Mycat分库分表实时同步到GreatSQL

原创
01/04 09:45
阅读数 213

这个事情怎么产生的

MyCat作为经典的分库分表中间件,在长时间内被广泛认为是管理超大MySQL数据库集合的有效解决方案。近来接到客户需求,需要将MyCat集群迁移到GreatSQL中,并且在一段时间内需要实时从MyCat中同步数据到GreatSQL中,全量同步数据比较容易操作,增量同步有如下两个棘手的问题:

  1. 多个server,不同的库名字,都要同步到GreatSQL一个库中,即同步关系如下
server1:db1.tab->gdb:db.tab;
server2:db2.tab->gdb:db.tab;
server3:db3.tab->gdb:db.tab;
  1. ddl同步多次执行会冲突。当MyCat的表中添加一个索引、添加一个字段时,实际上是后端所有db都会执行这个DDL,同步到GreatSQL时,多次执行DDL,复制会异常中断。

为了解决上面两个问题,经过查询资料,发现有两个不常用,官方也不建议使用的功能,刚好能够满足需求

  1. 为解决库名映射问题:需要在配置文件中添加参数
replicate_rewrite_db="channel_1:test_rep1->test_rep"
replicate_rewrite_db="channel_2:test_rep2->test_rep"
replicate_rewrite_db="channel_3:test_rep3->test_rep"
  1. 为了解决DDL同步后重复执行导致复制中断问题,在配置文件中添加
slave-skip-errors=ddl_exist_errors

验证一下

为了简化问题,MyCat集群咱们就不搭建了,简化为多源同步复制问题。

1.初始化4个实例,同步关系如下

源端口 源DB_NAME 目标端口 目标映射DB channel_name
3306 test_rep1 3309 test_rep channel_3306
3307 test_rep2 3309 test_rep channel_3307
3308 test_rep3 3309 test_rep channel_3308

2.在3309的实例配置文件中,添加库映射关系配置和DDL冲突忽略参数

replicate_rewrite_db="channel_3306:test_rep1->test_rep"
replicate_rewrite_db="channel_3307:test_rep2->test_rep"
replicate_rewrite_db="channel_3308:test_rep3->test_rep"
slave-skip-errors=ddl_exist_errors

4.在3309实例中,配置三个channel

greatsql> change master to MASTER_HOST = '172.17.137.91',MASTER_USER = 'greatsql',MASTER_PASSWORD = 'greatsql',MASTER_PORT = 3306,MASTER_AUTO_POSITION = 1 FOR CHANNEL 'channel_3306';

greatsql> change master to MASTER_HOST = '172.17.137.91',MASTER_USER = 'greatsql',MASTER_PASSWORD = 'greatsql',MASTER_PORT = 3307,MASTER_AUTO_POSITION = 1 FOR CHANNEL 'channel_3307';

greatsql> change master to MASTER_HOST = '172.17.137.91',MASTER_USER = 'greatsql',MASTER_PASSWORD = 'greatsql',MASTER_PORT = 3308,MASTER_AUTO_POSITION = 1 FOR CHANNEL 'channel_3308';

greatsql> start slave;

