus, vacare

to be empty

void, vacant

voluntas

free will

VOLUNTARY, VOLUNTEER

volvere, volutum

to turn

revolve, devolve, revolt, voluble

vorere

to eat, devour

VORACIOUS, carnivore, omnivorous

vocalis, vox, VOC

voice

vocal, vocalise

volare

to fly

VOLATILE

volo, VOL

to wish, towill

VOLUNTARY, VOLITION

volumen

a roll, scroll

volume, VOLUMINOUS

votum, VOT

promise, wish, vow

vote, votive, vow

vox

voice

voice, vocal, VOCALISE

vulgus

the common crowd, rabble

vulgar, vulgarize, VULGARIAN

vulnerare

to wound

vulnerable

 

5. Greek Prefixes

Prefix

Meaning

Examples

A-, AN-

not, without

apolitical, anoxia, amoral, ATYPICAL

ACRO-

top, end

acrobat

ALLO-

other

ALLOCATE

AMB-, AMPHI-

around

amphitheater, ambit, AMBIANCE

AMB-, AMPH-

both, more than one

amphibious, AMBIGUOUS, AMBIVALENT

ANA-, AN-

up, back, again, similar to

anadromous, anagram, analogy

ANDRO-, ANDR-

human, male

androgynous, android

ANTI-, ANT-

instead, against

antacid, antisocial, antipodes, ANTIPATHY

APO-, AP-

away, from, off, utterly

apogee, APOCRYPHAL, apostasy

ARCHAE-

ancient

archaeology

AUTO-

self

automatic, autocrat, AUTONOMY

BI-

two, twice

bipolar, biannual, bigamy, BILATERAL

CACO-

bad

CACOPHONY

CATA-, CAT-

down, down from, against

catacomb, catapult, CATASTROPHE

DECA-

ten

decade

DERMAT-

skin

dermatitis

DEUTERO-

second, farther

Deuteronomy

DIA-, DI-

through, across

diagram, dialysis, DIALECT, dialogue

DIS-, DI-

two, through, across

dilemma, dissect

DYS-

bad, difficult, faulty

dysfunctional (ill-, un-, mis-)

EC-, EX-

out, from, off

exit

ECO-

environment, habitat

ecosphere, ecosystem, ecotype

ECTO-

on the outside, without

ectoderm, ectomorphic

EN-, EM-

in, into

energy

ENDO-

within, inside, internal

endocrine, endocranium

ENNEA-

nine

ennead

EPI-, EP-

upon, at, over, near

epicenter, EPISODE, epidermis

ESO-

inward, within

esorteric, esotropia

EU-

good, well

EUPHONY, euphemism, eugenics, euphoria

EXO-

outside, external

exoteric, exclude

HECATO-

hundred

hecatomb

HEMI

half

hemisphere

HEPTA-

seven

heptagon

HETERO-

unlike, other

heterogeneous, HETERODOXY

HEXA-

six

hexagon

HIER-

sacred

HIEROGLYPHICS

HOLO-

whole

holistic

HOMEO-

like, similar

HOMEOPATHY, HOMEOSTASIS

HOMO-

like, similar

homogeneous, homonym

HYPER-

over, above, beyond

hyperactive, HYPERBOLE

HYPO-

under, less than

HYPOCRITE, hypodermic, HYPOTHETICAL

IDIO-

individual

IDIOSYNCRASY

IDEO-

idea

ideologue

ISO-

equal

isometric, isobar

KILO-

thousand

kilogram, Kilohertz

MACRO-

large

macroscopic

MEGA-, MEGALO-

large

megaton, megalopolis, MEGALOMANIA

MESO-

middle

Mesolithic, mesoderm

META-

among, between, beyond

metathesis, metaphysical

MICRO-

small

microscopic

MONO-

one

monorail

MYRIAD-

ten thousand

MYRIAD

NEO-

new

neoclassical

OCTO-

eight

octogenarian, octopus

OLIG-

few

oligarchy

ORTHO-

straight, regular, upright

orthopedic, orthogenesis

PALEO-

ancient

Paleolithic

PALIN-, PALI-

back, again, backwards

palindrome

PAN-

all

pandemic, panorama, PANACEA, Pan-American

PARA-

beside, beyond, near, incorrectly, resembling

paragraph, paranormal, PARADOX, PARADIGM

PACHY-

thick

pachyderm

PENTA-

five

pentagon, pentagram

PERI-

around, about

perimeter, PERIPHERY, perihelion, perigee

POLY-

many

polychromatic, polyglot, polygamy

PRO-

before, forward, for

procrastinate

PROS-

to, toward, besides

prosenchyma

PROTO-

first

prototype, protoplasm

PSEUDO-

false

PSEUDONYM

SCHIZO-

cleave, cut, split

schizophrenia

SYN-, SYM-, SYS-

together, with

symmetric, SYNOPSIS, SYNTHESIS

TAUTO-

same

tautological

TELE-

far, distant

telephone, telegraph

TELEO-

end, result

teleology

TETRA-

four

tetrameter

TRI-

three

trimester

 

6. Greek Suffixes

Suffix

Meaning

Examples

-AC, -IAC

pertaining to

cardiac, hypochondriac

-AGIA, -ALGIA

pain

neuralgia

-AST

one who does

dicast

-CRACY

government

democracy

-CLASM

destruction

iconoclasm

-EMIA

condition of the blood

anemia

-GENESIS

creation, formation

parthenogenesis

-GENIC

suitable

photogenic

-GRAM

record

electrocardiogram

-GRAPH

written

monograph, telegraph

-GRAPHY

process/method of writing

photography, calligraphy

-IA, -Y

act, state of

polity, EUPHORIA, dyslexia

-IATRICS

treatment of disease

pediatrics

-IATRY

healing

psychiatry

-IC

pertaining to, one who

DOGMATIC, aristocratic

-ICAL

pertaining to, made of

political, angelical

-IC, -ICE

art, science, study of

politics

-INE

used to form feminine nouns

heroine

-ITE

inhabitant of, product

sybarite, Lucite

-ITIS

inflammation

tendonitis, bronchitis, neuritis

-ISE, -IZE

to make to give

PROSELYTIZE, sanitize

-ISK, -ISCUS

little

asterisk

-ISM

the belief in, profession of

hylozoism, euphemism, baptism

-IST

one who believes in

Platonist

LATRY

worship of

idolatry

-LITE, -LITH

stone

megalith

LOGUE

manner of speaking

monologue

LOGY

science or study of

geology

-LYSIS

loosening

analysis

-MA, -M, -ME

result of

dogma, theorem, theme

-MANCY

prophecy

necromancy

-MANIA

madness for

pyromania

-METER

to measure

centimeter

-OID

resembling, like, shaped

humanoid, android

-OLOGY

science or study of

geology

-OMA

tumor

melanoma

-ORAMA

view

panorama

-OSIS

abnormal condition

halitosis

-PATHY

feeling, disease

ANTIPATHY, osteopathy

-PHILIA

love, affinity for

Anglophilia, homophilia

-PHILIC

love, affinity for

audiophilic

-PHOBIA

fear of

claustrophobia

-PHOR

that which carries

metaphor

-PHORIA

production of

EUPHORIA

-PHOROUS

producing

phosphorous

-POLY

sale, selling

monopoly

-SCOPE

instrument for visual exam

telescope, microscope

-SIS

act, state of

metamorphosis

-THERAPY

to nurse, care for

hydrotherapy

-TIC

pertaining to

STATIC, enigmatic

-Y

state of being

ANTIPATHY

 

7. Greek Number Forms

Prefix

Meaning

Examples

MONO-

one

monogram

BI-

two

bipolar

TRI-

three

trimester, tricycle

TETRA-

four

tetrameter

PENTA-

five

pentagon

HEXA-

six

hexagon

HEPTA-

seven

heptagon

OCTO-

eight

octogenarian

ENNEA-

nine

ennead

DECA-

ten

decade

HECATO-

hundred

hecatomb

KILO-

thousand

kilogram

MYRIAD-

ten thousand

myriad

MEGA-

one million

Megahertz, megabyte

 