3.检查channel配置状态

greatsql> show slave status \G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
               Slave_IO_State: Waiting for source to send event
                  Master_Host: 172.17.137.91
                  Master_User: greatsql
                  Master_Port: 3306
                Connect_Retry: 60
              Master_Log_File: binlog.000002
          Read_Master_Log_Pos: 1119
               Relay_Log_File: relaylog-channel_3306.000007
                Relay_Log_Pos: 397
        Relay_Master_Log_File: binlog.000002
             Slave_IO_Running: Yes
            Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
              Replicate_Do_DB: 
          Replicate_Ignore_DB: 
           Replicate_Do_Table: 
       Replicate_Ignore_Table: 
      Replicate_Wild_Do_Table: 
  Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table: 
                   Last_Errno: 0
                   Last_Error: 
                 Skip_Counter: 0
          Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 1119
              Relay_Log_Space: 606
              Until_Condition: None
               Until_Log_File: 
                Until_Log_Pos: 0
           Master_SSL_Allowed: No
           Master_SSL_CA_File: 
           Master_SSL_CA_Path: 
              Master_SSL_Cert: 
            Master_SSL_Cipher: 
               Master_SSL_Key: 
        Seconds_Behind_Master: 0
Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No
                Last_IO_Errno: 0
                Last_IO_Error: 
               Last_SQL_Errno: 0
               Last_SQL_Error: 
  Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids: 
             Master_Server_Id: 3306
                  Master_UUID: 5facacd7-9ed6-11ee-b76b-00163e5af5d6
             Master_Info_File: mysql.slave_master_info
                    SQL_Delay: 0
          SQL_Remaining_Delay: NULL
      Slave_SQL_Running_State: Replica has read all relay log; waiting for more updates
           Master_Retry_Count: 86400
                  Master_Bind: 
      Last_IO_Error_Timestamp: 
     Last_SQL_Error_Timestamp: 
               Master_SSL_Crl: 
           Master_SSL_Crlpath: 
           Retrieved_Gtid_Set: 
            Executed_Gtid_Set: 49b66af0-9ed6-11ee-ae4f-00163e5af5d6:3,
5a369d0b-9ed6-11ee-b3d1-00163e5af5d6:3,
5facacd7-9ed6-11ee-b76b-00163e5af5d6:1-4,
9a5f9c26-4262-11ee-85fd-00163e5af5d6:1-16571224
                Auto_Position: 1
         Replicate_Rewrite_DB: (test_rep1,test_rep)
                 Channel_Name: channel_3306
           Master_TLS_Version: 
       Master_public_key_path: 
        Get_master_public_key: 0
            Network_Namespace: 
*************************** 2. row ***************************
               Slave_IO_State: Waiting for source to send event
                  Master_Host: 172.17.137.91
                  Master_User: greatsql
                  Master_Port: 3307
                Connect_Retry: 60
              Master_Log_File: binlog.000002
          Read_Master_Log_Pos: 1119
               Relay_Log_File: relaylog-channel_3307.000004
                Relay_Log_Pos: 1034
        Relay_Master_Log_File: binlog.000002
             Slave_IO_Running: Yes
            Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
              Replicate_Do_DB: 
          Replicate_Ignore_DB: 
           Replicate_Do_Table: 
       Replicate_Ignore_Table: 
      Replicate_Wild_Do_Table: 
  Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table: 
                   Last_Errno: 0
                   Last_Error: 
                 Skip_Counter: 0
          Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 1119
              Relay_Log_Space: 1243
              Until_Condition: None
               Until_Log_File: 
                Until_Log_Pos: 0
           Master_SSL_Allowed: No
           Master_SSL_CA_File: 
           Master_SSL_CA_Path: 
              Master_SSL_Cert: 
            Master_SSL_Cipher: 
               Master_SSL_Key: 
        Seconds_Behind_Master: 0
Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No
                Last_IO_Errno: 0
                Last_IO_Error: 
               Last_SQL_Errno: 0
               Last_SQL_Error: 
  Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids: 
             Master_Server_Id: 3307
                  Master_UUID: 5a369d0b-9ed6-11ee-b3d1-00163e5af5d6
             Master_Info_File: mysql.slave_master_info
                    SQL_Delay: 0
          SQL_Remaining_Delay: NULL
      Slave_SQL_Running_State: Replica has read all relay log; waiting for more updates
           Master_Retry_Count: 86400
                  Master_Bind: 
      Last_IO_Error_Timestamp: 
     Last_SQL_Error_Timestamp: 
               Master_SSL_Crl: 
           Master_SSL_Crlpath: 
           Retrieved_Gtid_Set: 5a369d0b-9ed6-11ee-b3d1-00163e5af5d6:1-2:4
            Executed_Gtid_Set: 49b66af0-9ed6-11ee-ae4f-00163e5af5d6:3,
5a369d0b-9ed6-11ee-b3d1-00163e5af5d6:3,
5facacd7-9ed6-11ee-b76b-00163e5af5d6:1-4,
9a5f9c26-4262-11ee-85fd-00163e5af5d6:1-16571224
                Auto_Position: 1
         Replicate_Rewrite_DB: (test_rep2,test_rep)
                 Channel_Name: channel_3307
           Master_TLS_Version: 
       Master_public_key_path: 
        Get_master_public_key: 0
            Network_Namespace: 
*************************** 3. row ***************************
               Slave_IO_State: Waiting for source to send event
                  Master_Host: 172.17.137.91
                  Master_User: greatsql
                  Master_Port: 3308
                Connect_Retry: 60
              Master_Log_File: binlog.000002
          Read_Master_Log_Pos: 1119
               Relay_Log_File: relaylog-channel_3308.000004
                Relay_Log_Pos: 1034
        Relay_Master_Log_File: binlog.000002
             Slave_IO_Running: Yes
            Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
              Replicate_Do_DB: 
          Replicate_Ignore_DB: 
           Replicate_Do_Table: 
       Replicate_Ignore_Table: 
      Replicate_Wild_Do_Table: 
  Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table: 
                   Last_Errno: 0
                   Last_Error: 
                 Skip_Counter: 0
          Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 1119
              Relay_Log_Space: 1243
              Until_Condition: None
               Until_Log_File: 
                Until_Log_Pos: 0
           Master_SSL_Allowed: No
           Master_SSL_CA_File: 
           Master_SSL_CA_Path: 
              Master_SSL_Cert: 
            Master_SSL_Cipher: 
               Master_SSL_Key: 
        Seconds_Behind_Master: 0
Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No
                Last_IO_Errno: 0
                Last_IO_Error: 
               Last_SQL_Errno: 0
               Last_SQL_Error: 
  Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids: 
             Master_Server_Id: 3308
                  Master_UUID: 49b66af0-9ed6-11ee-ae4f-00163e5af5d6
             Master_Info_File: mysql.slave_master_info
                    SQL_Delay: 0
          SQL_Remaining_Delay: NULL
      Slave_SQL_Running_State: Replica has read all relay log; waiting for more updates
           Master_Retry_Count: 86400
                  Master_Bind: 
      Last_IO_Error_Timestamp: 
     Last_SQL_Error_Timestamp: 
               Master_SSL_Crl: 
           Master_SSL_Crlpath: 
           Retrieved_Gtid_Set: 49b66af0-9ed6-11ee-ae4f-00163e5af5d6:1-2:4
            Executed_Gtid_Set: 49b66af0-9ed6-11ee-ae4f-00163e5af5d6:3,
5a369d0b-9ed6-11ee-b3d1-00163e5af5d6:3,
5facacd7-9ed6-11ee-b76b-00163e5af5d6:1-4,
9a5f9c26-4262-11ee-85fd-00163e5af5d6:1-16571224
                Auto_Position: 1
         Replicate_Rewrite_DB: (test_rep3,test_rep)
                 Channel_Name: channel_3308
           Master_TLS_Version: 
       Master_public_key_path: 
        Get_master_public_key: 0
            Network_Namespace: 
3 rows in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