8. Greek Base Words

Word

Meaning

Examples

acro

tip, top, apex

acropolis, acrophobia

aesth, AESTH

feeling

AESTHETICS

aer, AER

lower air

aerobic, aerodynamic

aden

gland

adrenal

agogos, AGOG

leader

DEMAGOGUE, pedagogic

agon, AGON

contest, struggle

antagonist, agony

agro, agros

field, earth, soil

agriculture, agronomy

aigis

goatskin cloak; shield

AEGIS

akme

top point

acme

algia

pain

neuralgia

allos, ALLO

other

allotropic, allomorph, allopathic, allogamy

anthropos, ANTHROP

man, stamen

anthropomorphic

anemo

wind

anemometer, anemophilous

athl

prize

decathlon

ainigma

riddle

ENIGMA, enigmatic

anthropos

man

anthropology

archos, ARCH

chief, first, rule

monarch, archangel, archipelago, ANARCHY

archaeo, archaios

ancient, old

archaeology, archeozoic

aristo, aristos

best

aristocracy, aristocrat

arithmos

number

arithmetic

askein

exercised, austere

ASCETIC

aster, astro, ASTR

star

astronomy, astronaut, astral

atmos

steam, vapor

atmosphere

auto, autos, AUTO

self

autoimmune, autobiography

axioma

authority, to think worthy

AXIOM

ballein, BAL

throw

ball, ballistics

baro, baros, BAR

weight, pressure

barometer, barograph

barbaros

foreign, barbarian

BARBARIC, barbarous

barys

heavy

hyperbaric

bat, BAT

go

acrobat

batho, BATHO

depth

bathysphere

biblos, BIBLIO, BIBL

book

bibliography, bible

bios, BIO

life

biography, bionics, biopsy

blasphemein

speak evil of

BLASPHEMY

caco

bad, poor, evil

CACOPHONY

CAUT, CAUST

burn

cauterize, CAUSTIC

center

center

center

cephal

head

encephalitis

chiro, CHIR

hand

chiropractor, criropter

chroma

color

monochromatic

chronos, CHRON

time

chronicle, CHRONOLOGY, SYNCHRONIZE

CLIN

lean

incline, thermocline

cosmos, COSM

order, world

cosmology, cosmic

CRAT, CRAS

type of government

bureaucrat, theocracy, democracy

CRIT

judge

criticize

crypto, CRYPT

hide, conceal

ENCRYPTION, CRYPTOGRAM

cyclos, CYCLE

circle, wheel

bicycle, cyclorama

Cynicus

a Greek philosopher

CYNIC, cynicism

deleisthai, deleterios

destroyer, harmful

DELETERIOUS

demos, DEM, DEMO

the people

ENDEMIC, demographic, democrat

dendron

tree

dendroid

derma, DERM

skin

dermatology, hypodermic, endodermic

diatribe

a wearing away

DIATRIBE

didakikos

apt at speaking

DIDACTICS

didonai, dosis

give

dose, dosage

doxo, DOX

belief, opinion

ORTHODOX, HETERODOXY, doxology

dran, DRA

to do, act

DRAMATIZE

DROM

running course

aerodrome

dynamis, DYN

force, power

dynamic, dynamo, dyne

eidyllion

form, figure, image

idyll, IDYLLIC

eirene

peace

IRENIC

eiron

dissemble in speech

irony, IRONIC, ironical

eklegein

to select, pick out

ECLECTIC

elektron, ELECTRO

amber (electric)

electron

ekleipsis

a defect, fall short

ellipsis, elliptical, ELLIPSE

enkomion

hymn to a victor

ENCOMIUM

ENTOM

insect

entomology

EP

word

epigraph

ephemeros

for the day, shortlived

EPHEMERAL, ephemeris, ephemeron

episteme

knowledge

EPISTEMOLOGY

ergon, ERG

work, deed

ergonomic

esoteikos

inner

ESOTERIC

esthesia

feel sensation

anesthesia, AESTHETICS

ETHER

upper air

ETHEREAL

ethnos, ETHN

nation, people

ethnic

ethos, ETH

character, moral

ethos, ethical

ETYM

root

etymology

exo

outside

exocarp

galakt

milk

galactic

gamos, GAM

marriage

polygamy, monogamy

gastro

belly, stomach

gastric, gastritis

geno, GEN

kind, type, race

gender, Genesis

ge, GEO

earth

geography, geodesic, geometry, apogee

glossal, GLOT

language

polyglot, glossary, monoglot

GLYPH

carving

HIEROGLYPHICS, petroglyph

GNO, GNOS

know

diagnosis, ignore, incognito, cognitive

GON

angle

polygon, pentagon

gonos

to produce

cosmogony, theogony

gramma, gram

written, drawn

telegram, lithography

graphein, GRAM

write, record

telegram

graphein, GRAPH

write, record

graphic

GYN

woman

gynecology, MISOGYNY

hedonikos

pleasure

hedonic, HEDONISTIC, hedonism

hedra, hedron

side, base

hexahedral, polyhedron

hemi

half

hemisphere

hemo, hema, HEM

blood

hemoglobin, hemorrhage, hemotoma

homos, HOMO

one and the same

homonym, homogeneous, homosexual

helios, HELIO

sun

heliocentric, heliotropic, aphelion

helix, HELIC

spiral

helix, helicoid

hemisus, hemi

half

hemisphere

hiero

sacred, holy

HIEROGLYPHIC

hippos, HIPP

horse

hippodrome

histanai, STA, STE

stand

STATIC

hybris

exaggerated pride

HUBRIS

hydor, HYDR

water

hydrotherapy, hydrology, hydroponics

hypno

sleep

hypnosis, hypnotoxin

hypocrita

stage actor

HYPOCRITE, HYPOCRISY

ICON

image

icon

ICTHY

fish

ichthyology

ideo

idea

ideogram

iris, IRID

rainbow, iris

IRIDESCENT

isos, ISO

equal, alike

isometric, isotope

k(c)ine, KINE, CINE

movement

kinesthetic, cinema

k(c)ardia), CARD

heart

cardiac

k(c)lastes

breaker, broken

ICONOCLAST

K(C)LINO, CLI

to bend, slant

inclination, declination, decline, recline

k(c)oma

deep sleep

comatose

k(c)ranion

skull

cranial

k(c) risis, CRIT

to sift, separate

crisis, criterion, critic, critical

K(C)RYPTO

hidden

crypt, CRYPTIC, cryptography

lakon

a Lanconian, Spartan

LACONIC

laos

the people

laity, laic, liturgy

latreia

service, worship

idolatry

legein

to choose, pick

LOGIC

lemma

proposition

DILEMMA

lithos, LITH

stone

megalith

logos, LOG

word, reason, study

monologue, logic

lysis

loosen

analysis, electrolysis

macros, macro

enlarged

macrocosm

malagma

an emollient

AMALGAM

mania

madness

pyromania, kleptomania

mega

large, powerful

megalith

megalo

great, enlarged

megalomania

metron, METER

measure

metric, geometrical, thermometer

micros, micro

small

microcosm

mimos, MIM

imitate

mime, MIMIC

misein, MIS, MISO

hate

MISANTHROPE, misogynist

mnem

 

memory, mnemonic

monos

one, alone

monocle, monosyllable

MORPH

form, shape

amorphous, metamorphosis

mucus, muco

slime

mucous

mytho

myth

mythological

naus, nautes, NAU

ship, sailor

nautical, astronaut

necro

death, corpse

necropolis

neos, NEO

new, young

NEOPHYTE, neologism

neuron, neuro

nerve

neurology, neuritis

nom

rule

ANOMALY, ANOMALOUS

nomos

law, science

astronomer

nostos

a return

NOSTALGIA

oasis

fertile spot

OASIS

od

path

exodus

odont

tooth

odontoid, odontology

oikos

house

ecology

oikonomia

household management

economy, ECONOMICAL

oligio

few, scant, small

oligarchy

onoma, ONYM

name

acronym, homonym, ANONYMOUS

opsis, optic

sight, view, eye

optician, optical, SYNOPSIS, SYNOPTIC

ophthalmo

eye

ophthalmologist

ornis, ORNITH

bird

ornithology

oro

mountain

orology

orthos

right, correct

orthogenesis

OSTEO

bone

osteopath

pais, paidos

child

pediatric

paleo

ancient, early

Paleolithic

panegyris

public meeting

PANEGYRIC

pas, PAN, PANT

all, entire, every

panoply, PANDEMONIUM, pantheon

pater, PATR

father

patrician, patron, paternal, patriarch

PATH

disease

PATHOLOGY, PATHOGEN

pathos, PATHO

feeling, suffering

EMPATHY, ANTIPATHY, SYMPATHY

ped, PED

child, instruction

pediatric, encyclopedia, PEDAGOGUE

pelagos

sea

pelagic

periphos

moving around

periphery, PERIPHERAL

petros, PETR

rock, stone

petrified

phago, PHAG

eat, eating

phagocyte, esophagus

PHAN

show, make appear

phantom, fantasy, emphasis

philanthropia

love of mankind

PHILANTHROPY

philos, PHIL

love, tendency

philharmonic, philately, philosophy, bibliophile

phobos, PHOB

fear, flight

zoophobia

phone, PHON

voice, sound

phonograph, telephone, EUPHONY, CACOPHONY

phos, PHOT

light

photograph

phylo, PHYLL

leaf

chlorophyll

physica, PHYS

nature

physical, physician, physics, METAPHYSICS

plasm, plast

shape, substance

plasma, plastic

plethore

to be full

PLETHORA

PLUT

wealth

plutocrat

pneuma, PNEUM

wind, spirit

pneumatic

pneumon

lung

pneumonia

POD

foot

podiatrist

polemikos, polemos

a war

POLEMIC

polit, polis

city

cosmopolitan, metropolitan

polys

many

polynomial

prattein, PRAG

do

PRAGMATIC, pragmatism

poblema

to throw forward

problem, PROBLEMATIC

protos, PROTO

first

prototype, proton, protozoa

pseudes, PSEUDO

false

pseudoscience, pseudointellectual

psyche, PSYCH

mind, soul

parapsychology, psychosis

ptero

feather, wing

pterosaur

pyro, pur, PYR

fire

pyrotechnics, pyromaniac

RHEA, RHAG

flow, gush, break

diarrhea, hemorrhage

rhis, RHIN

nose

rhinology, rhinoscope

rhiza

root

rhizoid, rhizome

schisma, SCHIS, SCHIZ

cleave, split

schism, schist, schizophrenic

scopos

to watch, see

telescope

seismo

earthquake

seismic

SEPT

poison, from rot

septic

SKEP, SCOP

examine, look at

SKEPTICAL, scope

SOMA

body

SOMATIC

sophos, SOPH

wise

sophisticated, sophomoric, sophist

sperma, SPERM

seed

sperm

sphero

sphere, ball

atmosphere, spheroid

STAT

stand

status, ELECTROSTATIC

stizein, STIG

mark, tattoo

STIGMA

stoa

porch

Stoicism, STOIC, stoical

STROPH

turn

catastrophe

TACT, TAX

arrangement

tactics, syntax

TAPH

tomb

EPITAPH

techne, TECH

art, craft, skill

technical, tectonic, technocrat, technician

TELE

far away

telemetry, telescope

temno, tomos

cut, cut off

appendectomy, lobotomy

tetra

four

tetrarch

thanatos

death

thanatopis, thanatology, EUTHANASIA

theos, THEO

god

THEOLOGY, atheist, theocracy

THERAP

cure

therapeutic

thermos, THERM

heat, warm, hot

thermometer, thermodynamics, thermograph

thesis

position

SYNTHESIS, thesis

thorax

body

thorax

temnein, TOM

cut

appendectomy, tome, epitome, DICHOTOMY

tonos, TON

tone

monotone, TONIC

topo, TOP

place

topography, topic

TOX

poison

toxic

tracheia, tracheo

windpipe

tracheotomy

TROP

respond to

trophy

TROPH

nourish

ATROPHY

typos

type, model

typify, typical, typical, atypical

xenos, xeno

stranger

xenophobia, xenophilia, xenial

zelos

ardor, zeal

ZEALOUS, zealot

zoo, ZO

animal

zoo, zoology

 

9. Greek, Latin, French, Italian, Spanish, German phrases and words

One of the most creative aspects of the English language is the absorbsion of foreign words and phrases. Quite often there are no precise English words to describe some particular thing or action so that expression or word is taken as is from the French, Italian and Latin language. English has also taken many words from literature and mythology. These words are included here for your information and education. You may not see many of them on the vocabulary section of the SAT, but you will see them in your reading and be expected to understand and use them in your college writing.

Ab Ovo (From the egg) From the beginning.

Ad hoc (To this) For this special purpose. For a special case only without general application.

Ad lib ad libitum ( it pleases) At pleasure; as one pleases. To improvise spontaneously; spoken or done extemporaneously.

Ad hominem (To the man) Appealing to ones prejudices rather than reason.

Ad infinitum (To infinity) Endlessly; forever; without limit.

Ad nauseam To the point of disgust; to a sickening degree.