在上面的输出中,可以重点关注如下字段信息,说明db转换映射成功

$ MYSQL_PWD=greatsql mysql -ugreatsql -h127.0.0.1 -P3309 -e 'show replica status \G'| grep -wE 'Replica_IO_Running|Replica_SQL_Running|Replicate_Rewrite_DB|Channel_Name'
           Replica_IO_Running: Yes
          Replica_SQL_Running: Yes
         Replicate_Rewrite_DB: (test_rep1,test_rep)
                 Channel_Name: channel_3306
           Replica_IO_Running: Yes
          Replica_SQL_Running: Yes
         Replicate_Rewrite_DB: (test_rep2,test_rep)
                 Channel_Name: channel_3307
           Replica_IO_Running: Yes
          Replica_SQL_Running: Yes
         Replicate_Rewrite_DB: (test_rep3,test_rep)
                 Channel_Name: channel_3308

在3309实例中,查询replica_skip_errors,确认复制异常跳过的错误码,设置为ddl_exist_errors会自动转换为如下错误码

greatsql> select @@replica_skip_errors;
+---------------------------------------------------+
| @@replica_skip_errors                             |
+---------------------------------------------------+
| 1007,1008,1050,1051,1054,1060,1061,1068,1091,1146 |
+---------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

5.数据同步验证

  1. 在3309库中,创建database test_rep

这个库需要手动创建,是测试发现映射关系只对库下面的表生效,库不会自动转换创建。

  1. 在3306库中,创建database test_rep1,并且创建tab1表
$ mysql -ugreatsql -h127.0.0.1 -p -P3306 -s

greatsql> create database test_rep1;
greatsql> use test_rep1;
greatsql> create table tab1(id int primary key auto_increment, cname varchar(10), age int);
  1. 在3307库中,创建database test_rep2,并且创建tab1表
$ mysql -ugreatsql -h127.0.0.1 -p -P3307 -s

greatsql> create database test_rep2;
greatsql> use test_rep2;
greatsql> create table tab1(id int primary key auto_increment, cname varchar(10), age int);
  1. 在3308库中,创建database test_rep3,并且创建tab1表
$ mysql -ugreatsql -h127.0.0.1 -p -P3308 -s

greatsql> create database test_rep3;
greatsql> use test_rep3;
greatsql> create table tab1(id int primary key auto_increment, cname varchar(10), age int);
  1. 在3309中确认database及表的同步
$ mysql -ugreatsql -h127.0.0.1 -p -P3309 -s

greatsql> show databases;
Database
information_schema
mysql
performance_schema
sys
test_db
test_rep
test_rep1
test_rep2
test_rep3

greatsql> show tables from test_rep;
Tables_in_test_rep
tab1
greatsql> show tables from test_rep1;
greatsql> show tables from test_rep2;
greatsql> show tables from test_rep3;