Adonis A very handsome young man. Adonis was the youth loved by Aphrodite in Greek mythology

Affaire d’ amour A love affair.

Affaire de coeur Affair of the heart; a love affair.

Affaire d honneur An affair of honor; a duel.

Aficionado A devoted follower of some sport; a devotee.

A’ haute voix (In high voice) Aloud.

A’ la carte All menu items are priced separately.

A la francaise In the French manner.

A la mode In the fashion of; stylish.

A la morte (to the death) Seriously ill; dejected; mortally.

Al dente (to the tooth) Firm to the bite: chewy.

Al fresco (In the cool) In the open air.

Alma mater (FOSTER mother) The college or school that one attended; it’s official anthem or hymn.

Alpha and Omega (First and last letters of the Greek alphabet) The beginning and the end. The be all and end all.

Amor Patriae Love of ones’ country; patriotism.

Animus (Soul, mind, passion) An animating force or underlying purpose; intention.

Anno Domini (A.D.) In the year of the Lord. Used to indicate that a time division falls within the Christian era.

Ante diluvian Before the Bibical flood. Extremely old; old fashioned or primitive.

Ante meridian (AM) Before noon.

Ante mortem Made or done just before ones’ death.

A posteriori (From what comes later) From effect to cause, or from particular instances to a generalization; Empirical. Opposed to a priori.

A priori From cause to effect or from a generalization to particular instances; deductively. Opposed to a posteriori.

Apropos (English spelling), ƒ propos (French spelling) At the right time; fitting the occasion; RELEVANT. Apropos of-; in connection with.

Aqua vitae (Water of life) Brandy or strong liquor.

Arriviste A person who has recently gained power, wealth and success and is regarded as an upstart; PARVENU.

Ars longa, vita brevis Art is long, life is short.

Ars poetica The art of poetry.

Au courant Informed, up to date.

Au contraire On the contrary.

Au naturel In the natural state; nude.

Au pair An arrangement in which services are exchanged on an even basis.

Avant garde The leaders in new or UNCONVENTIONAL movements, especially in the arts. Vanguard.

A votre sant¾ To your health. A toast in drinking.

Bacchanal A devotee of Bacchus, the Greek god of wine. A wild, uninhibited and drunken orgy.

Banal Dull or stale because of overuse. TRITE; HACKNEYED

Bas-relief Sculpture in which figures are carved in a flat surface so that they project only a little from the background.

Belles-letters Literature as one of the fine arts.

BÃ te noire (Black beast) A person or thing feared, disliked and avoided.

Billet-doux A love letter.

Bistro A small wine shop, restaurant, nightclub or bar.

Blasé Bored from overindulgence.

Bonbon A small piece of candy

Bon homie Good nature; a pleasant, affable manner.

Bon mot (Good word) An apt, clever or witty remark.

Bon vivant A person who enjoys good food, good wine and good times.

Bon voyage Pleasant journey; a farewell to a traveler.

Bona fide Made in good faith; the real thing.

Boutique A small shop where fashionable expensive clothes and other items are sold.

Bourgeois A person whose beliefs, attitudes and practices are conventionally middle class. CONVENTIONAL;smug; materialistic.

Boutonniere A flower worn in a lapel buttonhole.

Bowdlerize To expunge a book by omitting or modifing parts considered vulgar. To modify by abridging, simplifying, or distorting in style or content. From Thomas Bowdler, an 18th century Englishman who tried to expurgate the works of Shakespeare.

Boycott To engage in a concerted refusal to have any dealings with a person, store or organization as a form of protest and coercion. Charles C. Boycott was a English land agent in Ireland who refused to lower rents.

Braggadocio A braggart. Vain, noisy boasting.

Bravado Pretended courage or defiant confidence where there is little or none.

Bravura A bold attempt or display of daring; dash.

Carte blanche (White card) i.e. A paper bearing only a signature, allowing the beared to fill in conditions. Full authority.

Cassandra A daughter of Priam endowded with the gift of prophecy but fated never to be believed. One who predicts misfortune or disaster.

Causus belli (An occurrence of war) An event provoking war or the used as a pretext for making war.

Cause c¾ lÀ bre A celebrated law case, trial or controversy. Popular cause or issue.

Caveat emptor (Buyer beware) One buys at his own risk.

Charg¾ d’affaires A diplomatic official sent to a foreign nation to represent his government.

Chauvinism Excessive or blind patriotism. Undue partiality or attachment to a group or place to which one belongs. An attitude of superiority towards members of the opposite sex. From Nicholas Chauvin, a character noted for his excessive patriotism and devotion to Napoleon in the French play La Cocarde Tricolore.

Chiaroscuro (Italian for clear dark) From the Latin clarus-clear + obscurus-dark. The treatment of light and shade in a painting or drawing to produce the illusion of depth. Sometimes used to describe a personality that’s a bit two sided.

Chimera A fire-breathing she-monster in Greek mythology having a lion’s head, a goat’s body, and a serpent’s tail. An illusion or fabrication of the mind; an unrealizable dream.

Cinematheque A place where early avante-garde motion pictures are collected and shown.

Circa (c.) About. Used to identify a period of time when the exact date is unknown.

Circe In Homer’s Odessey, an enchantress who turned men into pigs.

Comme il faut As it should be; proper; fitting

Commedia del l’arte A type of Italian comedy with stereotyped plot, improvised dialogue and stock characters.

CONNOISSEUR A person who has expert knowledge and ken discrimination in some field, especially the fine arts or in matters of taste.

Corps de ballet The ensemble of a ballet company.

Corpus delicti (Body of the crime) The facts constituting or proving a crime.

Coup de gr­ce Death blow; a finishing stroke.

Coup d’¾ tat The sudden, forcible overthrow of a government; coup.

Couture The business of designing new fashions in womans’ clothes.

Crème de la crème The best of the best.

Crescendo A gradual increase in loudness or intensity.

Croix de guerre A French military decoration for bravery in action.

Cui bono? Who benefits? Who stands to gain? An assumption that the person who benefits the most might have committed the crime or questionable act.

Cuisine The style of cooking. Manner of preparing food.

Cul-de-sac A passage or position with only one exit. A blind alley. A situation from which there is no escape.

Culpa Fault; guilt; NEGLIGENCE

Cum laude With praise; Graduarion with honors.

Curriculum vitae (C.V.) (Course of life) A complete summary of ones personal history and professional qualifications as submitted by a job applicant. Much more detailed than a resume.

Déclassé Lowered in social status.

Decolletage The neckline or top of a dress cut low so as to bear the neck and shoulders thereby revealing cleavage.

De facto Existing or being such in actual fact though not by legal establishment or official recognition.

De jure By right or legal establishment.

Déjà vu (Already seen) The illusion that one has previously had an experience that is actually new to one.

Delirium tremens A violent delirium with hallucinations resulting chiefly from excessive drinking.

De marche A line of action; move or countermove.

Denouement The outcome, solution,or unraveling of a plot in a drama or story; any final revelation or outcome.

De profundis From the deepest sorrow or misery.

Détente A lessing of tension or hostilities between nations through treaties and trade agreements.

De rigueur Required by custom or fashion; indispensible

Deus ex machina In ancient Greek and Roman plays, a deity brought in by stage machinery to intervene in the action. Any unconvincing character or event brought artificially into the plot of a story to settle an involved situation in a quick and easy manner.

Dishabille The state of being only partially dressed, or in night clothing.

Dolce vita (Sweet life) A casual way of life.

Doppelganger (doppel- double + ganger-goer) A ghostly counterpart of a living person; a double; alter ego; a person who has the same name as another.

Double-entendre A term with two meanings where one of them has a risque or INDECOROUS connotation.

Draconian Characteristic of Draco or his severe code of laws. A cruel, harsh punishment. From Draco, a particularly harsh Athenian lawgiver.

‹clat Brilliant or CONSPICUOUS success.

Élan Spirited self assurance; verve; dash; PANACHE.

Embarras de richesses An embarrassment of wealth. Too much to choose from.

Émigré A person forced to flee his country for political reasons.

‹minence grise A person who wields great power and influence, but secretely or unofficially.

Enamor To fill with love and charm.

Enfranchise To free from slavery; to admit to citizenship; the right to vote. Disenfranchise, or disfranchise means to deprive one of the rights of citizenship,or the right to vote; to deprive of a privilege, right or power.

En garde In fencing, the opening position from which one may attack or defend. Usually given to warn someone to defend themselves prior to attacking them.

Entourage A group of associates or attendants; retinue.

E pluribus unum Out of many, one. The motto of the U.S.

Esprit de corps Group spirit; sense of pride and honor shared by those in the same group.

Et alii (et al.) And others.

Et cetera (etc.) And others; and the like; and the rest; and so forth. Note: Using etc. in formal writing is inappropriate. In general, you should rewrite to avoid its use and never ever write "and etc."

Etceteras Additional things; customary extras.

Et sequens (et seq.) And following.

Ex cathedra With the authority that comes from one’s rank or office.

Exempli gratia (e.g.) For example.

Ex officio By virtue of one’s office or position.

Ex post facto Done or made afterwards, especially when having retroactive effect.

Extempore Without preparation; offhand.

Fait accompli (An accomplished fact) A thing already done so that opposition or argument is useless.

Falsetto A very high pitched male voice.

Fauna The animals of a specified region or time.

Flora The plants of a specified region or time.

Faux pas (False step) A social blunder; error in etiquette; tactless act or remark.

Femme fatale An alluring woman, especially one who leads men to their downfall or ruin.

Fiasco A complete failure.

Fin de siÀcle (End of the century) Formerly used to refer to progressive ideas and customs, but now generally used to indicate decadence.

Forte The thing that a person does particulary well.

Gauche Left handed; clumsy; or INEPT.

Habeas corpus An order requiring that a detained person be brought before a court at a stated time and place to decide the legality of his detention. This law safeguards one against illegal detention or imprisonment.

Habitu¾ A person who frequents a certain place or places.

Halcyon Calm, peaceful prosperous times. A bird identified with the kingfisher and held in ancient times to nest at sea at the time of the Winter solstice and calm the waves.

Haut mond¾ High society.

Herculean Of or relating to Hercules, a mythical Greek hero renowned for his great strength. Requiring extraordinary power or strength.

Hermetic Relating to the Gnostic writings of Hermes Trismegistus, a legendary author of works embodying magical, astrological, and alchemical doctrines. Relating to occultism or abstruseness; recondite. Also the belief that he invented a magic seal to keep vessels airtight. Impervious to external influence.

Homo sapiens Modern man; mankind; human being.