从上面的信息可以看出,在3309中,3306、3307、3308中创建的库均按照原有的名字进行了同步,但是表只同步在了3309映射的库test_rep中。

  1. 分别在3306、3307、3308中插入一条记录
3306 : insert into test_rep1.tab1 values(1,'a',10);
3307 : insert into test_rep2.tab1 values(2,'b',20);
3308 : insert into test_rep3.tab1 values(3,'c',30);

然后在各自节点查询数据插入情况

$ mysql -ugreatsql -h127.0.0.1 -p -P3306 -s test_rep1 -e 'select * from tab1'
id       cname    age
1        a        10

$ mysql -ugreatsql -h127.0.0.1 -p -P3307 -s test_rep2 -e 'select * from tab1'
id       cname    age
2        b        20

$ mysql -ugreatsql -h127.0.0.1 -p -P3308 -s test_rep3 -e 'select * from tab1'
id       cname    age
3        c        30

$ mysql -ugreatsql -h127.0.0.1 -p -P3309 -s test_rep -e 'select * from tab1'
id       cname    age
1        a        10
2        b        20
3        c        30

$ mysql -ugreatsql -h127.0.0.1 -p -P3309 -s test_rep1 -e 'select * from tab1'
ERROR 1146 (42S02) at line 1: Table 'test_rep1.tab1' doesn't exist

$ mysql -ugreatsql -h127.0.0.1 -p -P3309 -s test_rep2 -e 'select * from tab1'
ERROR 1146 (42S02) at line 1: Table 'test_rep2.tab1' doesn't exist

$ mysql -ugreatsql -h127.0.0.1 -p -P3309 -s test_rep3 -e 'select * from tab1'
ERROR 1146 (42S02) at line 1: Table 'test_rep3.tab1' doesn't exist

从上面的查询情况可以看出,3306、3307、3308节点中只有一条记录,并且记录都被同步到了3309的test_rep.tab1表中,而且在3309的test_rep1、test_rep2、test_rep3中是没有表存在的。

  1. 分别在3306、3307、3308给表tab创建一个索引
greatsql> alter table tab1 add index idx_cname(cname);
  1. 观察3309中表的索引情况,可以看到索引idx_cname被同步过来了
$ mysql -ugreatsql -h127.0.0.1 -p -P3309 -s

greatsql> use test_rep
greatsql> show create table tab1 \G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: tab1
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `tab1` (
  `id` int NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `cname` varchar(10) COLLATE utf8mb4_unicode_ci DEFAULT NULL,
  `age` int DEFAULT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`),
  KEY `idx_cname` (`cname`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB AUTO_INCREMENT=4 DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8mb4 COLLATE=utf8mb4_unicode_ci
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
  1. 分别在3306、3307、3308做update、delete操作
greatsql> update test_rep1.tab1 set age=110 where id=1;
greatsql> update test_rep2.tab1 set age=120 where id=2;
greatsql> update test_rep3.tab1 set age=130 where id=3;

greatsql> delete from test_rep1.tab1 where id=1;
greatsql> delete from test_rep2.tab1 where id=1;
greatsql> delete from test_rep3.tab1 where id=1;

查看3309的数据同步情况,确认数据被清理

$ mysql -ugreatsql -h127.0.0.1 -p -P3309 -s
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
greatsql> select * from test_rep.tab1;
  1. 观察3个channel的同步情况,可以确认三个复制同步均正常
$ mysql -ugreatsql -h127.0.0.1 -p -P3309 -e 'show replica status \G'| grep -E 'Replica_IO_Running|Replica_SQL_Running|Channel_Name'
greatsql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
           Replica_IO_Running: Yes
          Replica_SQL_Running: Yes
    Replica_SQL_Running_State: Replica has read all relay log; waiting for more updates
                 Channel_Name: channel_3306
           Replica_IO_Running: Yes
          Replica_SQL_Running: Yes
    Replica_SQL_Running_State: Replica has read all relay log; waiting for more updates
                 Channel_Name: channel_3307
           Replica_IO_Running: Yes
          Replica_SQL_Running: Yes
    Replica_SQL_Running_State: Replica has read all relay log; waiting for more updates
                 Channel_Name: channel_3308

至此dml、ddl同步均验证。

方案缺陷

  1. 本方案中,业务访问MyCat的表名字,和server后端的表名字完全一致,只是库名字不相同,然后MyCat代理表名和实际server的表名字可以不相同,这种情况下,暂时无法映射处理
  2. MyCat代理的实际上是多个单独的库,如果这些库之前没有做自增主键步长处理,或者其他一些主键不重复策略,同步过程中,会存在主键冲突导致数据同步中断的情况,需要提前准备处理方案。

最后附上参考资料

Enjoy GreatSQL :)


关于GreatSQL

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关于 GreatSQL

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