Hors de combat Put out of action; disabled.

Hors d’oeuvres Appetizers; canapes; party snacks.

Hydra A many headed monster in Greek mythology slain by Hercules. A multifarious evil not overcome by a single effort.

Ibidem (ibid) In the same place. Used in refering to the book, or page previously cited.

Ide¾ fixe A fixed idea; obsession.

Idem The same as that previously mentioned.

Id est (i.e.) That is (to say.)

Idiot savant (Wise idiot.) A mentally retarded person who possesses some remarkable special aptitude for music, memorization or rapid mental calculation.

Ignoratio elenchi The fallacy of irrelevant conclusion or missing the point where a proposition other than the one at issue is established by appel to emotion.

Imbroglio An involved and confusing situation. A confused misunderstanding or disagreement.

Impasse Dead end. An argument where no agreement is possible; deadlock.

In Absentia (In Absence) Although not present.

Infra dig(nitatem) Beneath one’s dignity.

In flagrant delicto In the act of commiting the offense; red-handed.

Ingénue An innocent, naïve young woman. An actress playing such a role in the theater.

Imprimature License or permission to publish or print a book, or article. Specifically such permission as granted by an ecclesiastical order.

IMPROMPTU Without preparation or advanced thought.

Incognito With true identity unrevealed or disguised; under an assumed name.

In memoriam In memory of.

Innuendo An indirect remark, gesture or reference, usually implying something derogatory; an insinuation.

Insouciance Calm and unbothered; carefree; INDIFFERENT.

Ipso facto By the very fact.

In perpetuum Forever.

Inter alia Among other things.

Inter alias Among other persons.

Inter nos Between ourselves.

Interregnum An interval between two successive reigns when the country has no sovereign.

In vino veritas In wine there is truth. Alcohol relaxes inhibitions and allows people to speak their minds freely.

Jejune Lacking nutritive value. Devoid of significance or intrest; dull. Juvenile and puerile in regard to life and art.

J’accuse (I accuse) Any strong accusation or denunciation.

Joie de vivre Joy of living; zestful enjoyment of life.

Junoesque A woman marked by stately beauty. From Juno, the Roman goddess of light, birth, women and marriage and the wife of Jupiter.

Junta A small military ruling group responsible for the overthrow of the previous government rulers.

Laissez faire The policy of letting people act without interference or direction.

Lilliputian Small, miniture; petty. An undersized individual. Relating to the Lilliputians or the island of Lilliput, an island in Swift’s book, Gulliver’s Travels where the inhabitants are six inches tall.

Loco citato (loc. cit.) In the place cited.

Lothario A man whose chief interest is seducing women. A seduced in the play The Fair Penitent by Nicholas Rowe.

Machiavellian Of or relating to Niccolo Machiavelli, author of The Prince, and suggesting his principles of conduct emphasising cunning, duplicity and bad faith. Machiavellianism is his view that politics is amoral and that any means, however unscrupulous, can justifiably be used in achieving political power.

Macho A strong virile man; masculine, manly.

Magna cum laude With great praise. Signifies graduation with high honors.

Magnum opus A great work, especially of art or literature; masterpiece. A person’s greatest work or undertaking.

Maitre d Headwaiter.

Malaise A vague feeling of physical discomfort or uneasiness, as early in an illness.

Mal de mer Seasickness.

Martinet A strict militaristic disciplinarian. From Jean Martinet, a 19th century French General.

Maverick An unbranded range animal; a motherless calf. An independent individual who does not go along with the group. A nonconformist. Taken from Samuel Maverick, a 19th century Texas rancher who did not brand his calfs.

Mea culpa Through my fault

Mélange A mixture or medley; hodgepodge.

Mercurial Relating to Mercury, the Roman god of travel and cunning. Having qualities of eloquence, ingenuity or thievishness attributed to the god Mercury. Rapid and unpredictable changeableness of mood.

Modus operandi Mode of operation. A way of doing or making; any established procedure.

Modus vivendi Manner of living or of getting along.

Mores Folkways that are considered conductive to the welfare of society and so, through general observance, develop the force of law, often becoming part of the formal legal code.

Ménage ´ trois An arrangement by which a married couple and the lover of one of them live together.

Mot juste The right word; the exact appropriate word or phrase.

Motif A main element, idea,or feature to be elaborated on or developed in art, music or literature.

Narcissistic Narcissus was a beautiful youth in Greek mythology who pines away for love of his own reflection and is turned into the narcissus flower. Self-absorbed and exceedingly vain.

Nemesis Nemesis was the Greek god of retributive justice. One that inflicts retribution or vengeance. A formidable opponent.

Noblesse oblige Honorable behavior expected of someone of high birth or rank.

Nolo contendere (I do not wish to contend.) Acceptance of the facts in an indictment, as opposed to a formal plea of guilty, on which a judge would pass judgment.

Non compos mentis (Not of sound mind.) Legally insane or incompetent.

Nom de plume Pen name; pseudonym. A false name used to hide an authors true identity

Nom de guerre A pseudonym. False name used in under cover operations.

Non sequitur A conclusion or inference which does not follow from the premises. A remark having no bearing on what was just said.

Nota bene (n.b.) Note well. Take particular notice.

Nouveau riche A person who has only recently become rich; often connoting tasteless ostentation and lack of culture.

Odyssey In Homer’s poem the Odyssey, Odysseus was the king of Ithaca and leader of the Greeks in the Trojan War, who after the war wanders 10 years before reaching home. A long wandering or voyage usually marked by many changes of fortune. An intellectual or spiritual quest.

Opere citato (op. cit.) In the work previously cited.

Outr¾ Eccentric; bizarre

Par excellence In the greatest degree of excellence; beyond comparison; preeminently; the epitome of something.

Parvenu A person who has suddenly acquired wealth or power, especially one who is not fully accepted socially by the class into which he has risen; upstart.

Per Contra On the contrary; By way of contrast; As an offset

Per se By or in itself; intrinsically.

Personna The characters of a drama, play or novel. The outer personality or FAÇADE presented to others by an individual.

PiÀ ce de résistance The principle dish of a meal. The main item or event. An outstanding accomplishment.

Prima facie At first sight; on first view. Evidence adequate to establish a fact or raise a PRESUMPTION of fact unless refuted.

Post meridiem (PM) After noon.

Post scriptum (P.S.) Postscript. A note added below the signature line of a letter as an afterthought.

Pro bono publico (For the public good.) Free legal representation for a beneficial cause.

Pro forma As a matter of form or custom.

Pro se (For himself.) Representing oneself in court rather than retaining a lawyer.

Pro tempore (pro tem) Temporarily

Prot¾ g¾ A person guided and helped, especially in the furtherance of his career, by another more influential person.

Provocateur Agitator; revolutionary.

Quasi As if; in a sense or manner; seamingly; in part; i.e. A quasi scholar. A quasi intellectual.

Qui vive? Who goes there? A sentry’s challenge. On the qui vive.(on the look out; on alert.)

Quid pro quo One thing in return for another. Something equivalent; substitute.

Quixotic Blindly idealistic and romantic. From the main character in Cervante’s Don Quixote de la Mancha.

Quod erat demonstratum (QED) Which was to be demonstrated or proved.

Quod vide (q.v.) Which see.

Raison d etre Reason for being.

Rapprochement Establishing or restoring harmony and friendly relations.

Recherch¾ Rare; choice; uncommon. Having refinement or studied elegance. Too refined; too studied

Repartee A quick, witty reply. A series of such rejoinders.

Respondez s’il vous plaÐ t (RSVP) Please reply. Usually found on formal invitations. The recipient is obligated to respond as to their acceptance. Whether you plan on accepting or not, you must let the host know either way as soon as possible but not later than the given date. To not respond or to say that you can’t accept and then to show up is as serious a breach of etiquette as responding affirmatively and then failing to attend.

Rosetta Stone A black basalt stone found in 1799 with both Egypian heiroglyphics and Greek writing, which enabled archiologists to translate Egypian heiroglyphics for the first time. Something that gives a clue to understanding.

Sadism To take delight in the cruel infliction of physical or mental pain on others. Named after the French nobleman the Marquis de Sade. Masochism is the infliction of pain on oneself for pleasure.

Sangfroid (Cold blood) Cool self-possession or composure.

Sanguine Of the color of blood; ruddy complexion. Cheerful and confident; optimistic; hopeful.

Saturnine Gloomy or taciturn. From the Roman god Saturn.

Savoir faire Ready knowledge of what to do or say, and of when and how to do or say it.

Semper fidelis Always faithful. Motto of the U.S. Marine Corps.

Sic So, thus. Intentionally as written. Used after a printed word or passage to indicate that it is intended exactly as printed or to indicate that it exactly reproduces an orginal, errors and all.

Sine die Without a day being set for meeting again. For an indefinite period.

Sine qua non An essential condition or qualification Indispensable thing; absolute prerequisite.

Sobriquet A nickname; an assumed name

Soup¸on A suspicion. A slight trace as of a flavor; hint; suggestion A tiny amount.

Soir¾e An evening party, or gathering.

Stentorian A person having a loud, deep voice. From Stentor, a Greek herald in the Trojan War noted for his loud voice.

Tabula Rasa Smooth Tablet. The mind in its hypothetical primary blank or empty state before receiving outside impressions. Something existing in its original pristine state.

Tantalize To tease or torment by presenting something desirable to the view, but continually keeping it out of reach. Tantalus was the king of Lydia condemned to stand up to the chin in a pool of water in Hades and beneath fruit ladden boughs only to have the water or fruit recede at each attempt to eat or drink.

Titanic Having great power, magnitude, or power. From the Titans, mythical giants who ruled the earth until overthrown by the Olympian gods. A titan is someone who stands out for greatness of achievement.

Status Quo The current state of affairs.

Sui generis Legally competent to manage one’s own affairs, because of legal age and sound mind.

Summa cum laude With the greatest praise. Signifies graduation with the highest honors.

Tà te-´ -tà te (Head to head) A private or intimate conversation between two people that excludes all others.

Tour de force An unusually skillful or ingenious creation, production or performance.

Vaunt-courier A soldier sent out in advance of an army; a scout; a forerunner; precursor

Versus (vs.) As against, in contrast to.

Vignette A short, delicate literary sketch.

VIRTUOSO A person displaying great technical skill in some fine art, especially music.

Vide infra (v.i.) See below

Videlicet (viz.) That is; namely

Vide supra (v.s.) See above.

Vis-à-vis (Face to face.) Opposite to. In comparison with or in relation to.

Zeitgeist The spirit of the age; trend of thought and feeling in a period.

 

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